Ch. 21 Exam 2

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Organisms with an open circulatory system:

pump fluid throughout the spaces of their body cavity where it mixes with tissue fluids.

Which feature of insects makes it necessary for them to use active transport to filter extracellular fluids into the Malpighian tubules?

open circulatory system

In counter-current flow:

blood flows in the opposite direction as the water allowing a fish to extract close to 100% of the oxygen out of the water.

The human heart is divided into four chambers: two atria and two ventricles. Which of the following does NOT properly describe the difference in structure and function of these chambers?

All of the above are correct statements about the relationship between the atria and ventricles

Birds that feed on marine animals ingest a lot of salt, but they excrete most of it by means of:

nasal salt glands.

In the circulatory system of vertebrates which of the following is the site of exchange between blood and interstitial fluid?

capillaries

Insects have open circulatory systems that directly bathe their organs with fluids. Considering that this form of circulatory system is less efficient than a closed system, how are insects able to maintain life processes at remarkably high metabolic rates?

Their respiratory system assists by branching in a way that allows the outside environment to come close to internal tissues.

Red blood cells are derived from cells in the bone marrow; white blood cells are derived from cells in:

the bone marrow.

Air sacs:

hold air, and while they are not gas exchange surfaces, aid in continuous and unidirectional breathing.

Hemoglobin is the respiratory pigment used to bind oxygen in ALL BUT which one of the following organisms?

arthropods

Which of the following is NOT a component of the blood plasma?

white blood cells

Why is countercurrent exchange of oxygen in fish gills so efficient?

It maintains a concentration gradient between the water and the bloodstream for the entire time that the water and blood vessel are in close contact.

The name of the fluid in an insect's open circulatory system is ________

hemolymph.

An air environment, gravity, and desiccation are three challenges that were addressed in the evolution of reptiles.

What three evolutionary innovations addressed these challenges?

lungs, better limb support, and the amniotic egg

The three principle functions of the vertebrate circulatory system are:

transport, protection, and body temperature regulation.

Why do cells require oxygen gas?

Cells need oxygen in order to convert sugar into ATP energy.

In the mammalian heart, what is the function of the valves?

prevent backflow of blood

The largest artery in the human body is the:

aorta

Which of the following choices regarding the regulation of kidney function is INCORRECT?

A decrease in angiotensinogen levels leads to a decrease in thirst.

The junctions of lymph ducts which contain pathogen-fighting white blood cells are called:

nodes

The structure of hemoglobin:

is a four subunit protein containing iron.

In the sense that it regulates water and electrolyte balance, the shark's rectal gland is similar to the _____________ of terrestrial vertebrates.

kidneys

When blood leaves the right ventricle of the mammalian heart, to which location does it flow next?

the lungs

A ________ in blood osmolarity ________ ADH release, as does a ________ in blood pressure.

rise; stimulates; fall

Amphibians must constantly keep their skin moist because:

the moisture is essential to maintain gas exchange across the skin

What is the ratio of red blood cells to white blood cells in the human circulatory system under normal conditions?

1000 red : 1 white

Which of the following choices determines the movement of water across the cell plasma membrane?

The solute concentration inside the cell.

Blood has many important functions that are vital to our everyday existence. Which of the following is NOT one of these functions?

All of the above are functions of blood.

What is the disadvantage of having a "single circuit" with the gills set between the heart and the rest of the tissues?

Organisms with this configuration cannot sustain as much activity as those with two circuits.

Which artery below is the only one that carries DEOXYGENATED blood?

pulmonary artery

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