*<Psych Final>*

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The SAT is a test of _____

Aptitude

A test that measures what a person can do NOW:

Achievement Test

Mental tests are reliable if:

It consistently measures whatever it measures

Intelligence tests are _____

Reliable

Binet's IQ test were computed as a ratio between:

Mental and chronological age

The practical problem Alfred Binet had while developing his test was:

Identifying slow learners for remedial programs

G stands for

General Intelligence

Gordon is creative & comes up with new ways of doing things. He is high in:

Fluid Intelligence

Crystallized intelligence is:

an individual's REPERTOIRE of previously acquired information and cognitive skills

According to Robert Sternberg, which of the following is a form of intelligence that is typically ASSESSED BY INTELLIGENCE TESTS?

Analytic

According to recent research findings, which of the following forms of intelligence is most likely to be the best predictor of BUSINESS SUCCESS?

Practical

NOT one of Gardner's multiple intelligences?

Tacit

Kayla is an excellent salesperson because she can always find a way of connecting with a potential client. Based on this information, in which kind of intelligence would Gardner expect Kayla to be high?

Personal

The first person to measure intelligence was:

Galton

Choose the statement(s) that best describes the WAIS.

Both A & C, It is an intelligence test for adults///It can assess learning disabilities

Which of the following best describes Binet's beliefs about intelligence?

Both B & C, It is most highly influenced by enviornment///Tests of intelligence could be used for abuse

Intelligence is:

The ability to learn or adapt from experience, Intelligence is a single ability, Intelligence consists of several specific abilities, ALL OF THE ABOVE

_______________ supported the idea of innate intelligence.

Terman and Galton

Test-Retest is a method of assessing:

Reliability

When comparing previous scores to new scores as A METHOD TO EVALUATE PERFORMANCE, such as a frequency distribution, we are employing:

Standardization

AN OBSERVATION OF PATTERNS IN DATA, such as how often a particular score occurs is called a:

Frequency Distribution

The extent to which a test samples the behavior of interest is called:

Content Validity

The ability to acquire new knowledge to solve problems is known as:

Componential Intelligence

The ability to capitalize on one's strengths and minimize one's weaknesses is part of which theory:

Sternberg's Triarchic Theory

Which theory of intelligence was developed as an explanation of why some people with high IQs were not successful?

Emotional Intelligence

Reasoning verbal and numerical skills are collectively known as:

Crystallized Intelligence

Practical Intelligence is:

Required for every day tasks, frequently ill defined, and supports multiple solutions to a problem, ALL OF THE ABOVE

In general, trait theories involve the idea that:

People can be grouped according to their basic underlying personality characteristics

Which of the following is NOT one of the so-called Big Five?

Religiosity

Which of the Big Five expresses itself as a trusting and easy-going approach to other people?

Agreeableness

Someone who agrees with the statement "I see myself as someone who does things efficiently" is most likely to score high in:

Conscientiousness

An important fact about the Big Five is that is is cast in terms of _____

Dimensions

If you've got a devil on one shohulder, telling you to do something "naughty," and an angel on the other, urging you to remain upright and moral, then the devil according to Freud would represent the _____

Id

When you punish yourself for your various shortcomings and assorted mortal failings, the agency responsible for the guilt feelings that result is called by Freud the _____

Superego

According to Sigmund Freud, _____ is the most primitive part of the human personality

Id

The id is governed by the _____ principal

Pleasure

A three-year-old child who slaps her own hand to punish herself is showing signs of:

Superego Development

Say you really wish, deep down, to be messy and sloppy in every way imaginable but instead out of guilt take great pains to be exceptionally neat and tidy. This constitutes a defense mechanism freu called:

Reaction Formation

When unacceptable behaviors are reinterpreted in more acceptable terms, the defense mechanism at work is:

Rationalization

The defense mechanism whereby a person attributes his own forbidden urges to others is called:

Projection

Which of the following is not a defense mechanism according to Freud?

Induction

Which of the following is a psychoanalytic mechanism of defense?

Reaction Formation, Rationalization, Projection, ALL OF THE ABOVE

According to Sigmund Freud, personality development occurs in a series of _____ stages

Psychosexual

For one-year-olds, most pleasure seeking is through which erogenous zone?

The Mouth

Which of the following presents Freud's psychosexual stages in the correct order?

Oral, Anal, Phallic, Genital

According to Sigmund Freud, the Oedipus complex develops during which psychosexual stage?

