AP Human Geography Chapter 11

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Industry

break of bulk point

a location where transfer is possible from one mode of transportation to another

Where is industry distributed?

industry is highly concentrated. the three regions where industry clustered in the 20th century are Europe, North America, and East Asia

bulk gaining industry

an industry in which the final product weighs more or comprises a greater volume than the inputs

why are situation factors important?

Factories try to identify a location where production cost is minimized. Critical industrial location costs include situation factors for some firms and site factors for others. Situation factors involve the cot of transporting both inputs into the factory and products from the factory to consumers.

bulk reducing industry

an industry in which the final product weighs less of comprises less volume than the inputs

why are site factors important?

three site factors-land, labor, and capital-control the cost of doin buisness at a location

cottage industry

manufacturing based in homes rather than in factories

why are location factors changing?

new industrial regions are able to attract some industries, especially because of low wage rates. For their part, traditional industrial regions have been able to offer maufacturers skilled workers and proximity to customers demanding just in time delivery

Fordist Production

form of mass production in which each worker is assigned a specific task to preform repeatedly

Industrial Revolution

a series of improvements in industrial technology that transformed the process of manufacturing goods

labor intensive industry

an industry for which labor costs comprise a high percentage of total expenses

Maquiladora

Factories built by the US companies in Mexico near the US border to take advantage of the low labor costs in Mexico

New International Division of labor

transfer of some types of jobs, especially those requiring low-paid, less skilled workers from MDCs to LDCs

outsourcing

a decision by a corporation to turn over much of the responsibility for production to independant sellers

Post-Fordist Production

adoption by companies of flexible work rules, such as the allocation of workers to teams that preform, a variety of tasks

Right to work state

a US state that has past a law preventing a union and company from negotioating a contract that requires workers to join a union as a comdition of employment

site factors

location factors related to the costs of factors of production inside the plant, such as labor, land, and capital

situation factors

location factors related to the transportation of materials into and from a factory

textile

a fabric made by weaving, used in making clothing

NAFTA

North American Free Trade Association

Just In time delivery

shipment of parts and materials to arrive at a factory moments before they are needed

trucks

used for short distance delivery, can be loaded and unloaded quickly and cheaply

trains

used to ship to destinations that take longer than one day, take longer than trucks to load, but dont need to stop as much

ships

cost per kilometer is very low, good for long distances, slower than land but good for crossing the ocean

air

most expensive form, usually reserved for small bulk, high valu packages, speedy delivery

perishable products

producers must be located near their markets

single market manufacturuers

specialized with only one or two customers, optimal location is close to the customer

fabricated metals

bulk gaining, brings metals to a place to be made into a complex product

copper

bulk reducing, gets smaller and smaller as it goes through the process

Japan

became apower in the 1950s and 1960s by producing goods that could be sold in large quantity very cheaply. With lots of competition Japan started training workers for highly skilled jobs to make high quality goods.

China

The worlds largest supply of low cost labor. Has many consumer products. Largest manufacturer of textiles, apparel, steal and household products. Clustered in 3 areas near Guangdong and Hong Kong the Yangtze river valley between Shanghai Wuhan and along the Gulf of Bowhai from Tianjin and Beijing to Shenyang

New England

Oldest industrial area in NE US. Developed as an industrial center in the early 19th century beginning with cotton textiles

Middle Atlantic

largest US market. Attracts industries that need proximity to a large number of consumers that depend on foreign trade.

Pittsburgh, Lake Erie

the leading steal producing area in the US in the 19th century because of proximity to Appalacian coal and iron ore.

Southern California

leading industrial area outside the NE.

United Kingdom

dominated world production of steal and textiles during the 19th century. Attracting new high tech industries the serve the European market.

Rhine Ruhr Valley

Western Europe market's most important and most centrally located industrial area. industry is dispersed rather than concentrated. Mostly iron and steal.

Po Basin

Southern Europe's oldest and most important industrial area. Contains 2/3 of Italy's manufacturing in 1/3 of it's land area. Established textile manufacturing in the 19th century with two key assets inexpensive hydro electricity and large labor supply.

Industies affected by the Industrial Revolution

Coal, Iron, transportation, textiles, chemicals and food processing

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