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UVU Biology 1620 Final study guide

What is the driving force for evolution, as it pertains to "new" structures within population?

Animals with mutations that give rise to effective structures will become more abundant

Why have diverse animals such as sharks, and pengins evolved similar fusiform body?

The laws of physics constrain the shapes that are possible for aquatic animals that swim very fast.

As body size increases in animals, there is....

A decrease in the surface-to-volume ratio

Why do multicellular organisms need their cells to be in a liquid medium?

Multicellular organisms must keep their cells awash in an internal pond because cells need an aqueous medium for the exchange of nutrients, gases and wastes.

The body's automatic tendency to maintain a constant internal environment is?

Homeostasis

What is endothermy?

Involves production of heat through metabolism.

A female Burmese python incubation her eggs warms them using...?

Shivering thermogenesis.

Hibernation and estivation are both examples of?

Torpor

An ectotherm is more likely to survive an extended period of food deprivation than would an equally-sized endotherm because?

The ectotherm invests little energy in temperature regulation.

Metabolism of specialized brown fat depots in certain animals is substantially increased during

Non-shivering thermogenesis (fat = highest energy output)

An animal that migrates great distances would obtain the greatest benefit form storing its energy as

Fats

What vitamins are fat-soluble?

Vitamin A

Which Vitamins are deadly at high amounts?

A, D, E, K (Fat solubles) Essential amino acids, essential fatty acids, vitamins, minerals.

What animals and/or insects have a crop?

Earthworms, grasshoppers and birds. Used for temporary storage of food, food storage for nestlings, and production of crop milk.

In which group of animals would you expect to find a relatively long cecum?

Herbivores

Why are cattle able to survive on a diet consisting almost entirely of plant material?

They have cellulose-digesting, symbiotic microorganisms in chambers of their stomachs.

In which animals would you expect to find an enlarged cecum?

Rabbits, horses, and herbivorous bears.

What is a gizzard?

Muscular stomach chamber that uses ingested pebbles to pulverize food, some food storage which cehmical digestion that was begun in the proventriculus continues.

Organism in which a circulating body fluid is distinct from the fluid that directly surrounds the body's cells are likely to have what?

A closed circulatory system.

Difference between large molluscs and smalll molluscs (Circulatory system)

Open system in small molluscs
Close system in large molluscs

Ruminants have how many chambers in their stomach?

Four chambers

In which animal does bllod flow from the pumocutaneous circulation to the heart before circulating through the rest of the body?

Frog

What is the only vertebrate in which blood flows directly from respiratory organs to body tissues without first returning to the heart?

Fishes

What's the significance of the ruman as it pertains to cellulose digestion?

The most symbiotic organism.

What organic materials are mammals able to digest and/or produce with the help of microorganisms?

Cellulose to simple sugars

What are the fat-soluble vitamins?

A, D, E, K

What is an example of countercurrent exchange?

The flow of water across the gills of the fish and that of blood within those gills

Countercurrent exchange in the fish gill helps to maximize which of the following?

Diffusion

What is a charateristic of both hemoglobin and hemocyanin?

Transports oxygen

How does hemocyanin of arthropods and mooluscs differ from the hemoglobin of mammals?

Hemocyanin has protein couples to copper rather than iron.

Marin sea star was mistakenly placed in freshwater and it died. What is the most likely explanation for its death?

The sea star is hyperosmotic to the freshwater, and it could not osmoregulate.

Organisms in which a circulating body fluid is distinct from the fluid that directly surrounds the body's cells are likely to have what?

A closed circulatory system.

How many chambers does each organisms have?

Fish: 2
Reptiles: 5
Birds, Crocs, Mammals: 4

Negative respiratory system

When we inhale our diaphragm contracts

How do birds live off of sea water?

Marine birds utiliza their nasal glands to eliminate excess salt from the body. (Same with sea turtles and marine iguanas)

Shark osmoregulate by

Tolerating high urea concentrations that balance internal salt concentrations to sea water osmolarity.

Where and from what compound(s) is urea produced?

Liver from NH3 and CO2

What is true of urea

It is the primary nitrogenous waste product of humans

What is the main nitrgenous waste excreated by birds?

Uric acid

What nitrogenous wastes requires hardly any water for its excretion?

Uric Acid

What is true of ammonia?

It is soluble in water

The advantage of excreting wastes as urea rather than as ammonia is that

Urea is less toxic than ammonia

Birds secrete what?

Birds secrete uric acid as their nitrogenous waste because uric acid requires little water for nitrogenous waste disposal, which is conductive to the function of flight in terms of weight.

What nitrogenous waste requires hardly any water for excretion

Uric acid

What group possess excretory structures known as protonephridia

Flatworms

What group possesses excretory organs known as Malpighian tubules?

Insects (Frogs too)

Unlike an earthworm's metanephridia, a mammalian nephron...?

receives filtrate from blood instead of coelomic fluid

Fish have how many pumping chambers?

2 pumping chambers

American lungfish, which are often found in small stagnant pools of fresh water, produce urea as a nitrogenous waste. What is the advatage of this adaptation?

Small stagnant pools do not provide enough water to dilute the toxic ammonia.

Do corals and monekeys both have hox genes?

YES

Conus Arteriosus

4th chamber heart made of contractile cardiac muscle downstream side of the ventricle. (lamprey, sharks, early bony fishes, lungifhses, and amphibians)

Bulbous arteriosus

4th chamber heart made of contractile cardiac muscle in "higher" bony fishes (teleosts)

The blastopore is a structure that first becomes evident during

Gastrulation

What is protostomes?

