What is meant by integration and does it occur primarily in the CNS or PNS?
Integration involves processing and interpreting sensory information and making decisions about motor output. Occurs in CNS.
Which subdivision of the PNS would be involved in relaying a "feeling of a full stomach" after a meal?
It would be relayed by the sensory "afferent" division.
Which system is involved with contracting muscles to lift your arm?
Somatic Nervous System-Motor-Efferent. This system controls movement of the skeletal muscles.
Which system is involved in an increasing heart rate?
Autonomic Nervous System-Motor-Efferent. PNS Controls heart rate.
Which type of neuroglia controls extra-cellular fluid environment around neuron cells in the CNS? PNS?
Astrocytes in CNS, Satellite Cells in the PNS.
Which two types of neuroglia form insulating coverages called myelin sheaths.
Oligodendryocytes in CNS and Schwann Cells in PNS
How is the nucleus within the brain different from a nucleus within a neuron?
In the brain it is a cluster of cell bodies, whereas the nucleus within each neuron is a larger organelle that as the control center of the cell.
What is the function of a myelin sheath?
Myelin sheaths protect, electrically insulate fibers and increase the speed of transmission of nerve impulses.
What structural and functional type of neuron is activated first when you burn your finger?
Unipolar (psuedounipolar) neurons that are sensory (afferent) neurons.
What structural and function type of neuron is activated to move your finger away from the source of heat?
Multipolar neurons that are motor "efferent" neurons.
For an open channel, what factors determine in which direction ions will move through the channel?
Concentration and electrical gradient together called the electrochemical gradient.
For which cation is there the greatest amount of leakage (through leakage channels) across the plasma membrane?
Comparing graded and action potentials - which is bigger?
Action potentials are bigger and travel farther. Graded potentials generally initiate action potentials.
Why does an action potential not get smaller as it propogates along an axon terminal?
An action potential is regenerated at each membrane patch.
Why is conduction of action potentials faster in myelinated rather than unmyleinated?
Because myelin allows the axon membrane between nodes to change voltage rapidly and allows current to flow only at widely spaced nodes.
What is a structure that joins two neurons in the electrical synapse?
What ions flow through chemically gated channels to produce IPSP? EPSP?
IPSP - K+ or Cl- EPSP - Na+ and K+
What types of neural circuits would give a prolonged output after a single input?
Reverberating circuits and parallel after discharge circuits both result in prolonged output.
What pattern of neural processing occurs when we blink as an object comes toward the eye?
Serial processing and the response is reflex arc.
What pattern of neural processing occurs when we smell freshly baked pie at Thanksgiving and also the odor of cooked turkey?
What part of the nervous system allows us to consciously control our skeletal muscles?
Somatic Nervous System
Which part of the nervous system regulates the activity of smooth muscles, cardiac muscles, and glands -those activities we generally can not control?
Autonomic Nervous System
Which glial cell lines the cavities of the brain and spinal cord, where they help circulate the cerbrospinal fluid?
Which glial cell is the most abundant and versatile, and aids in making exchanges between capillaries and neurons?
What is the difference between the clusters of cell bodies called nuclei and those known as ganglia?
Nuclei exist in the CNS, Ganglia in the PNS
Where are the main receptors or input regions found in neurons?
What is the difference between nerves and tracts?
Bundles of neuron processes are called tracts in the CNS and nerves in the PNS
What criterion is used to structurally classify neurons?
The number of processes extending from their cell body.
What membrane ion channels open and close in response to changes in the membrane potential?
What disease is directly related to demyelination?
What type of circuit is exemplified by impulses that travel from a single neuron of the brain, activate a hundred or more motor neurons in the spinal cord and excite thousands of skeletal muscle fibers?
What is the depolarization phase in the generation of an action potential?
Opening and then closing of the Na+ channels
The resting state of a neuron?
All voltage-gated Na+ and K+ channels are closed
What is the reploarization phase in an action potential?
Opening of potassium gates and the rushing out of K+
What is the absolute refractory period?
The sodium channels remain open
What is the phase in an action potential known as the "after hyperpolization"
Increased potassium efflux as a result of the sluggish closure of the potassium gates
What is the unique propogation process which occurs in myelinated axons?
