Chapter 11: Diet and Health

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Role of nutrition in maintaining a healthy immune system?

Good nutrition helps maintain a healthy immune system to defend against infection. Both deficient and excessive nutrients can harm the immune system. (Immune system one of the first things harmed if deficient or toxic in a nutrient.)

What happens during atherosclerosis?

Hardening of the arteries. Soft, fatty streaks start, then gradually enlarge and harden causing plaque. Leads to hypertension (high BP) and blood clotting, which leads to heart attacks and strokes.

Risk factors for atherosclerosis?

NOT CHANGEABLE:
-increased age
-male
-genetics
CHANGEABLE:
-High LDL cholesterol
-Low HDL cholesterol
-Hypertension
-Diabetes
-Obesity (esp. central)
-Phys inactivity
-cigarette smoking
-diet high in saturated fat and low in whole foods

Heart Disease (CVD): risk differences for men vs. women

AGE BECOMES RISK AT-
Males:45+
Females:55+ (but after menopause 2-3X higher risk than before)

Hypertension:

High blood pressure. (Often caused because of atherosclerosis.)

Risk factors of hypertension

-Age (55+)
-Genetics
-Obesity
-Salt intake
-Alcohol consumption
-Dietary factors (low potassium, calcium, magnesium)

Process by which CANCER develops

-Exposure to carcinogen.
-Entry of carcinogen to cell.
-Carcinogenesis (changes makeup of cell).
-Acceleration by promoters (other carcinogens) and tumor starts to form.
-Often, metastasis (spread via blood and lymph).
-Disruption of normal body functions.

Diet and lifestyle changes that reduce risks of cardiovascular disease:

-Balance calories with physical activity
-choose lean meats, veg, and milk products
-high fiber
-high potassium, low sodium
-fewer added sugars
-consume omega-3 fatty acids 2x week
-Plant sterols=good
-Soy products instead of meat where possible
-limit alcohol

Diet and lifestyle changes that reduce risks of hypertension:

-DASH diet (lots of fruits, veg, whole foods, low-fat dairy, not a lot of sodium and sat. fat)
-lose weight
-increase physical activity
-don't drink lots of alcohol

Diet and lifestyle changes that reduce risks of cancer:

-lower calorie intake
-normal BMI
-physically active
-Low alcohol intake
-Lower fat diet
-not a lot of red meat
-increase fiber intake
-Folate and antioxident vits.
-Calcium and Vit. D
-Iron
-Whole foods (and phytochemicals)

Complementary and Alternative medicine

Diverse health-care systems not considered to be part of conventional medicine. Ex. acupuncture, biofeedback, chiropractic, faith healing, and others.

Possible risks and benefits of complementary and alternative medicine:

BENEFITS:
-Humane, based on the individual
-Placebo effect
-Acupuncture has proven somewhat effective
RISKS:
-Don't communicate with professionals
-Bad interaction with dr. recommendations
-Harmful additives, not regulated

3 levels of total blood cholesterol:

Unhealthy: >= 240
Borderline: 200-239
Healthy:<200

3 levels of LDL cholesterol:

Unhealthy:160-189
Borderline:130-159
Healthy:<100

3 levels of HDL cholesterol:

Unhealthy:<40
Borderline:59-40
Healthy:>=60

3 levels of Triglycerides (fasting):

Unhealthy:200-499
Borderline:150-199
Healthy:<150

3 levels of BMI:

Unhealthy:>=30
Borderline:25-29.9
Healthy:18.5-24.9

3 levels of blood pressure (systolic/diastolic):

Unhealthy:>140/>90
Borderline:120/80-139/89
Healthy:<120/<80

DASH diet

Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension:
-Increase fruit, veg, and low-fat dairy
-Decrease sodium and sat. fat

Rich in: magnesium, potassium, calcium, protein, fiber.

Carcinogenesis

Initiation of cancer as the carcinogen damages or changes the cell's genetic material.

Nutrigenetics:

How genes affect the diet.

Nutrigenomic:

How the diet affects the genes that are expressed (phenotype).

Epigenome:

Activates certain sequences of DNA. Epigenome is always changing, genome is constant.

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