chapter 13

36 terms by fioccoma 

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The Crusades

expeditions to recover the Holy Land from the Muslims

The Seljuk Turks

a Muslim people from central Asia that took Jerusalem

Pope Urban II

mounted a platform outside the church at Clermont, France

Saladin

diplomatic forceful leader that untied the Muslim forces and captured Jerusalem

Richard I

king of England that assembled warriors for the third crusade

Jerusalem

city where the Holy War takes place

Constantinople

area in the Byzantine Empire that was threatened by the Seljuk turks

Money economy

an ecnonomy based on money

guild

business associations of merchants and artisans

masters

artisans who owned shops and tools and employed less-skilled artisans as helpers

aprentice

artisans who worked for a master without pay

journeyman

an artisan who worked for a master for pay

charter

a document that gave townspeople the right to control their own affairs

scholasticism

a system of learning that tried to bring together Aristotle's philosophy and the teachings of Church scholars

troubadours

traveling poet-musicians

vernacular

the language of everyday speech

Peter Abelard

taught theology in Paris during the early A.D. 1100s

Thomas Aquinas

In the A.D. 1200s the most important scholastic thinker

Dante Alighieri

wrote The Divine Comedy, an epic poem in Italian that describes an imaginary journey from hell to heaven

Geoffrey Chaucer

produced The Canterbury Tales.

Venice

controlled the Mediterranean trade after A.D. 1200

Flanders

a region including present-day northern France and southwestern Belgium, became the center of trade on Europe's northern coast

Champagne

The most famous fair was held there

Bologna

in Italy where a law school was

Cortes

assemblies in which nobles were powerful

Joan of Arc

the 17 year old who appeared at the court of France's king Charles VII

Louis XI

son of Charles VII strengthened the bureaucracy

Richard III

tried to rule well, but lacked widespread support

Henry VII

the first Tudor king

Ferdinand of Aragon

married Isabella of Castile, but had separate kingdoms

Isabella of Castile

married Ferdinand of Aragon, but had separate kingdoms

Crécy

where the English were first victorious in 1346

Agincourt

where the English were first victorious in 1415

Burgundy

one of Europe's most prosperous areas

Castile

central Muslim area in Spain, where Isabella ruled

Aragon

Muslim area on the Mediterranean Coast, where Ferdinand ruled

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