He designed a legal code in early Babylon that gave punishment based on crime and social status. Relied on the principle of lex talionis.
Sargon of Akkad
(2370-2315 BCE) He is the creator of empire in Mesopotamia.
The "land between rivers" was home to some of the first empires in human history. It saw the invention of the wheel.
A writing system that used graphic symbols to represent sounds, syllables, and ideas as well as physical objects.
Early group of people who lived in lands between Mesopotamia and Egypt. They developed the religion Judaism.
A maritime people who spread their alphabet to others including the Hebrews, Romans, and Greeks.
The group of people who toppled the Babylonian empire and were responsible for two technological innovations--the war chariots and refinement of iron metallurgy.
The people who spread throughout Africa spreading agriculture, language, and iron.
The king who unifed Egypt.
The river in which early kingdoms in Egypt were centered around.
Egyptian writing that involved using pictures to represent words.
Collections of hymns, songs, prayers, and rituals honoring the barious gods of the Aryans.
The system in old India that seperated the people into social categories, but based mostly on color with the Aryans always on the top of the social pyramid.
The priest varna of the caste system.
The warrior and aristocrat varna of the caste system.
The artisan and merchant varna of the caste system.
The landless peasants and serfs of the caste system.
A sub-varna in the caste system that gave people of sense of community because they usually consisted of people working in the same occupation.
The Indian custom of a widow voluntarily throwing herself on the funeral pyre of her husband.
A major book in Hinduism that is often in the form of dialogues that explored the Vedas and the religious issues that they raised.
The term for The Univeral Soul in Hinduism.
Becoming liberated for the cycle of reincarnation in Hinduism.
The belief that actions in this life, whether good or bad, will decide your place in the next life.
(1766-1122 BCE) The Chinese dynasty that rose to power due to bronze metalurgy, war chariots, and a vast network of walled towns whose recognized this dynasty as the superior.
A decentralized Chinese dynasty in China because of the massive size, and whose emperor was the first to claim to be a link between heaven and earth. Iron metallurgy increased in this dynasty.
Mandate of Heaven
The Chinese belief that the emperor claimed to be the "son of heaven" and therefore has the right to rule.
The practice of praying to your ancestors. Found especially in China.
Period of Warring States
The period in Chinese history (403-221 BCE) in which many different states emerged and were fighting for control of China.
An early peopl who settled in modern day Mexico and who traded in jade and obsidian and erected colossal heads carved from rocks.
They settled in the Yucatan Peninsula, not far from the Olmecs. A very cultural and intellectual people who used astronomy to create and very accurate calendar.
A religion that developed in early Persia and stressed the fight between the forces of good and the forces of evil and how eventually the forces of good would prevail.
(551-479 BCE) A Chinese philosopher known also as Kong Fuzi and created one of the most influential philosophies in Chinese history.
The book that Kong Fuzi wrote and that stresses the values and ideas of Confucianism.
An attitude of kindness and benevolence or a sense of humanity for Confucianism.
Called for individuals to behave in conventionally appropriate fashion in Confucianism.
(Xiao) Reflected the high significance of the family in Chinese history. Concept is stressed in Confucianism.
(The Hippie Jedi) A philosophy in which Laozi developed in China which emphasizes the removal from society and to become one with nature.
A Chinese philosophy that was devoted to strengthen and expand the state through increased agricultural work and military service.
(221-207 BCE) The first centralized dynasty of China that used Legalism as its base of belief.
(r.221-210 BCE) The first emperor of the Qin Dynasty who believed strongly in Legalism and sought to strengthen the centralized China through public works.
(202 BCE-220 CE) This dynasty continued the centralization of the Qin Dynasty, but focused on Confucianism and education instead of Legalim.
(321-185 BCE) This was the first centralized empire of India whose founder was Chandragupta Maurya.
(r.268-232 BCE) The Mauryan emperor who can be compared to Constantine and who promoted Buddhism throught his empire.
(320-550 CE) The decentralized empire that emerged after the Mauryan Empire, and whose founder is Chandra Gupta.
Economic groups that functioned as jati by controling prices, output, workers, and competition for a specific product.
The founder of the religion Buddhism who believed that all life was suffering. Also known as the Buddha.
Four Noble Truths
All life invoves suffering; desire is the cause of suffering; elimination of desire brings an end to suffering; a disciplined life conducted life brings the elimination of desire.
Noble Eightfold Path
Calls for individuals to lead balanced and moderate lives, rejecting both the devotion to luxury and the regimes of extreme asceticism. (Buddhist Belief).
The state of englightenment for Buddhists.
The basic doctrine shared by Buddhists of all sects.
Also known as popular Buddhism, is allows people more ways to reach enlightenment and boddhisatvas can help you reach enlightenment.
A enlightened being who put off nirvana to come back and help others become enlightened.
A book in popular Hinduism that was a response to Buddhism and made reaching moksha way easier.
The Mediterranean society that formed on the island of Crete and who were a big maritime society.
Greek word for "city-state"
A powerful Greek miliary polis that was often at war with Athens. Used slaves known as helots to provide agricultural labor.
A democratic Greek polis who accomplished many cultural achievements, and who were constantly at war with Sparta.
An Athenian leader who transformed Athens into a community of scientists, philosophers, poets, dramatists, artists, and architects and who was a big promoter of democracy.