Phallic

The female equivalent of the Oedipus complex is known as the _____ Complex

Electra

How do some modern psychologists explain Freud's unconscious coping mechanisms?

They provide a means of not attending to something stressful

"People need more than food and sex. Sometimes the joy of doing something is reward enough." The person who says this is probably a _____

Humanist

Carl Rogers believed that unconditional positive regard was important for:

Developing a strong sense of personal self-worth

The term attribution refers to our tendency to:

Interpret Behavior

Your friend Mark never does what he says he's going to do, and you explain that by calling him "undependable." In this case, you have made a(n):

Dispositional Attribution

After failing an exam, Timmy exclaims that the questions were too difficult and that his professor is terrible. What type of attribution is Timmy making for his failure?

Situational

The fact that we tend to overestimate the importance of dispositional factors in the behavior of others is referred to as:

The Fundamental Attribution Error

People tend to describe a person who is unemployed as "lazy" or a "loser." Ascribing people's behavior to their nature rather than their situation is called:

The Fundamental Attribution Error

When we make attributions for our own behavior (as opposed to the behavior of others), we tend to:

See our behavior as more governed by situational factors than observers do.

Social Schemas are useful because they:

Allow us to overcome our limited cognitive capacities when interpreting events.

As a general impression of others, the statement "blondes have more fun" is an example of:

A Stereotype

Your text argues that the relationship between schemas and stereotypes is that:

Stereotypes arise when schemas are simplified and applied to groups

An in-group is a group:

To which the target person belongs

You see a homeless person sleeping on the street. Later yo notice the same person holding a sign at a freeway on-ramp asking for money. Instead of explaining this person's situation in life by referencing the state of the economy, you call the person "lazy" and tell him to get a job. Such dispositional attributions can lead to what is called the:

Self-Fulfilling Prophecy

Research on how to reduce prejudice:

Suggests that certain types of contact between prejudiced groups can help.

When making attributions about ourselves, we tend to:

Take credit for our successes and attribute our failures to external factors.

Attitudes differ from beliefs in that:

Attitudes include Feelings or EVALUATIONS.

One reason that attitudes do not always predict behavior is that:

Situational pressures may cause people to behave in ways that are inconsistent with their attitudes /// General Attitudes may not predict specific behaviors /// Both A and B

Which of the following are most effective when trying to affect an attitude change?

A very credible Source /// A strong message /// Both A and B

Three girls go to see a popular rock concert. Which one will like the concert most, according to dissonance theory?

The one who camped out overnight to get her tickets.

In a classic study, research participants did an extremely boring task and were then paid either $1 or $20 to tell someone else that it was interesting. When their actual attitudes toward the task were later measured:

Consistent with cognitive dissonance theory, participants paid $1 thought the task was more interesting than did participants paid $20.

Dissonance theory would predict those who work hardest in a class will find that class:

More Enjoyable

Forced compliance may result in changing one's strongly held attitude because:

The resulting cognitive dissonance is emotionally unpleasant.

We often try to reduce dissonance in order to:

Reduce negative emotions such as guilt or shame /// Maintain a favorable self-picture or self-image /// Both A and B

The James-Lange Theory of emotions asserts that:

Emotion is the awareness of bodily changes that result from arousing stimuli.

The James-Lange Theory of emotion asserts that feelings:

Are the awareness of bodily changes.

The major objections to the James-Lange theory of emotion according to Canon Bard was that:

Different emotions produce the same bodily changes, so it is therefore difficult to tell how a person knows what he or she feels.

According to Schachter and Singer, our emotions are based upon:

A Physiological Response and Cognitive Evaluation

What is the difference between Obedience and Compliance?

You are being obedient when you are TOLD to do something, not asked

In experiments, what is the meaning of the word confederate?

A person who secretly behaves as the experimenter asks him to.

In the Asch Line-Length Experiment, what did the confederates do?

Deliberately made more incorrect line length guesses.

What are the causes of conformity?

People want to be liked /// People do not want to be laughed at /// People want to be correct, and they trust others to indicate what is correct /// ALL OF THE ABOVE

Validating our own reactions by checking on how others are behaving in the same setting is a behavior termed:

Social Referencing

So-called authoritarian personalities:

Tend to be highly obedient.

What happened when the Milgram Shock Experiment was conducted in Australia, Germany and Jordan?

Similar levels of obedience were obtained.

Stanley Milgram's Experiment wherein a research participant acted as a teacher and thought he administered shock to a learner was designed to investigate:

The effects of situational factors upon obedience.

