The Nervous System

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sensory input, integration, motor output

What are the general functions of the Nervous system? (3)

Sensory Input

this general function of the NS monitors internal and external environment.

integration

this general function of the NS interprets incoming information

motor output

this general function of the NS responds to effectors.

effectors

these things respond. Examples include organs, muscles, and glands.

CNS and PNS

what are the two divisions of the NS?

CNS

this division of the NS includes the brain and the spinal cord

CNS

this division of the NS functions in receiving, integrating, and responding to sensory information

PNS

this division of the NS includes all nerve tissue outside of the CNS

sensory (afferent) and motor (efferent)

what are the two divisions of the PNS

sensory (afferent)

this division of the PNS functions in sending sensory information into the CNS from receptors in organs

motor (efferent)

this division of the PNS carries motor commands from the CNS to effectors in muscles, organs, and glands.

somatic autonomic

what are the two divisions of the efferent NS

SNS

this division of the efferent NS controls skeletal muscles.

SNS

this division of efferent NS is voluntary or involuntary

ANS

this division of the efferent NS controls smooth muscles, cardiac muscles, and gland secretions.

ANS

this division of the efferent NS is involuntary.

sympathetic parasympatheic

what are the two divisions of the autonomic NS

sympathetic

this division of the autonomic NS increases organ activity during stress, emergency, or fight or flight

sympathetic

this division of the autonomic NS uses energy

parasympathetic

this division of the autonomic NS decreases organ activity to calm and reduce stress

parasympathetic

this division of the autonomic NS conserves energy and restores energy

Neurons

what are the functional units of communication in the NS?

Neurons

this functional unit of the NS carries information as electrical impulses from one body part to another.

Cell body

what is the main part of the neuron?

perikaryon

what fills the cell body?

organelles

what does the cell body contain?

cell body

what part of the neuron is the production site for chemical messengers, which relay information from neuron to neuron?

neurotransmitters

chemical messengers

dendrites

what are branched processes that extend from the cell body and terminate at the dendrite spines?

dendrites

what part of the neuron recieves impulses from neurons in the CNS and receptors in the PNS

axon

what are long fiber extensions that carry impulses away from the cell body?

axon hillock

this is the part of the axon where it attaches a cell body to an axon

axoplasm

what part of the axon is enclosed by the axolemma?

telodendria

axons branch into collaterals which branch into this

synaptic terminal

this is where telodendria terminate

synapse

this is a part of the neuron where a neuron communicates with another cell.

presynaptic cell

this is the part of the synapse where the sending of the message is located

postsynaptic cell

this is the part of the synapse where cells receive the message

synaptic cleft

this is the part of the synapse which is a small space separating the pre and post synaptic cell

synaptic membranes

this part of synapse releases/recieves neurotransmitters

synaptic vesicles

this part of synapse contains neurotransmitters

acetylcholine

this neurotransmitter is the most common neurotransmitter.
it is found in the brain, spinal cord, and neuromuscular junction

dopamine

this neurotransmitter regulates muscle movement by inhibiting antagonist muscles. it is found in motor areas of the brain.

serotonin

this neurotransmitter affects attention levels and emotional states.

structural and functional

what are the two types of classifications of neurons

anaxonic bipolar unipolar multipolar

what are the 4 types of structural classifications of neurons

anaxonic

this types of structural neurons are small and star shaped (dendrites and axons appear the same)

bipolar

this types of structural neurons short cells with 2 fibers
(1 branched dendrite and 1 branched axon)

bipolar

this types of structural neurons are found in special sense organs of sight, smell, and sound.

bipolar

this types of structural neurons functions in relaying info from receptors to other neurons

unipolar

this types of structural neurons has dendrites and axons that combine to for 1 long fiber

unipolar

this types of structural neurons are found as sensory neurons in the PNS

multipolar

this types of structural neurons contains 2+ dendrites and 1 axon

multipolar

this types of structural neurons is most common in CNS and can be found as motor neurons in PNS>

sensory, motor, interneurons

what are the 3 types of functional classifications of neurons

sensory (afferent)

this type of functional classification of neurons contains unipolar neurons that deliver information from sensory receptors to CNS>

somatic visceral

what are the two types of sensory (afferent) neurons

somatic

this types of sensory neuron delivers information about the external environment to the CNS for processing

visceral

this type of sensory neuron delivers info about about internal enviroment

motor (efferent)

this functional classification of neurons contains multipolar neurons. it carries responses from the CNS to the PNS effectors

somatic viseral

what are the two types of motor neurons

somatic

this type of motor neuron sends a command to skeletal muscles

viseral

this type of motor neuron sends commands to smooth and cardiac muscles

interneurons

these types of structural neurons are made up of multipolar neurons in the CNS. they integrate incoming sensory information and coordinate outgoing motor response.

neuroglina

these are cells that support neurons both structurally and functionally.

ependymal astrocytes oligodendrocytes microglia

what are the cells of the neuroglia

ependymal

these cells of the CNS neuroglia are specialized epithelial cells that line the free surface of the spinal cord and brain.

ependymal

these cells of the CNS neuroglia secrete cerebrospinal fluidsand acts as a shock absorber

cerebrospinal fluid

this fluid circulates around the brain and the spinal cord and circulates wastes and nutrients

astrocytes

these cells of the CNS neuroglia: blood brain barrier, permeability, structure and framework and stabilization

microglia

these cells of the CNS neuroglia are incharge of phagocytes and search out and engulf pathogens

oligodendrocytes

these cells of the CNS neuroglia bind together groups of axons and help to speed up nerves impulses. they create myelin

myelin

layer of cell membrane that forms a fatty coating of insulation

myelin sheath

this prevents short circuits and increases the speed of the impulse

satellite schwann

what are the neuroglia of the PNS?

white matter

when myelinated axons appear white they are called

satellite

these cells of the PNS neuroglia support and repairare similar to astrocytes

schwann

these cells of the PNS are similar to oligodendrocytes

multiple sclerosis

this is an auto-immune disease where micrglia cells attack oligodendrocytes which causes disruption in nerve impulses

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