~Dominican friar ~Chosen as new archbishop's jubilee's principal agent and hawker
~Special sale of indulgences that is better then normal indulgences because it treated future sins and promised complete absolution and remission of all sins.
Frederick the Wise (of Saxony)
~Frederick III, ruler of Saxony and an elector (choose HRE) ~Annoyed with Tetzel because he wanted to keep the money from his territory in his territory. If Tetzel sold indulgences, money would circulate
~Friar/monk, priest, composer, profession ~Translated old/new testaments into new high German ~Wrote "A Mighty Fortress is Our God" ~Created new high Germany
~Written by Martin Luther and pinned up on bulletin at Church in Wittenburg. ~Posted on Oct. 31st, the day before All Saint's Dya so many people would see it. ~Written in vernacular so everyone could read and spread it. ~Luther was later tried at Diet of Worms because of it.
~Peasants were excited that Luther promised Christian freedom ~So, they started pillaging, raiding, and burning monastaries. ~Luther was horrified and told German princes to show them no mercy. ~German armies slaughtered the peasants.
War of the Roses
~Dukes of York vs. Dukes of Lancaster ~Included Battle of Bosworth Field
Battle of Bosworth Field
~Last battle of the War of Roses. ~Sets England on new course by starting Reformation. ~Henry VI, Edward IV, and Richard III were all involved. Richard III died fighting in this battle.
~Respected not loved. ~From Tudor family, having ties to Yorks and Lancasters. ~1) Has to choose ministers from middle class ~2) Most nobles died in war and the ones who lived were unpowerful so he taxed them, and charged them dues, encouraged trade, and avoided war which made him rich ~3) Called court of the STAR CHAMBER, a secret, court-like setting where it was determined if people were challenging the king in which case they would be tortured. The used unpowerful nobles. ~Dies and England is left in peace and prosperity
~Devout catholic and detested Luther. ~Marries Catharine of Aragon hoping for boy, but is given girl, Mary, so Luther wants a divorce which is not approved by Charles V.
Catherine of Aragon / Charles V / Anne Boleyn
CATHERINE OF ARAGON~He married her and produced a girl, Mary, so wanted a divorce. ~Catharine didn't want divorce, so told nephew (Charles V) to dissaprove it. CHARLES V ~previously kidnapped pope ~Is told to disapprove divorce ~Sends Wossely to reject divorce. ANNE BOLEYN ~Second wife of Henry VIII and produces daughter Elizabeth. ~Was beheaded because of it.
~Called by Henry VIII ~Includes Act of Succession and Act of Supremacy.
Act of Succession
~King of England bows to no one (like pope) ~Henry's divorce is affirmed and he marries Anne of Boleyn.
Act of Supremacy
~Break with pope and catholic church. ~Henry becomes head of church of England (Anglican)
Order of rulers of Tudor Dynasty
1) Henry VII 2) Henry VIII 3) Edward VI 4) Mary 5) Elizabeth
~Chansler ~Henry VIII's best friend. ~Didn't support divorce. ~Was beaheaded for dissapproval.
Edward VI / Mary / Elizabeth
EDWARD VI ~Son of Jane Seymour (3rd wife) MARY ~Daughter of Catherine of Aragon ~"Bloody Mary" ELIZABETH ~Daughter of Anne of Boleyn ~No legitimate hier
~"Swiss Luther" ~Opposition to indulgences ~Pushes for end of "clerical celibacy" (no sex/marraige of priests)
Zwingli's Scripture Test
~Fasting, trans-subtantiation, pilgrimages, (pergatory not included) ~Creates civil war between Catholics and Protestants. ~1st fight Protestants win and say that each canoton decides what religion to follow. ~2nd fight Catholics win and execute Zwingli.
~Calvinism (dominant Protestant force that replaced Lutheranism) ~Inspired religious unrest in France, Scotland, and Netherlands. ~GENEVA invites Calvin to stay and lead them, so he does and draws up "catechism" government which includes predestination, elect, theocracy, and reordering society so outward society reflected inward belief.
~Men and women are by nature sinful, but God's grace will save some people.
~People who leave Geneva for France ~Civil war between Protestants and Catholics over it.
~Brought Calvinism to Scotland ~Church ruled by elders called Presbyter forming Presbyterian church. ~Presbyters ovethrew Scotish Queen, Mary Queen of Scots, and installed James VI, John's nephew at age1, to be Protestant on throne.
~a.k.a. Catholic Reformation where Catholics clean up own act. ~Pushes back against Protestantism. ~Begins in Spain and Spreads to Italy.
Ferdinand and Isabella
~Married and brought kingdoms to close alliance. FERDINAND ~Heir to Aragon ISABELLA ~Heir to the throne of Castile.
~Leader in Catholic reform movement. ~Founder og Society of Jesus. ~Creates new monastic order. ~Wrote "Spiritual Exercises" which was a day-by-day schedule of meditation, prayer, etc.
~Found superb schools through Europe and teachers were trained scholars. ~Prevented Protestantism from spreading including keeping Poland Catholic and sending missionaries to spread Catholicism. ~Convert non-Christians to Catholicism.
~Paul III and Paul IV ~Initiated reforms to strengthen and purify Catholic churches and to combat Protestantism.
~Called Council of Cardinals which was to investigate abuses of indulgences. ~Approved of Jesuits. ~Revived Inquisition to seek out and punish heresy. ~Calls Coucil of Trent to agree on religious doctrines (Church's interpretation was final and others were heretics and Christians needed good works and faith for salvation, going against Luther's opinion that salvation was earned alone.)