In Milgram's experiment, research participants who were fully obedient:

Thought they were delivering potentially lethal electric shocks to an innocent man.

Which of the following is a cognitive strategy employed by those who comply with immoral orders in order to cope with their dilemma?

Attribution of fault to the victim /// Dehumanization of the victim /// Seeing themselves as merely instruments of the authority /// ALL OF THE ABOVe

The "Norm of Reciprocity" refers to:

The social rule that we are obligated to repay whatever favor we have been given by another person.

Some charities enclose small gifts for the recipient, such as return address labels, in their fundraising letters. This strategy seems to rely on the:

Norm of Reciprocity

In the prison study, Zimbardo found:

Consistent with Milgram, evidence for situational factors underlying brutal behavior.

Research has shown that the presence of other people intensifies performance on a task when that task is:

Simple

Social Facilitation:

Refers to enhanced performance when an audience is present.

The theory of social facilitation assumes that the presence of others:

INCREASES THE VARIABILITY of the performer's responses.

Social loafing refers to the finding that people:

Generally put less effort into a group task than they would if they were doing the same task individually.

A key characteristic of crowd behavior is deindividuation, in which:

Each individual loses his or her own identity and becomes an anonymous member.

Which of the following factors makes groupthink more likely?

A highly cohesive (unified) group

Groups engaging in groupthink typically:

Overestimate the quality of their decisions.

Kitty Genovese:

Was murdered in view of thirty-eight of her neighbors, none of whom came to her aid.

Diffusion of responsibility leads to:

Decreased probability of bystander intervention.

Which of the following is true of the Bystander Effect?

The larger the crowd, the lower the probability of response.

Proximity:

Enhances Liking

In the swinging bridge study, an attractive young woman approached young men either while the men were crossing a frightening bridge (Group A), or shortly after they had safely crossed (Group B). A later measure of how much the men had been attracted to the woman indicated that:

Consistent with Attribution of Arousal Theory, men in group A seem to have been more attracted than men in group B.

Which of the following is the best example of one of the simplest forms of learning, called habituation?

After watching a lot of violent TV, the violence depicted bothers you less and less.

An obvious benefit of habituation is this:

It narrows the range of stimuli that elicit alarm /// It guarantees that we will respond with novel inputs /// Both A and B

Say an infant has become bored with the visual presentation of a pink square. Then, when researchers make the square spin counterclockwise, the infant's interest perks up again. What is this kind of change in responsiveness called?

Dishabituation

The presentation of an air puff to the eye leads reflexively to closure of the eyelid. What is the air puff an example of?

An unconditioned stimulus.

Injection of an animal with amphetamine leads to heart rate acceleration. With repeated injections, however, the injection procedure alone (i.e., when an inert substance is injected) can elicit heart-rate acceleration. In this situation, which of the following is true?

The injection procedure is the CS /// Heart rate acceleration is both the UR and the CR /// Amphetamine is the US /// All of the above answers are correct

The pupil of the eye automatically constricts when a bright light is directed at the eye. What does this illustrate?

An unconditioned response

What would one call salivation as a reaction to lemon juice in the mouth?

An unconditioned response

Which of the following is the best example of extinction?

A rat stops pressing a bar when food is no longer presented after a lever press.

Little Jimmy has met his grandmother only once, but that experience was very positive. In fact, the experience was so wonderful that every time he sees an older-looking woman, he runs over to her with a big smile and his arms outstretched. Which conditioning phenomenon does Jimmy demonstrate?

Stimulus Generalization

What does shaping involve?

Reinforcing responses that are more and more similar to the desired response.

Food, water, or the termination of an electric shock are all examples of:

Primary Reinforcers

Why do VR reinforcement schedules produce such high rates of responding?

There is uncertainty as to when the reward will be forthcoming.

Gamblers often persist at gambling even when they very rarely receive a payoff. How can one explain this persistence?

There is a strong resistance to extinction when performance has been maintained with a variable schedule of reinforcement.

After which schedule of reinforcement would you predict that a child would show the most resistance to behavioral extinction?

Variable Ratio

What name is given to a situation in which a response is followed by an aversive stimulus, thereby reducing the likelihood of the response on subsequent occasions?

Punishment

Which of the following represents an important fact about punishment as a form of behavior control?

More intense punishers (more painful shock, for instance( are more effective than less intense punishers

What does latent learning show?

Learning can occur without behavior change

Which of the following is dependent on your memory?