A series of wars between the Greeks (mainly Athens) and the Persians in which the Greeks were usually victorious.
(431-404 BCE) The war between Athens and Sparta that in which Sparta won, but left Greece as a whole weak and ready to fall to its neighbors to the north.
Alexander the Great
The conquerer from Macedon who conquered Greece, Egypt, parts of Anatolia, Syria, Mesopotamia, Persia, Bactria, and the very tips of northeast India.
The empire in Greece after the breakup of Alexander's empire.
The empire in the Egyptian area after the breakup of Alexander's empire.
The empire in Syria, Persia, and Bactria after the breakup of Alexander's empire.
(470-399 BCE) An Athenian philosopher who thought that human beings could lead honest lives and that honor was far more important than wealth, fame, or other superficial attributes.
(430-347 BCE) Was a disciple of Socrates whose cornerstone of thought was his theory of Forms, in which there was another world of perfection.
(384-322 BCE) Believed, unlike his teacher Plato, that philosophers could rely on their senses to provide accurate information about the world.
This establishment consisted of the Senate with two consuls who were elected by an assembly dominated by hereditary aristocrats known as patricians.
The wealthy, hereditary aristocrats during the Roman era.
The common people during the Roman era.
Wars between the Romans and Carthaginians that marked Rome as the preeminent power in the eastern as well as the western Mediterranean.
The general during the Roman Republic who took over after the civil war and established Rome as an empire.
Leader of the Roman Empire who disguised it as a republic, and under who the Roman Empire came to be at its greatest extent.
A time in history when the Roman Empire was at peace and promoted safe trade.
A Jewish teacher that taught devotion to God and love for fellow human beings. Christians think of Him as the Savior.
Emperor of the Roman Empire who moved the capital to Constantinople. He eventually converted to Christianity as well.
Major winds in the Indian Ocean that blew into India for half the year, and blew away from India for the other half. Helped facilitate trade in the Indian Ocean.
Roman emperor who divided the empire into a West and an East section.
The Great Schism
The seperation of the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church (1054 CE)
The head of the Roman Catholic Church.
The head of the Eastern Orthodox Church in Byzantium.
Where the empero not only ruled as a secular lord but also was the head of the ecclesiastical affairs. Found in Byzantium.
Roman law that was modified by revising old and not needed laws. Named after the Byzantine Emperor Justinian.
Found in Byzantium. Strengthened the free peasantry by making land available to those who performed military service.
Went with Methodius and spread the Orthodox religion in Russia and brought the Cyrilic Alphabet to Russia.
Council of Nicaea
(325 CE) A council called by Constantine to agree upon correct Christian doctrine.
The last prophet believed by Muslims who talked to the Archangel Gabriel and whose life teachings is compiled in the Hadith.
The compiled work of the life and teachings of Muhammad.
The holy book of Muslims.
The holy book of Jews.
The holy book of Christians.
The term for all Muslims as a community.
The strict, religious judges in Islam.
Muhammad's move to Medina. Start of the Islamic calendar (632 CE)
The basic tenets of Islam: Allah is the only god and Muhammad is his prophet; pray to Allah five times a day facing Mecca; fast during the month of Ramadan; pay alms for the relief of the weak and the poor; take a hajj to Mecca
The pilgrimage to Mecca required to take by Muslims
The Muslim word for "struggle" especially when trying to follow the will of Allah.
Islamic law; a combination of the Quran and the Hadith.
(661-750 CE) The Islamic caliphate that established a capital at Damascus, conquered North Africa, the Iberian Pennisula, Southwest Asia, and Persia, and had a bureaucracy with only Arab Muslims able to be a part of it.
The tax on people in the Umayyad Caliphate who did not convert to Islam.
(750-1258 CE) The caliphate, after the Umayyads, who focused more on administration than conquering. Had a bureaucracy that any Mulim could be a part of.
The branch of Islam that believes in a more mystical connection with Allah.
(589-618 CE) The Chinese dynasty that was like the Qin Dynasty in imposing tight political discipline; this dynasty built the Grand Canal which helped transport the rice in the south to the north.
(618-907 CE) The Chinese dynasty that was much like the Han, who used Confucianism. This dynasty had the equal-field system, a bureaucracy based on merit, and a Confucian education system.
This Chinese system allotted land to individuals and their families according to the land's fertility and the recipients' needs.
(960-1279 CE) The Chinese dynasty that placed much more emphasis on civil administration, industry, education, and arts other than military.
The Confucian response to Buddhism by taking Confucian and Buddhist beliefs and combining them into this. However, it is still very much Confucian in belief.
The dynasty in Korea that rallied to prevent Chinese domination in the seventh century CE.
(r.606-648 CE) He restored centralized rule in northern India after the collapse of the Gupta. He can be compared to Charlemagne.
Mahmud of Ghazni
Islamic leader who raided throughout northern India, destroying Hindu and Buddhist temples. His many motive was money.
Sultanate of Delhi
(1206-1526 CE) The successors of Mahmud of Ghazni mounted more campaigns, but directed their goals to creating this empire.
(850-1267 CE) A decentralized empire in South India that dominated Indian Ocean trade.
(1336-1565 CE) The South Indian empire that arose after the Chola.
The large Chinese ships that were large enough to carry up to one thousand tons of cargo.
Large ships favored by Indian, Persian, and Arab sailors that could carry up to four hundred tons of cargo.