Spiral and determinate cleave, blastopore becomes mouth.

Protostome development is

Determinate cleavage

Protostome characteristics

Absence of a body cavity

What group consists of deuterostomes

Echinoderms, fish, amphibian, reptiles, birds, mammals. (chordates)

Does sponges have true tissue?

No. Sponges lack true tissue.

In which animal does blood flow from the pulmocutaneous circulation to the heart before circulating through the rest of the body

Frog

Generally, members of which flatworm classes are nonparasitic?

Turbellaria

The members of which class of the phylum Cnidaria occur only as polyps?

Anthozoa

Which class of the phylum Cnidaria includes jellies with rounded medusa?

Scyphozoa

Which vacationing in a country that lacks adequate meat inspection, a student ate undercooked ground beef. Sometimes later the student became easily fatigued, and lost body weight. At about the same time, whitish, flattened, rectangular objects full of small white spherees started appearing in his feces. Administration of niclosamide cured the problem.

Tapeworm

How many heart chambers do reptilians have?

5 chambers

A lophophore is used by ectoprocts and brachiopods

For feeding

Which molluscan class includes members that undergo embryonic torsion

Gastropods

A radul is present in members of which classes?

Gastropods

Foramen of panizza

A unique anstomosing connection between the two aortic arches that aid in high level activity in a systemic circulation, which requires a large amount of oxygen in the blood.

The heartworm that can accumulate within the hearts of dogs and other mammals have a pseudocoelom, an alimentary canal, and an outer covering that is occasionally shed. To which phylum does the heartworm belong?

Nematoda

What animals have four heart chambers?

Mammals, birds and crocodiles

What characteristic of chordates is shared

Dorsal, hollow nerve cord.

What characteristic separate chordates from other animals

Post-anal tail

Caracteristics of chordates

Dorsal hollow nerve cord, pharyngeal clefts, and post-anal tail (A,B,C)

In which classes did jaws occur earliest?

Chondrichthyans

What is a distinctive feature of the chondrichthyans?

A mostly cartilaginous endoskeleton

There is evidence that ray-finned fishes originally evolved

in freshwater environments

Charatheristic of ray-finned fishes

Bony endoskeleton
Operculum
Swim bladder

Swim bladder of ray-finned fishes was madified from

Simple lungs of freshwater fishes

Does Chondriththyans beong in the lobe-fin clade?

NO

How does the hemocyanin of arthropods and molluscs differ from the hemoglobin of mammals

Hemocyanin has copper instead of iron

What is hemoglobin and which animals have them?

The respiratory pigment of almost all vertebrates and a wide variety of invertebrates is the protein hemoglobin, which is coupled with iron rather than copper

Most dinosaurs and pterosaurs become extinct at the close of the _____ era.

Cretaceous

What groups have nucleated erythocytes/

Mammalian erythrocytes lack nuclei.

During countercurrent exchange of gasses, what percent of oxygen is present in the oxygenated blood that is returned to the body?

80-90%

Which animals use positive pressure in their respiratory system

Frogs

Which animals use negative in their respiratory system

Reptiles and mammals (with diaphragm)

What are parabronchi?

Lungs of birds channel air through very tiny air vessls called parabronchi, where gas exchange actually takes place.

How do mammals reproduce?

Egg-laying
Pouched
Placental

What animal may have lungs, or gills and may use skin as respiratory system

Amphibians

Birds have negative pressure breathing, but it differs from that of mammals and i more efficient because of what

The maximum PO2 is significantly higher in bird lungs. Bird respiratory system does not mix exhaled air with inhaled air.

What is coprophagy?

Eating of the feces

How are apes and humans related?

Humans and apes represent divergent lines of evolution from a common ancestor.

What aids mammals in diving?

During a dive, the heart rate slows, and all major blood vessels are constricted except those critical to survival under water. Metabolic rate slows, and tissues switch to glycolytic metabolism.

What kind of dinosaur is "Dino"?

Snorkasaurus

What probably accounts for the switch to DNA-based genetic systems during the evolution of life on Earth?

DNA is chemically more stable and replicates with fewer errors (mutations) than RNA.

What is an endospore?

They live in harsh living conditions

The largest seaweeds belong to which group?

Brown Algae

This phylum contains the mushrooms, shelf fungi, and puffballs

Basidiomycota

The symbiotic associations involving roots and soil fungi are considered

Mutualistic

What is true of stamens, sepals, petals, carpels and pine cone scales?

They are modified leaves

What tissue makes up most of the wood of a tree?

2nd xylem

Most of the dry weight of a plant is the result of uptake of

CO2 through stomata

Carnivorous adaptations of plants mainly compensate for soil that has a relatively low content of

Nitrogen

What type of plants would not yet have been evolved in the forests that became coal deposits?

Pine trees

What makes the bird's respiratory system more efficient?

Bird respiratory system does not mix exhaled air with inhaled air.

Air rushes into the lungs of humans during inhalation because

The rib muscles and diaphragm contract, increasing the lung volume

In negative pressure breathing, inhalation results from

Contracting the diaphragm

What organisms are endothermic homeotherms?

Most birds and mammals. Some large fishes and tuna come very close. (Ectotherm and homeotherms)

Homeotherm = maintain constant body temperature

Why doesn't killer whales' fins freeze?

Countercurrent heat exchange, it's how they limit heat loss.

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