Your recollection of a nice vacation /// Your ability to recognize your best friend /// Your current level of self esteem /// ALL OF THE ABOVE

A test where you fill in the blanks is an example of which of the following?

A Recall Test

On your computer desktop you can see all sorts of different files, each immediately accessible. Because you are actively working on them, and because you can open them whenever you want, these files are in fact very similar to the kind of information held in:

Short Term Memory

Memory encoding is:

A process of translating raw input into an intellectual record of the input.

What is the so-called magic number as regards working memory?

7 plus or minus 2

Let's say you begin to list all the classes you've ever taken in college. Chances are, you will recall your last few classes particularly well. Waht is this phenomenon called?

The Recency Effect

If you tried to learn the serial list BOZ, ZIR, JEV, VID, LEQ, SAR, RAK, NUD, FUH, you would probably have the most trouble recalling:

LEQ.

Mnemonics are most useful when we wish to remember:

Material that, by itself, has no internal organization.

Which of the following is an effective way to get access to a forgotten memory?

A Retrieval Cue

Why is elaborative rehearsal effective?

Elaborative rehearsal increases the number of retrieval cues linked to the item.

The _____ the processing (encoding) of information, the _____ the likelihood of later remembering it.

More Elaborate ... & ... Greater

A loss of stored information as a function of time is called _____

Decay

Charlie is painting numbers on the wall mural for an elementary school. Charlie's friend then calls him over to help paint her mural of the alphabet. When he returns, Charlie begins to paint letters all over his number mural. What is the best explanation for Charlie's mistake?

Interference

If you "can't think of it now" but do remember it later, there was an initial failure of:

Retrieval.

Mickey is about to take his psychology final, for which he has studied very hard. Just before the exam, the person sitting next to Mickey asks him the name of the physiologist who worked on classical conditioning. Mickey suddenly realizes that he cannot quite remember the name, but he knows that it starts with a P and is two syllables long. Mickey is experiencing:

The Tip-Of-The-Tongue Phenomenon

Which of the following is an example of a schema leading to memory error?

You mistakenly recall seeing a catcher's mitt in your baseball coach's bag.

The CONFIDENCE of a witness reporting his memory for the witnessed event is:

A very poor indicator of the accuracy of his memory.

Flashbulb memories:

Typically concern major, unexpected, public, or personal events.

Any time we try to solve a problem, judge the truth of an assertion, or weigh the costs and benefits of an important decision, we are engaging in:

Directed Thinking.

Unlike images, words are typically:

Symbolic

What name do we give to mental categories that allow one to group or categorize SIMILAR EVENTS OR OBJECTS?

Concepts

When we recall what we received for CHRISTMAS in 2005, we are relying on what is called:

Episodic Memory

Whenever we try solving a problem, we bring to that effort all kinds of assumptions, habits of mind, and pre-existing knowledge and expectations. ALL THESE ELEMENTS TOGETHER make up one's:

Mental Set

You want to decide whether you believe that PRETTY PEOPLE are better singers. To answer this question, you recall all the people you've seen and heard sing lately, then judge how well they performed . This strategy is referred to as:

The Availability Heuristic

When you solve a CROSSWORD PUZZLE using certain rules of thumb, what type of problem solving are you engaged in?

Heuristic Problem Solving

What advantage is there to using a heuristic rather than an algorithm?

The heuristic is often more efficient.

What does research on the confirmation bias suggest about a person who believes that students at Learning-'R'-Us University are not very bright?

He will look for examples of stupid students at Learning-'R'-Us University /// When confronted with examples of smart students at Learning-'R'-Us University, He will play them down as very atypical /// Both A and C

Scott has been given a gift card to Best Buy for $500.00. He knows he wants to buy a Wii, but doesn't know what else he can buy. His best problem solving strategy would be:

Working Backward

Christine is an excellent game player, she likes to play both checkers and chess. In checkers she is more likely to use a _____ strategy, while in Chess she will probably use a _____ strategy.

Hill Climbing ... & ... Means ends Analysis

Daniel is a first time home owner, and is working with a realtor. The realtor asks him what he is looking for in home. What decision making strategy would he be most likely to use?

Compensatory Model

AFTER the Saints won the Superbowl, I said I know they would win. What type of strategy was I using?

Confirmation Bias

Sydney is a bit of a fanatic. She goes to the store to buy some Grey Poupon mustard and finds it in the gourmet foods section. However, she wants to be sure she has the BEST Grey Poupon at the BEST price, so she goes up and down every aisle looking on every shelf. What strategy is Sydney using?

Algorithm

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