The Christian state in Africa that developed its own branch of Christianity, Coptic Christianity, because it was cut off from other Christians due to a large Muslim presence in Africa.
The Franks became the preminent military and political power in western Europe under him. Converted to Christianity in 492 CE.
Defeated the Muslims in the Battle of Tours. The Carolingian dynasty is named after him.
Battle of Tours
(732 CE) European victory over Muslims. It halted Muslim movement into Western Europe.
(768-814 CE) Crowned king in 800 CE by the pope; can be compared to Harsha; brought back unified rule to Europe only during his life; used the missi dominici to check up on imperial officials.
Battle of Hastings
(1066 CE) The Norman invasion of England; this was the largest battle.
Crowned emperor by pope in 962 CE; first emperor of the Holy Roman Empire.
People who gave their land to a lord and offered their servitude in return for protection from the lord.
A large estate consisting of fields, agricultural tools, domestic animals, and serfs bound to the land.
A collar that went around the shoulders of a horse that could then be attached to a plow and used for agricultural purposes.
Pope Gregory I
This pope strongly emphasized the sacrament of penance and encouraged confession for the remission of sins which made people more dependent on the church for salvation.
People from Central Asia when united ended up creating the largest single land empire in history.
Also known as Temujin; he united the Mongol tribes into an unstoppable fighting force; created largest single land empire in history.
Reigned in China after establishing the Yuan Dynasty; he actively promoted Buddhism; descendant of Chinggis Khan.
(1279-1368 CE) The dynasty with Mongol rule in China; centralized with bureaucracy but structure is different: Mongols on top->Persian bureaucrats->Chinese bureuacrats.
Battle of Manzikert
(1071 CE) Saljuq Turks defeat Byzantine armies in this battle in Anatolia; shows the declining power of Byzantium.
He is very much like Chinggis Khan; a military leader who conquered the lands of Persia; his empire was decentralized with tribal leaders.
The year that Constantinople was sacked by the Ottoman Turks and meant that Byzantium had collapsed.
The kingdom in West Africa that prospered because of trans-Saharan trade especially in gold; this kingdom was around at the time of Muslim control in North Africa.
The kingdom in West Africa that followed the Kingdom of Ghana; its wealth is also based on trans-Saharan trade; this kingdom encouraged the spread of Islam.
Ruler of Mali (r.1312-1337 CE) who made a hajj to Mecca; on the way there, he spread enormous amounts of gold showing the wealth of Mali; on the way back, he brought back education and Islamic culture.
Ruler of the Holy Roman Empire; went on the third crusade but failed when he fell into a river and died.
An association of trading cities in the Baltic Sea and the North Sea. Also known as Hansa.
The Three Estates
First Estate= those who pray (clergy); Second Estate= those who fight (nobles); Third Estate= those who work (everyone else).
Code of honor and ethics taken by knights.
This sought to synthesize the beliefs and values of Christianity with the logical rigor of Greek philosophy. Often associated with St. Thomas Aquinas.
The pope that issued the crusades in 1095 CE
The term referring the the Christian wars against Muslims to try and reclaim the holy lands. Called by Pope Urban II.
1099 CE, Jerusalem fell the Christian crusaders; the only successful crusade.
1204 CE, the crusaders sacked Constantinople; Byzantium never recovered from the attack.
The captial city of the Aztecs.
Formed in modern day Mexico City; a conquering empire that used its conquered people as sacrifice victims.
Formed in present day Peru. Expanded out as far south as Chile and as far North as Ecuador. Best known for their enourmous wealth.
A term which designates a confederacy of 5 tribes originally inhabiting the northern part of New York state, consisting of the SENECA, CAYUGA, ONEIDA, ONONDAGA and MOHAWK.
Venetian merchant and traveler. His accounts of his travels to China offered Europeans a firsthand view of Asian lands and stimulated interest in Asian trade.
Moroccan Muslim scholar, the most widely traveled individual of his time. He wrote a detailed account of his visits to Islamic lands from China to Spain and the western Sudan.
Little Ice Age
Temporary but significant cooling period between the fourteenth and the nineteenth centuries; accompanied by wide temperature fluctuations, droughts, and storms, causing famines and dislocation.
Also called the Black Death; was a deadly disease that spread through Europe and killed one out of every three people; originated with the Mongols and spread through the Silk Roads.
A system of ancient caravan routes across Central Asia, along which traders carried silk and other trade goods.
Succeeded Mongol Yuan dynasty in China in 1368; lasted until 1644; initially mounted huge trade expeditions to southern Asia and elsewhere, but later concentrated efforts on internal development within China.
castrated males, originally in charge of protection of the ruler's concubines. Eventually had major roles in government, especially in China.
Hundred Years' War
Series of campaigns over control of the throne of France, involving English and French royal families and French noble families. England loses and losses half of its land but that land was in France. The negative impact- France became an absolute power. Positive impact- France formed a nation-state. Ended in 1453.
The retaking of the Iberian Peninsula by Spanish forces from the Moors. It was completed in 1492.
A period of intense artistic and intellectual activity, said to be a 'rebirth' of Greco-Roman culture. Usually divided into an Italian Renaissance, from roughly the mid-fourteenth to mid-fifteenth century, and a Northern Renaissance 1400-1600.
Studied the Latin classics to learn what they reveal about human nature. Emphasized human beings, their achievements, interests, and capabilities.
An imperial eunuch and Muslim, entrusted by the Ming emperor Yongle with a series of state voyages that took his gigantic ships through the Indian Ocean, from Southeast Asia to Africa.
Henry the Navigator
(1394-1460) Portuguese prince who promoted the study of navigation and directed voyages of exploration down the western coast of Africa.
Vasco da Gama
Using the new trade route around the Cape of Good Hope, he brought spices back to Portugal and made a profit of several thousand dollars.
Incorrectly calculated the circumference of the globe, and gained Spanish support to travel west to Asia based on this. Believed he had reached islands off the coast of Asia, when he had actually reached the Caribbean.
Portuguese explorer who found a sea route to the Spice Island by sailing around the American continent. His crew was the first to circumnavigate the world.
English navigator who claimed the east coast of Australia for Britain and discovered several Pacific islands (1728-1779).
English East India Company
an early joint-stock company; were granted on English royal charter with the intention of favoring trade privileges in India.
(17th Century) The Dutch trading company with a monopoly that conquered Java as a entrepot and eventually controlled all ports and important spice-bearing islands in Indonesia that also made alliances with local authorities.
Heavily armed, fast ships that brought luxury goods from China to Mexico and carried silver from Mexico to China.
Seven Years' War
(1756-1763 CE) Known also as the French and Indian war. It was the war between the French and their Indian allies and the English that proved the English to be the more dominant force of what was to be the United States both commercially and in terms of controlled regions.
The exchange of plants, animals, diseases, and technologies between the Americas and the rest of the world following Columbus's voyages.
The economic theory that the world has a limited amount of wealth so the more wealth a nation has, the more powerful it is.
A German monk who became one of the most famous critics of the Roman Catholic Chruch. In 1517, he wrote 95 theses, or statements of belief attacking the church practices. He led the Protestant Reformation.
A religious movement of the 16th century that began as an attempt to reform the Roman Catholic Church and resulted in the creation of Protestant churches.
Swiss theologian (born in France) whose tenets (predestination and the irresistibility of grace and justification by faith) defined Calvinism (1509-1564).
Coucil of Trent
(1545-1563 CE) Council of the Catholic Reformation that reemphasized and justified the Roman Catholic beliefs. In response to the Protestant Reformation.
Society of Jesus
A Roman Catholic order founded by Saint Ignatius of Loyola in 1534 to defend Catholicism against the Reformation and to do missionary work.
Thirty Years' War
(1618-1648 CE) War within the Holy Roman Empire between German Protestants and their allies (Sweden, Denmark, France) and the emperor and his ally, Spain; ended in 1648 after great destruction with Treaty of Westphalia.
Treaty of Westphalia
Ended Thirty Years' War in 1648; granted right to individual rulers within the Holy Roman Empire to choose their own religion-either Protestant or Catholic.
Holy Roman Emperor and Carlos I of Spain, tried to keep Europe religiously united, inherited Spain, the Netherlands, Southern Italy, Austria, and much of the Holy Roman Emperor from his grandparents, he sought to stop Protestantism and increase the power of Catholicism. He allied with the pope to stamp out heresy and maintain religous unity in Europe. He was preocuppied with struggles with Turkey and France and could not soley focus on the rise of Protestantism in Germany.
In the 15th century, government in which power had been centralized under a king or queen, particularly France, England, and Spain.
Concept of government developed during rise of nation-states in Western Europe during the 17th century; featured monarchs who passed laws without parliaments, appointed professionalized armies and bureaucracies, established state churches, and imposed state economic policies.
An organization of priests in Spain that looked for and punished anyone suspected of secretly practicing their old religion instead of Roman Catholicism.
A King or Queen is the official head of state but power is limited by a constitution.
This French king ruled for the longest time ever in Europe. He issued several economic policies and costly wars. He was the prime example of absolutism in France.
Peter the Great
This was the tsar of Russia that Westernized Russia and built up a massive Russian army.
The Russian term for ruler or king; taken from the Roman word caesar.
Balance of Power
Distribution of military and economic power that prevents any one nation from becoming too strong (especially in Europe).
(1776) , an economic system in which investment in and ownership of the means of production, distribution, and exchange of wealth is made and maintained chiefly by private individuals or corporations.
This scientist proved Copernicus' theory that the sun was the center of the solar system and developed the modern experimental method.
A Polish astronomer who proved that the Ptolemaic system was inaccurate, he proposed the theory that the sun, not the earth, was the center of the solar system.
English mathematician and scientist- invented differential calculus and formulated the theory of universal gravitation, a theory about the nature of light, and three laws of motion. was supposedly inspired by the sight of a falling apple.
This astronomer stated that the orbits of planets around the sun were elliptical, the planets do not orbit at a constant speed, and that an orbit is related to its distance from the sun.
A movement in the 18th century that advocated the use of reason in the reappraisal of accepted ideas and social institutions.
French philosopher and writer whose works epitomize the Age of Enlightenment, often attacking injustice and intolerance.
God is a watchmaker; The religion of the Enlightenment (1700s). Followers believed that God existed and had created the world, but that afterwards He left it to run by its own natural laws.
Theory of Progress
The European Enlightenment idea that stated that society was always progressing.
The great fleet sent from Spain against England by Philip II in 1588; defeated by the terrible winds and fire ships.
Scottish economist who wrote the Wealth of Nations and designed modern Capitalism.
