Which of the following best exemplifies an activity that promotes flexibility?
C) Weight lifting
D) Jumping rope
For maximum benefits, cardiorespiratory endurance episodes should be sustained for at least
A) 20 minutes.
B) 40 minutes.
C) 1 hour.
D) 2 hours.
Chris has been competing all day in a track competition and is now ready for the 100-meter dash. Although he feels tired, which of the following high-energy muscle compounds can he rely on for quick energy in this event?
C) Creatine phosphate
D) Adenosine diphosphate
During physical performance, what is the role of creatine phosphate?
A) Removal of lactic acid
B) Transfer of energy to make ATP
C) Removal of nitrogen waste products
D) Transfer of phosphate to muscle fiber
What substance contains the chemical energy that drives immediate muscle contraction?
D) Fatty acids
What dietary nutrients are most effective at raising muscle glycogen concentrations?
D) Chromium and iron
Which of the following substances increases in muscles during intense exercise?
During the first 20 minutes of moderate exercise, the body uses about
A) 50% of the available fat.
B) 10% of the available water.
C) 90% of the available protein.
D) 20% of the available glycogen.
When a marathon runner experiences the phenomenon known as "hitting the wall," what nutrient is most likely depleted?
D) Fatty acids
What type of meal and time of its ingestion promote the most rapid repletion of glycogen stores after physical activity?
A) Mixed meal taken within 4 hours
B) Mixed meal taken within 30 minutes
C) High-carbohydrate meal taken within 2 hours
D) High-carbohydrate meal taken within 15 minutes
Which of the following is a property of conditioned muscles?
A) They can store more glycogen
B) They are more efficient at converting fat to glucose
C) They contain fewer mitochondria due to increased glucose utilization
D) They rely less on fat breakdown and more on glucose oxidation for energy
Which of the following represents current knowledge of the role of vitamin and mineral supplements in physical performance?
A) When taken right before an event, they have been shown to benefit performance
B) Moderate amounts have been shown to improve the performance of most elite athletes
C) They may be beneficial for athletes who struggle to meet their energy requirements
D) Except perhaps for iron, they are needed in high amounts to meet the needs of athletes exposed to hot and humid weather conditions
What nutrient becomes depleted most rapidly during physical exercise?
In the endurance athlete, the first priority of nutrient repletion should be
Which of the following is a benefit of glucose polymer sports drinks as compared with sugar-containing drinks?
A) They supply more energy per gram of carbohydrate
B) They require less digestion and therefore are absorbed faster into the circulation
C) They attract less water in the GI tract and thus allow more water to remain in circulation
D) They are absorbed much more slowly and therefore provide a more even carbohydrate load to the body
What is the chief adverse effect from drinking a carbonated beverage before engaging in athletic activity?
A) The carbonic acid inhibits fluid absorption
B) The bubbles induce chronic burping and so inhibit performance
C) The bubbles induce feelings of fullness quickly and so limit fluid intake
D) The carbonic acid promotes gastroesophageal reflux leading to upper GI discomfort
What is the recommended composition of the postgame meal of the athlete?
Which of the following is a feature of chromium supplements in physical performance?
A) Chromium from ginseng shows high bioavailability
B) Athletes may obtain sufficient chromium from green leafy vegetables and legumes
C) Supplements of chromium chloride enhance free fatty acid release but inhibit fatty acid oxidation
D) Most recent studies on chromium picolinate supplementation show no favorable effects on strength or lean body mass
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of caffeine use in physical activity?
A) It slows depletion of muscle glycogen
B) It often induces stomach upset and diarrhea
C) It acts as a physiological and psychological stimulant
D) It is permitted in moderation by the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA)