Biodiversity Test 3

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Bacteria causes about half of human diseases. Disease-causing bacteria known as ______

Pathogens

Cocci that occur in chains are known as ______ while cocci that occur in clusters are known as ______.

Streptococci....Staphylococci

Two competing hypothesis account for the origin of modern humans: the multiregional hypothesis and the "Out of Africa" hypothesis. Which of the following lines of evidence is largely supporting the "Out of Africa" hypothesis?

Molecular analysis of the "Y" chromosomes and mitochondrial DNA

Bacteria can poses different structures that help carry out their life's functions. Flagella are utilized for locomotion, while _____ are used for substrate attachment.

Pilli

Some bacteria may posses certain structures that promote survival under favorable conditions. Bacillus anthracis, the bacterium that causes anthrax, produces a thick protective coat called the ______, which can survive all sorts of trauma

Endospore

Rhodospseudomonas obtains its energy from sunlight but gets its carbon atoms from organic sources. Bdellovibrio acquires both energy and carbon from organic molecules. Rhodopseudomonas is an example of _______, while Bdellovibrio is an example of _______.

Photoheterotroph....Chemoheterotroph

_____ are proteins that bacterial cells secrete into their environment, while ______ are lipid components of the outer membrane of gramnegative bacteria are released when the cell dies.

Exotoxins...Endotoxins

The only group of prokaryotes with plantlike, oxygen generating photosynthesis is the _____

Cyanobacteria

You culture the dried soup from 4,000 year old cooking pot found in Egyptian tomb and obtain a distinctive species of prokaryote. You immerse a test tube of these bacteria in boiling water for several hours, but the colony grows back. This species is probably ______.

Endospore forming

Which statement represents the Theory of Endosymbiosis?

The organelles were originally independent prokaryotic organisms.

In primary endosymbiosis, the endosymbiont is a ______that is eaten by a _______. In secondary endosymbiosis, the endosymbiont is a ______ that is eaten by a ______.

Prokaryote....Eukaryote....Eukaryote....Eukaryote...

Which of the following correctly represents the most likely sequence of the evolutions of plants, from earliest to most recent?

Bryophytes, seedless vascular plants, gymnosperms, angiosperms.

The incomplete decay of dead plants during the Carboniferous period led to

The formation of coal.

During the Carboniferous period, photosynthesis is immense swamp forests removed ______ from the atmosphere, which produced a drier, cooler global climate and promoted the success of ______

Carbon dioxide...Seed plants

______ move and feed by means of pseudopodia, which are temporary extensions of the cell.

Diatoms

Moisture is required for fertilization in some plant groups. One plant group that does not require moisture for fertilization includes the _______.

Gymnosperms

True or False?
Bryophytes, Pterophytes, and Lycophytes have lignified cell walls.

False

In the life cycle of a moss, the zygote develops into the ______, which then produces haploid spores via _____.

Sporophyte....Meiosis

Fruits are the mature ______ of angiosperms

Ovaries

During sexual reproduction of a fungus, the cytoplasms of two different mating types fuse when their hyphae meet. Even though the cytoplasms have fused the nuclei still remain separate. This multinucleated cytoplasmic mass is known as _______.

Heterokaryotic

Molds and yeasts are examples of

Imperfect Fungi

______are the only fungi with flagellated spores.

Chytrids

Plants, such as pine trees and flowers, have two types of vascular tissues._______ includes dead cells that microscopic pipes conveying water and mineral up from the roots, while_______ consists entirely of living cells that distribute sugars throughout the plant.

Xylem... Phloem

Gas exchange in most land plants occurs through structures called _____

Stomata

As growth-producing region of cell division, known as ______, is found near the tips of stems and roots.

Apical Meristem

Animals probably evolved from _____

Fungi

Which of the following is considered a likely explanation for the events of the Cambrian explosion?

Complex predator-prey relationships and increased atmospheric oxygen levels promoted animal diversification.

Which of the following are included among the Eumetazoans?

