5 Written Questions
5 Matching Questions
- circadian rhythms
- a A vascular nonflowering plant (commonly known as a conifer) in which seeds are "naked"—collected in a cone and not protected by an ovary. The dispersion of their spermatozoids often relies on wind.
- b Instinctual behavior in which social bonds are formed during early development. Typically used with the example of a newly hatched bird or other animal identifying and treating the first moving object it sees as its mother.
- c Behavior cycles that depend on time of day.
- d A situation in which the concentration of solutes in a solution is higher than what it contains. For example, a sodium solution of 10 percent would be hypertonic to an animal cell (with a sodium concentration of about 0.9 percent), causing water to leave the cell by osmosis.
- e The center of the central nervous system. The brain coordinates the processes of the body. It is composed of various distinct regions, all of which have different functions, including the cerebrum, cerebellum, medulla oblongata, and hypothalamus.
5 Multiple Choice Questions
- Animals that have developed fat and fur, hair, or feathers in order to retain heat produced by metabolic activities. Also known as endothermic. Warm-blooded animals are able to thrive in various climates, because they are minimally affected by environmental fluctuations in temperature.
- The broadest category of biological taxonomy.
- Circular DNA molecules found in prokaryotes.
- Bodily structures that developed in the past but no longer serve any function for an organism.
- One in a class of plant hormones that stimulates (among other things) cell elongation, secondary tissue growth, and fruit development.
5 True/False Questions
aphotic zone → Literally, zone without light. The aphotic zone is part of the marine pelagic zone and begins 600 feet below the surface of the ocean. Only chemosynthetic organisms, scavengers, and predators are able to survive in this habitat.
linked genes → Epidermal plant cells found in pairs surrounding the stomata of leaves. By increasing or decreasing their size, guard cells regulate gas exchange by opening and closing individual stoma.
minerals → Inorganic molecules required by the body to carry out life processes. Important minerals are iron, a necessary component of hemoglobin; iodine, which is essential for making thyroid hormone; and calcium, which is required by the bones and for many cellular processes.
Calvin cycle → A phenomenon in which two alleles of the same gene are fully expressed in the phenotype when both are present in a heterozygote. Blood type is an example of codominance.
mutation → An error in the sequence of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that in turn affects the production of proteins. There are two main types of mutations: substitution mutations and frameshift mutations. A substitution mutation occurs when one nucleotide is replaced by another; these mutations can range from ineffectual to drastic, depending on how the new nucleotide changes the protein coded for. Frameshift mutations occur when a nucleotide is either inserted or deleted into the code; these mutations are always drastic and often fatal, since an insertion or deletion will affect every codon in a particular genetic sequence by throwing the entire three-by-three codon frame out of whack.