Spanish explorer and conquistador who led the conquest of Aztec Mexico in 1519-1521 for Spain.
A Spanish conqueror of the Americas.
Spanish explorer who conquered the Incas in what is now Peru and founded the city of Lima (1475-1541).
Governor of a country or province who rules as the representative of his or her king or sovereign; think Spanish colonies.
Courts appointed by the king who reviewed the administration of viceroys serving Spanish colonies in America.
A person of mixed Spanish and Native American ancestry.
People of mixed Native American and African descent. Lowest tier of social class, with no rights whatsoever.
Spanish-born, came to Latin America; ruled, highest social class.
Descendents of Spanish-born but born in Latin America; resented inferior social, political, economic status.
The system recruiting workers for particularly difficult and dangerous chores that free laborers would not accept.
One-fifth: amount the Spanish crown was to receive of all precious metals mined in the Americas.
Spanish colonists formed large, self-sufficient farming estates known as these.
A grant of authority over a population of Amerindians in the Spanish colonies. It provided the grant holder with a supply of cheap labor and periodic payments of goods by the Amerindians. It obliged the grant holder to Christianize the Amerindians.
A contractual system in which someone sells his or her body (services) for a specified period of time in an arrangement very close to slavery, except that it is voluntary entered into.
Portion of Mali after that kingdom collapsed around 1500; this empire controlled Timbuktu.
Kingdom of Kongo
Was in the basin of the Congo river; conglomeration of several village alliances; it participated actively in trade networks; most centralized rule of the early Bantu kingdoms; ruled 14th-17th century until undermined by Portuguese slave traders.
A three way system of trade during 1600-1800s Africa sent slaves to America, America sent raw materials to Europe, and Europe sent guns and rum to Africa.
The voyage that brought enslaved Africans across the Atlantic Ocean to North America and the West Indies.
An antislavery activist who wrote an account of his enslavement.
(1644-1911 CE), the last imperial dynasty of China which was overthrown by revolutionaries; was ruled by the Manchu people: began to isolate themselves from Western culture,
Federation of Northeast Asian (from Manchuria) peoples who founded the Qing Empire.
Civil Service Exam
Confucian exam given in China to aspiring bureaucrats to test them on Confucian beliefs and goverment understanding.
In Confucian thought, one of the virtues to be cultivated, a love and respect for one's parents and ancestors.
Practice in Chinese society to mutilate women's feet in order to make them smaller; produced pain and restricted women's movement; made it easier to confine women to the household.
Referred to as bakufu (tent government) because it was supposed to be a temporary replacement to imperial rule. Founded by Ieyasu who, with his descendents, ruled Japan from 1600-1867. Tried to control the daimyo to prevent the return of civil war, which had dominated for the entire 16th century (called sengoku). Court was based in Tokyo (then called Edo). With the policy of alternate attendance, they were able to keep the daimyo from gaining too much power (they spent money on good houses rather than armies). Shoguns closely controlled relations between Japan and the outside world. Agricultural production increased under them (bar graph time) leading to population increase. Samurai became learned in the arts, because peace was widespread. Merchants became more prominent. Neo-Confucianism was sponsored by the shoguns, but didn't catch on.
A Japanese feudal lord who commanded a private army of samurai; warlord.
Centers of Tokugawa urban culture; called ukiyo; where entertainment and pleasure quarters housed teahouses, theaters, brothels, and public baths to offer escape from social responsibilities and the rigid rules of conduct that governed public behavior.
Islamic state founded by Osman in northwestern Anatolia. After the fall of the Byzantine Empire, the Ottoman Empire was based at Istanbul (formerly Constantinople) from 1453-1922. It encompassed lands in the Middle East, North Africa, the Caucasus, and eastern Europe.
Mehmed the Conqueror
(r.1451-1481), captured Constantinople in 1453, which later became Istanbul, the Islamic capital; Ruled with an absolute monarchy and centralized his power; Expanded into Serbia, Greece, and Albania (attacked Italy).
A Shi'ite Muslim dynasty that ruled in Persia (Iran and parts of Iraq) from the 16th-18th centuries that had a mixed culture of the Persians, Ottomans and Arabs.
A belief that there were 12 infallible imam (religious leaders) after Muhammad and the 12th went into hiding and would return to take power and spread the true religion.
Battle of Chaldiran
16th Century. The Safavids vs the Ottomans; Ottomans won, and this symbolized the two greatest world powers at the time clashing together; religious war (Shi'ites Vs. Sunnis).
Abbas the Great
Safavid ruler from 1587 to 1629; extended Safavid domain to greatest extent; created slave regiments based on captured Russians, who monopolized firearms within Safavid armies; incorporated Western military technology.
Muslim state (1526-1857) exercising dominion over most of India in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries; a minority of Muslims ruled over a majority of Hindus.
Most illustrious sultan of the Mughal Empire in India (r. 1556-1605). He expanded the empire and pursued a policy of conciliation with Hindus.
Mughal emperor in India and great-grandson of Akbar 'the Great', under whom the empire reached its greatest extent, only to collapse after his death.
Capital of the Ottoman Empire; named this after 1453 and the sack of Constantinople.
Capital of the Safavid Empire.
Beautiful mausoleum at Agra built by the Mogul emperor Shah Jahan (completed in 1649) in memory of his favorite wife.
Founder of the Ottoman Empire.
