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It has been suggested that 10-14% of people have the potential of becoming alcohol dependent

True

Although Dr. Marton's review of the research literature showed a 50% increase in breast cancer for moderate drinkers compared to non-drinkers, there are a number of reasons why our understanding of the relationship between moderate drinking and breast cancer is less certain than it is for cardiovascular disease.

True

The alcohol content of various wines varies greatly

True

In terms of coronary heart disease (CHD)

Both wine consumption and overall alcohol consumption are negative CHD correlates, Wine consumption has a stronger corelation with CHD than alcohol in generaland overall alcohol consumption are negative CHD correlates

Lipase is an enzyme that removes lipids from the blood

True

Alcohol consumption has been found to be related to an increase in breast cancer risks for women.

True

About 90% of women who are active alcoholics during pregnancy will deliver a child who clearly suffers from FAS.

False

The earliest documented wine production in what is now the United States

Was done by French Huguenots in the 1500s in/around Jacksonville, Florida

In the earliest, ancient Mediterranean civilizations wine was the first drink of the common citizen.

False

Wine provides about how many calories per four-ounce serving?

100

Medical researchers define moderate alcohol consumption as about how many four-ounce glasses of wine daily?

1-2

Demographic studies have shown that wine drinkers are better educated and earn more than non-wine drinkers.

True

Charlemagne, King of the Franks (768-814), crowned Holy Emperor of Rome in AD 800,decreed that in making wine, grapes should not be stomped by foot nor should wine be stored in animal skins

True

Safe levels of alcohol consumption

Differ for men and women

Excessive drinking can lead to hemorrhagic stroke

True

It is believed that wine was invented about 1000 years ago.

False

Polyphenols/flavonoids in wine

are antioxidants, inhibit blood clotting

Although wine has a 4000-year history of therapeutic use, it is not considered useful in today's hospital setting in the U.S.

False

Which of the following have been found to lower the prevalence of coronary heart disease?

wine and fruit consumption

Some acknowledge the apparent health benefits of moderate alcohol consumption, but hesitate to discuss them as they fear this may lead some that may become alcohol dependent to start consuming alcohol

True

Order the following alcoholic beverages according to their typical phenol content (1 = highest)

1. Red wine 2. white wine 3. beer 4. spirits

At what blood alcohol concentration do most people perceive the maximum relaxation?

.05%

The research reviewed by Dr. Keith Marton showed that cardiovascular mortality increased with heavy alcohol use and that moderate drinkers have a reduced risk of cardiovascular mortality compared to non-drinkers.

True

Scholars who have studied the origins of alcohol abuse agree that the American pattern of prohibiting exposure to alcoholic beverages until age 21 is one of the most effective ways to prevent alcohol abuse.

False

Boffetta's and Garfinkel's study showed that at three or more drinks per day there is an increased risk of death for drinkers compared to non-drinkers, particularly for liver cirrhosis.

False

Fibrinogen is a blood protein than enhances coagulation.

True

Cabernet Franc ripens faster than Cabernet Sauvignon and is therefore more important in cooler regions such as Michigan.

True

Which of the following is considered the classical white grape/varietal of Germany and Alsace?

Riesling

Which of the following statements are correct in regard to Michigan, grapes, wine, and wineries (2005 data).

Michigan is the fourth largest grape growing state

Which of the following two varietals would we expect to produce a fuller, fatter, and richer wine?

Chardonnay

The largest number of wine grapes belong to

Proles Occidentalis

The most famous blend that makes use of Grenache Noir is Châteauneuf-du-Pape

True

Muscat is an ancient grape, considered to be the grape that has been cultivated for wine the longest.

True

You are about to be served a Riesling wine. It is reasonable to expect a wine with crisp, fruity, acidity.

True

"Merlot UC Davis 18" is an example of a clone

True

Sauvignon Blanc wines are usually NOT aged.

True

Grape wine is a wine produced by normal fermentation

True

More often than not a place of origin is typically required on a wine label

True

A Crackling Wine is a sparkling wine with more than "normal" levels of carbonation.

True

Vermouth is a type of aperitif wine

True

Carbonated Grape Wine is

a wine that has been made effervescent with carbon dioxide NOT from secondary fermentation of the wine within a closed container, tank or bottle; a wine that has been mechanically carbonated

The same wine may have very different labels in different countries

True

Which of the following is TRUE regarding wine labels in the USA?

A branded name is required unless the wine is not sold under a 'Brand Name';
If no 'brand' is used on the label, the label must list the name of the bottler or packer
or the name of the person for whom the wine was bottled, packed or distributed

Berry wine is fruit wine produced from berries

True

Dessert Wine as a class of wine

tends to have higher alchol content than Table Wine

Great wines are distinguished from ordinary wines by their greater complexity, harmony, and the power to stimulate the emotions.