The situation where an action potential either happens completely or NOT AT ALL
The all-or-none phenomenon
Indirect synaptic responses which are complex, prolonged, and often diffuse, as a result of the production of intracellular second messenger molecules
Rapid automatic responses to a stimulus in which the particular stimulus always produces the same motor response.
Numerous nerve impulses arriving at a synapse at closely timed intervals exert a cumulative effect?
Simultaneous stimulation of many terminals, distributed widely over the surface of a postsynaptic neuron?
An insufficient stimulus
Any stimulus above this intensity will result in an action potential in a neuron
Conducts impulses from CNS to skeletal muscles?
Somatic nervous system
Conducts impulses from CNS to internal organ muscles?
Autonomic Nervous System
Consists of brain and spinal cord?
Consists of nerves carrying impulses to and from brain and spinal cord?
Triggers neurotransmitter release
Presynaptic calcium influx
Separates presynaptic terminal from postsynaptic membrane?
Triggers voltage change in postsynaptic neuron
Binds to postsynaptic receptor/channel
Excites skeletal muscle?
Main neurotransmitter of sympathetic nervous system?
"Feel good" transmitter; deficient in Parkinson's disease?
"Mood" transmitter; target of Prozac to relieve depression?
Generally inhibitory; found thoughout CNS?
Peptides with inhibitory, opiate-like actions?
Skin, skeletal muscles and joints to CNS?
Somatic afferent fibers
Organs in the ventral body cavity to the CNS?
Viseral afferent fibers
CNS to skeletal muscles
Somatic motor fibers
CNS to smooth muscles, cardiac muscles and glands?
Viseral motor fibers
What is the most common neuron type in humans?
The sensory or afferent division of the peripheral nervous system transmits information from the ________ to the CNS?
Why does the interior of a nerve cell have a slight excess of a negative charge?
Potassium diffuses out of the cell.
The Nissl bodies seen in the neuron cell body represents which cellular organelle?
What best describes the membrane situation in the resting state in a neuron?
All the voltage-gated Na+ and K+ channels are closed
What lines the central cavities of the brain and spinal cord and provides a barrier between the CSF and nervous tissue?
Which of the following electrical currents occurs when a certain threshold is reached?
A potential of -90 mV is considered______?
During which phase of an action potential are voltage-gated K+ channels open while voltage-gated Na+ channels are closed?
Which of the following neurotransmitters acts as a natural opiate?
Spatial summation occurs when_________
multiple local potentials occur at different places on the same cell at the same time
What is true regarding IPSP's?
Postsynaptic membrane becomes more permeable to potassium and chloride
Which neuroglia is most responsible for the blood-brain barrier?
Which type of neuron is found in the retina of the eye?
Which of the following divisions of the nervous system is also known as the involuntary nervous system?
Autonomic Nervous System
Organelles for degradation in the axon are moved by_____?
Where do the axon collaterals emerge on a myelinated nerve?
From the Nodes of Ranvier
Which of the following membrane ion channels in the neuron are always open?
Which of the following substances plays the major role in generating the membrane potential of a neuron?
The sodium-potassium pump will________?
pump three sodium ions out of the cell for every two ions of potassium it brings into the cell
A neuron will not respond to a second stimulus of equal strength to the first stimulus to which it has already responded because ___________?
the neuron is in the absolute refractory period
Which voltage-gated channels are open during the absolute refractory period?
Which of the following conditions would cause synaptic potentiation?
Opening of NMDA (N-methyl-D-asparate) receptors
Which neurotransmitter is thought to be the most primitive?
Where do most action potentials originate?
What characterizes depolarization, the first phase of an action potential?
The membrane potential changes from a negative value to a positive value.
What characterizes repolarization, the second phase of the action potential?
Once the membrane depolarizes to a peak value of 30 mV, it repolarizes to its negative value of -70 mV
What event triggers the generation of an action potential?
The membrane potential must depolarize from the resting voltage of -70mV to a threshold of -55mV
What is the first change to occur in response to a threshold stimulus?
Voltage-gated Na+ channels change shape, and activation gates open.
The node to node "jumping" of a action potential along a myelinated sheath is called ___________?
Which of the following is a chemical class for neurotransmitters?
Peptides, Amino Acids, Gases and lipids.
What type of stimulus is required for an action potential to be generated?
Threshold Level Stimulus