Sea stars (Echinodermata), Earthworms (Annelida), Sea anemones (Cnidaira)

Which of the following animals displays radial symmetry?

A sea anemone

______ are soil-dwellers; _______; are mostly marine; and _______ are mostly freshwater.

Earthworms....polychaetes.....leeches

A true coelom is best described as

a body cavity that is fully lined by tissues derived from the mesoderm.

Which of the following statements about deuterostromes is true?

The opening that forms deuterostome gastrulation becomes the anus.

The ______ is a flagellated cell that sweeps water through a sponge's body.

Choanocyte

Flatworms (Platyhelminthes) are __________ and typically have a __________________________.

Bilaterally symmetrical...gastrovascular cavity with one opening.

Animals that are segmented and have joined appendages and an exoskeleton are members of the phylum _________.

Athropoda

Which adaptation is a key characteristic of annelids that greatly increases their flexibility and mobility?

Segmentation

Complete metamorphosis is considered to occur in a species

If a population's stage separates the larval and adult stages.

Which of the following features is unique to chordates?

A notochord

The vertebrate group that describes all jawed vertebrates with two pairs of limbs is the _______.

Tetrapods

Jaws appear to have evolved from

Skeletal rods that supported gill slits near the mouth.

Natural populations of lemurs are found only in ______

Madagascar.

The species most clearly related to humans is the ______

Chimpanzee

Which of the following statements best describes how flight and feathers are related in the evolution of birds?

The first feathered ancestors to birds did not fly, but may have used their feathers for insulation and display.

According to the fossil record, the genus Homo first arose in

Africa

Compared to other primates, anthropoids have a

Fully opposable thumb.

Prehensile tails are found among

New world monkeys

Human skin color is produced by the pigment

Melanin.

The first tetrapod was probably a fish with

A neck and four limbs that raised its head above water.

Human skin color likely represents a locally adapted compromise between

The need to block UV radiation the destroys folate (folic acid) and the needs to synthesize Vitamin D.

Which of the following is a characteristic that enhances flight in birds?

Pneumatic bones, few tail vertebrate, and absence of teeth.

One difference between gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria is

Gram-positive bacteria have more peptidoglycan in their cell walls.

Chemoautotrophic bacteria obtain their carbon from ________ and their energy from ________.

CO2....reactions involving inorganic chemicals.

A slimy layer of bacteria coating a surface is also known as a ________.

Biofilm

Evidence for the relatively close relationship of archaea to eukaryotes includes

The fact that both have several kinds of relatively complex RNA polymerases.

Unlike archaean and eukaryote cell walls, bacterial cell walls contain a unique substance called

Peptidoglycan

________ are heterotrophic protists; ________ are photoautotrophic protists.

Protozoans....Algae

In what way does the green alga Ulva resemble land plants?

It has a complex life cycle with alternation between multicellular diploid and haploid generations.

Which of the following options lists the events of protist evolution in the correct order, according to current science?

Mitochondria and then chloroplasts evolved through primary endosymbiosis; later, algae were incorporated into several other groups of protists through secondary endosymbiosis.

The main ingredient of oil is

Algae

Typical animal embryos have ________, or external cell layer, and ________, which lines the digestive tract.

An Ectoderm......and endoderm

Which of the following is true of a typical animal?

Homeotic genes play important roles in the development of the organism from zygote to adult.

Which of the following is considered a likely explanation for the events of the Cambrian explosion?

Complex predator-prey relationships and increased atmospheric oxygen levels promoted animal diversification.

Organisms with true radial symmetry....

Do not have a distinct head region and tend to be sedentary or passive drifters.

Which of the following is a typical characteristic of molluscs?

A rasping organ called the radula.

Which adaptation is a key characteristic of annelids that greatly increases their flexibility and mobility?

Segmentation

Animals that are segmented and have jointed appendages and an exoskeleton are members of the phylum ______

Arthropoda

The traits that are unique to insects and have probably contributed to their diversity and success include

Flight, short generation times, and complex life cycles including complete metamorphosis.

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