Suleyman the Magnificent
(r.1520-1566 CE) He promoted Ottoman expanison, conquered Baghdad in 1543, and subjected Vienna to siege in 1529.
Founder of Safavid Empire in 1501, ruled until 1524; made Twelver Shiism the official religion of the empire and imposed it upon his Sunni subjects; his followers became known as qizilbash.
First sultan of the Mughal Empire; took lots of land in India.
The doctrines of a monotheistic religion founded in northern India in the 16th century by Guru Nanak and combining elements of Hinduism and Islam.
A movement in the 18th century that advocated the use of reason in the reappraisal of accepted ideas and social institutions.
This political revolution began with the Declaration of Independence in 1776 where American colonists sought to balance the power between government and the people and protect the rights of citizens in a democracy.
Declaration of Independence
Signed in 1776 by US revolutionaries; it declared the United States as a free state.
The revolution that began in 1789, overthrew the absolute monarchy of the Bourbons and the system of aristocratic privileges, and ended with Napoleon's overthrow of the Directory and seizure of power in 1799.
An assembly that represented the entire French population through three groups, known as estates; King Louis XVI called this in May 1789 to discuss the financial crises.
King of France (r.1774-1792 CE). In 1789 he summoned the Estates-General, but he did not grant the reforms that were demanded and revolution followed. Louis and his queen, Marie Antoinette, were executed in 1793.
French Revolutionary assembly (1789-1791). Called first as the Estates General, the three estates came together and demanded radical change. It passed the Declaration of the Rights of Man in 1789.
Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen
Adopted August 26, 1789, created by the National Assembly to give rights to all (except women).
Legislative body created by revolutionary leaders that abolished the monarchy & proclaimed France a republic; rallied French population by instituting levée en masse ("mass levy"); basically the French equivalent of the draft); frequently used the guillotine on enemies.
Reign of Terror
This was the period in France where Robespierre ruled and used revolutionary terror to solidify the home front. He tried rebels and they were all judged severely and most were executed.
Young provincial lawyer who led the most radical phases of the French Revolution; his execution ended the Reign of Terror.
Established after the Reign of Terror / National Convention; a five man group as the executive branch of the country; incompetent and corrupt, only lasted for 4 years.
Overthrew French Directory in 1799 and became emperor of the French in 1804. Failed to defeat Great Britain and abdicated in 1814. Returned to power briefly in 1815 but was defeated and died in exile.
A series of wars fought between France (led by Napoleon Bonaparte) and alliances involving England and Prussia and Russia and Austria at different times (1799-1812).
A major influece of the Latin American revolutions because of its successfulness; the only successful slave revolt in history; it is led by Toussaint L'Ouverture.
Was an important leader of the Haïtian Revolution and the first leader of a free Haiti; in a long struggle again the institution of slavery, he led the blacks to victory over the whites and free coloreds and secured native control over the colony in 1797, calling himself a dictator.
The most important military leader in the struggle for independence in South America; born in Venezuela, he led military forces there and in Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia.
A political or theological orientation advocating the preservation of the best in society and opposing radical changes.
A political ideology that emphasizes the civil rights of citizens, representative government, and the protection of private property. This ideology, derived from the Enlightenment, was especially popular among the property-owning middle classes.
A policy for establishing and developing a national homeland for Jews in Palestine.
Congress of Vienna
(1814-1815 CE) Meeting of representatives of European monarchs called to reestablish the old order after the defeat of Napoleon.
Rebellions of 1848
A series of rebellions throughout Europe in 1848; they were crushed by the conservative powers.
Camillo di Cavour
The political mastermind behind all of Sardinia's unification plans, he succeeded in creating a Northern Italian nation state.
Italian patriot whose conquest of Sicily and Naples led to the formation of the Italian state (1807-1882).
Otto von Bismarck
(1815-1898) German prime minister who intentionally provoked three wars to provide the people with a sense of nationalism.
Scottish engineer and inventor whose improvements in the steam engine led to its wide use in industry (1736-1819).
United States inventor of the mechanical cotton gin (1765-1825).
United States manufacturer of automobiles who pioneered mass production (1863-1947).
A business owned by stockholders who share in its profits but are not personally responsible for its debts.
The process of change in a society's population from a condition of high crude birth and death rates and low rate of natural increase to a condition of low crude birth and death rates, low rate of natural increase, and a higher total population.
German philosopher, economist, and revolutionary. With the help and support of Friedrich Engels he wrote The Communist Manifesto (1848) and Das Kapital (1867-1894). These works explain historical development in terms of the interaction of contradictory economic forces, form the basis of all communist theory, and have had a profound influence on the social sciences.
A socialist manifesto written by Marx and Engels (1848) describing the history of the working-class movement according to their views.
A theory or system of social organization based on the holding of all property in common, actual ownership being ascribed to the community as a whole or to the state.
A theory or system of social organization that advocates the vesting of the ownership and control of the means of production and distribution, of capital, land, etc., in the community as a whole.
(1846-1848) The war between the United States and Mexico in which the United States acquired one half of the Mexican territory.
US Civil War
The violent conflict between Union and confederate forces over states rights and slavery.
16th president of the United States; helped preserve the United States by leading the defeat of the secessionist Confederacy; an outspoken opponent of the expansion of slavery.
War of 1812
A war (1812-1814) between the United States and England which was trying to interfere with American trade with France.
(1910-1920 CE) Fought over a period of almost 10 years form 1910; resulted in ouster of Porfirio Diaz from power; opposition forces led by Pancho Villa and Emiliano Zapata.
The Greeks gained independence from the Ottoman Empire in this year.
The Serbians gained independence from the Ottoman Empire in this year.
Albanian soldier in the service of Turkey who was made viceroy of Egypt and took control away from the Ottoman Empire and established Egypt as a modern state (1769-1849).
A set of reforms in the Ottoman Empire set to revise Ottoman law to help lift the capitulations put on the Ottomans by European powers.
(1853-1856) Russian war against Ottomans for control of the Black Sea; intervention by Britain and France cause Russia to lose; Russians realize need to industiralize.
Tsar Alexander II (r.1885-1881) emancipated the serfs in this year.
War between Russia and Japan; Japan wins and takes parts of Manchuria under its control.
War between Britain and the Qing Empire that was, in the British view, occasioned by the Qing government's refusal to permit the importation of opium into its territories; the victorious British imposed the one-sided Treaty of Nanking on China.
Treaty of Nanjing
1842, ended Opium war, said the western nations would determine who would trade with china, so it set up the unequal treaty system which allowed western nations to own a part of chinese territory and conduct trading business in china under their own laws; this treaty set up 5 treaty ports where westerners could live, work, and be treated under their own laws; one of these were Hong Kong.
Hundred Days Reforms
Led by Kang Youwei and Liang Qichao . Established Imperial University of Beijing and an all new education system. They innitialted many new Chiefs for offices. They also made a government budget. It ended without much success by Cixi.
1899 rebellion in Beijing, China started by a secret society of Chinese who opposed the "foreign devils". The rebellion was ended by British troops.
The political program that followed the destruction of the Tokugawa Shogunate in 1868, in which a collection of young leaders set Japan on the path of centralization, industrialization, and imperialism.
An adoption of the social, political, or economic institutions of Western—especially European or American—countries.
The revolt of Indian soldiers in 1857 against certain practices that violated religious customs in India against the Brisith; also known as the Sepoy Mutiny.
The Great Game
Used to describe the rivalry and strategic conflict between the British Empire and the Russian Empire before WWI.
Scramble for Africa
The European's flurry of colonializations in Africa.
Lasting from 1899 to 1902, Dutch colonists and the British competed for control of territory in South Africa.
A meeting from 1884-1885 at which representatives of European nations agreed on rules colonization of Africa.
An American foreign policy opposing interference in the Western hemisphere from outside powers.
The application of ideas about evolution and "survival of the fittest" to human societies - particularly as a justification for their imperialist expansion.
Ram Mohan Roy
Father of modern India; he called for the construction of a society based on both modern Euorpean science and the Indian tradition of devotional Hindusim.
Indian National Congress
A movement and political party founded in 1885 to demand greater Indian participation in government. Its membership was middle class, and its demands were modest until World War I. Led after 1920 by Mohandas K. Gandhi, appealing to the poor.
World War I
A war between the allies (Russia, France, British Empire, Italy, United States, Japan, Rumania, Serbia, Belgium, Greece, Portugal, Montenegro) and the central powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Turkey, Bulgaria) from 1914 to 1918.
In World War I the alliance of Germany and Austria-Hungary and other nations allied with them in opposing the Allies.
Attack plan by Germans, proposed by Schliffen, lightning quick attack against France. Proposed to go through Belgium then attack France, Belgium resisted, other countries took up their aid, long fight, used trench warfare.
An alliance between Great Britain, France and Russia in the years before WWI.
Russian founder of the Bolsheviks and leader of the Russian Revolution and first head of the USSR (1870-1924).
The revolution against the Tsarist government which led to the abdication of Nicholas II and the creation of a provisional government in March 1917.
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
Treaty in which Russia lost substantial territory to the Germans. This ended Russian participation in the war (1918).
Paris Peace Conference
The great rulers and countries excluding Germany and Russia met in Versailles to negotiate the repercussions of the war, such leaders included Loyd George (Britain), Woodrow Wilson (America), Cleamancu (France) and Italy. The treaty of Versailles was made but not agreed to be signed and the conference proved unsuccessful.
The war aims outlined by President Wilson in 1918, which he believed would promote lasting peace; called for self-determination, freedom of the seas, free trade, end to secret agreements, reduction of arms and a league of nations.
League of Nations
An international organization formed in 1920 to promote cooperation and peace among nations; suggested in Wilson's Fourteen Points.
Allocation of former German colonies and Ottoman possessions to the victorious powers after World War I; to be administered under League of Nations supervision.
This dictator was the leader of the Nazi Party in Germany; he believed that strong leadership was required to save Germanic society, which was at risk due to Jewish, socialist, democratic, and liberal forces.
Physicist born in Germany who formulated the special theory of relativity and the general theory of relativity.
Austrian physician whose work focused on the unconscious causes of behavior and personality formation; founded psychoanalysis.
A time of utter economic disaster; started in the United States in 1929.
Published a book that discussed the causes of recessions. He argued that the government should spend heavily during a recession even if it had to run a deficit in order to jump start the economy. Although FDR was reluctant he did buy into the idea.
The historic period (1933-1940) in the U.S. during which President Franklin Roosevelt's economic policies were implemented.
Russian leader who succeeded Lenin as head of the Communist Party and created a totalitarian state by purging all opposition (1879-1953).
First Five Year Plan
Stalin's economic plan to build heavy industry.
(1934), Stalin cracked down on Old Bolsheviks, his net soon widened to target army heroes, industrial managers, writers and citizens, they were charged with a wide range of crimes, from plots to failure to not meeting production quotas.
A political theory advocating an authoritarian hierarchical government (as opposed to democracy or liberalism).
Fascist dictator of Italy (1922-1943). He led Italy to conquer Ethiopia (1935), joined Germany in the Axis pact (1936), and allied Italy with Germany in World War II. He was overthrown in 1943 when the Allies invaded Italy.
A philosopher from India, this man was a spiritual and moral leader favoring India's independence from Great Britain. He practiced passive resistance, civil disobedience and boycotts to generate social and political change.
Chinese physician and political leader who aimed to transform China with patriotic, democratic, and economically progressive reforms.
Took control of the Guomindang. Led troops on the Northern Expedition to end warlord era and unify China.
This man became the leader of the Chinese Communist Party and remained its leader until his death. He declared the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949 and supported the Chinese peasantry throughout his life.
World War II
War fought from 1939 to 1945 between the Allies and the Axis, involving most countries in the world. The United States joined the Allies in 1941, helping them to victory.
Rape of Nanjing
Japanese attack on Chinese capital from 1937-1938 when Japanese aggressorts slaughtered 100,000 civilians and raped thousands of women in order to gain control of China.
Spanish general whose armies took control of Spain in 1939 and who ruled as a dictator until his death (1892-1975).
Treaty of Versailles
The treaty imposed on Germany by the Allied powers in 1920 after the end of World War I which demanded exorbitant reparations from the Germans.
Codename for Nazi Germany's invasion of the Soviet Union during World War II.
Base in hawaii that was bombed by japan on December 7, 1941, which eagered America to enter the war.
The Nazi program of exterminating Jews under Hitler.
A conflict that was between the US and the Soviet Union. The nations never directly confronted eachother on the battlefield but deadly threats went on for years.
President Truman's policy of providing economic and military aid to any country threatened by communism or totalitarian ideology.
A United States program of economic aid for the reconstruction of Europe (1948-1952).
An international organization created in 1949 by the North Atlantic Treaty for purposes of collective security.
Treaty signed in 1945 that formed an alliance of the Eastern European countries behind the Iron Curtain; USSR, Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, and Romania.
An organization of independent states formed in 1945 to promote international peace and security; it replaced the League of Nations.
A wall separating East and West Berlin built by East Germany in 1961 to keep citizens from escaping to the West.
The conflict between Communist North Korea and Non-Communist South Korea. The United Nations (led by the United States) helped South Korea.
Cuban Missile Crisis
The 1962 confrontation bewteen US and the Soviet Union over Soviet missiles in Cuba.
Cuban socialist leader who overthrew a dictator in 1959 and established a Marxist socialist state in Cuba (born in 1927).
A competition of space exploration between the United States and Soviet Union.
The world's first space satellite. This meant the Soviet Union had a missile powerful enough to reach the US.
The term for the attempted liberation of Czechoslovakia in 1968.
A prolonged war (1954-1975) between the communist armies of North Vietnam who were supported by the Chinese and the non-communist armies of South Vietnam who were supported by the United States.
The US theory that stated, if one country would fall to Communism then they all would.
Soviet statesman whose foreign policy brought an end to the Cold War and whose domestic policy introduced major reforms (born in 1931).
The year of the collapse of the Soviet Union.
A conference between many countries that agreed to end hostilities and restore peace in French Indochina and Vietnam.
Great Leap Forward
Started by Mao Zedong, combined collective farms into People's Communes, failed because there was no incentive to work harder, ended after 2 years.
Campaign in China ordered by Mao Zedong to purge the Communist Party of his opponents and instill revolutionary values in the younger generation.
Communist Party leader who forced Chinese economic reforms after the death of Mao Zedong.
A fundamentalist Islamic revivalist movement generally characterized by moral conservatism and the literal interpretation of the Quran and the attempt to implement Islamic values in all aspects of life.
Shiite religious leader of Iran, led the 1979 Islamic Revolution in Iran and ordered the invasion of the US Embassy.
A social policy or racial segregation involving political and economic and legal discrimination against non-whites.
A dispute over control of the waterway between Iraq and Iran broke out into open fighting in 1980 and continued until 1988, when they accepted a UN cease-fire resolution.
World Trade Organization
Administers the rules governing trade between its 144 members. Helps producers, importers, and exporters conduct their business and ensure that trade flows smoothly.
Four Asian Tigers
South Korea (largest), Taiwan (moving towards high tech), Singapore (Center for information and technology), Hong Kong(Break of Bulk Point): Because of their booming economies.
An international organization of European countries formed after World War II to reduce trade barriers and increase cooperation among its members.
An organization of countries formed in 1961 to agree on a common policy for the production and sale of petroleum.
North American Free Trade Agreement; allows open trade with US, Mexico, and Canada.
A serious (often fatal) disease of the immune system transmitted through blood products especially by sexual contact or contaminated needles.
Was a dictator in Iraq who tried to take over Iran and Kuwait violently in order to gain the land and the resources. He also refused to let the UN into Iraq in order to check if the country was secretly holding weapons of mass destruction.
A female movement for gender equality.