True

A winetaster who is evaluating the quality of a wine will take time to notice - among other things - if the wine has a lot of odors and flavors or just a few, how well the individual parts fit together, and if it pleases him or her.

True

Winetasting focuses on a relatively narrow range of existing colors.

False

In wine usage, _______________ refers to the odors which come from the grape and _______________ is used for smells that come from fermentation and aging in oak and bottle.

aroma, bouquet

Blind tastings - in which the wines are identified only by a letter or numerical code - are designed to eliminate stimulus errors which occur when irrelevant criteria are used to judge wines.

True

Refer to the label De Loach Vineyards Estate Bottled Russian River Valley Gewürztraminer 1987 Early Harvest. Given that "residual sugar 1.2% by wt" is about 1.2 grams per 100 ml, this wine should taste sweet to

about 50% of people

Which of the winetasting activities listed below is not done to enhance a taster's ability to esperience the wine's odors?

hold the wine against a white background

What sensation would you expect in your mouth when the stimulus tannin in the wine is low or absent?

smooth

In white table wines, this color is a sign that the wine has been exposed to too much air in production or has been bottle aged too long

brown

Serious wine tasters do not smoke during tastings and do not come to them wearing perfume, after-shave, or with recently-brushed teeth.

true

When wine is aged in oak barrels, the following may occur:

Alcohol and water evaporate through the sides of the barrel, concentrating the wine

Some oxygen dissolves in the wine, allowing oxygen-dependent maturation reactions to occur, albeit slowly

Color, odor, and flavor components are extracted from the wood

Tannins from the wood are extracted into the wine

Because most of the world's white table wines emphasize the aroma of the grapes and the malolactic fermentation (MLF) reduces fruitiness, most winemakers take precautions to prevent the MLF altogether in these wines.

true

Grappa can be produced when press juice is fermented and then distilled.

True

American oak barrels will impart more oak or vanilla flavor to wines than will European oak barrels.

true

Which of the following statements are correct?

Sulfites are produced naturally during fermentation

If sulfites are at 10ppm or higher the must be labeled as containing sulfites

You lost your job when Château Prestigious Wine Cellars folded because its first year cash flows were gobbled up by the owner's high-living son-in-law. Luckily, you have been hired by the neighboring wine cellar, Chateau Very Ordinary, and asked to project their cash flows. Based on your extensive knowledge of the white wine making process, you calculate that they could expect to first earn income from the sale of their Jus' Plain Mountain Chablis wines about _____ months after the harvest.

3-5

Free-run juice has more sugar and less acid and tannin than press-run juice because press juice is extracted at higher pressures from must containing a higher proportion of stems, skins, and seeds.

true

Wines of 2-3% residual sugar can be made by slowing down their fermentations before all the sugar has been used up by chilling them at about 4-8° Brix and then centrifuging to remove the cold-inactivated yeast.

true

For premium wines, a warmer climate is normally preferred over a cooler climate.

false

Which procedure listed below would you not expect to be done before fermentation of Chardonnay?

cold stabilization

You are preparing a plate of appetizers for dinner. You will serve a dry Gewürztaminer with the appetizers. You do not include green apple slices on the plate because __________________________________________.

eating the apple will interfere with the acid in the wine.

It is recommended practice to wash your hands prior to tasting wines.

true

According to Gregg Solomon's research, wine tasting experts were no better than wine tasting novices in identifying wine attributes.

false

What people often describe as flavors have significant odor (smell) elements.

true

White varietal wine whose wines acquire "subtle, oily scents" as they age.

White (Johannisberg) Riesling

White varietal wine whose grapes are used to make Champagne and White Burgundy wines in France.

Chardonnay

Which of the following are considered part of white wines' structural elements?

Acidity

Astringency

Bitterness

Body

Sugar-to-Acid Balance

Consider the notion of spectrum of flavor strength. Rank order the following wines in the order of DECREASING (strongest first) anticipated flavor strength given the typical varietal characteristics.

__2__
Gewurztraminer
__5__
Chardonnay
__4__
Sauvignon Blanc
__3__
Riesling
__1__
Muscat
__6__
Chenin Blanc

White varietal wine on the list with the weakest flavor.

Chenin Blanc

Grapes for this white varietal wine rank with French Colombard as one of the most commonly planted varieties in California.

Chardonnay

In California red grapes for varietal table wine making are harvested at higher "degrees Brix" and lower total acids than are white grapes for varietal table wine making.

true

Match the following growing condition characteristic with the correct (relative) color and pH.

__2__
Cool ConditionsWarm Conditions
__1__
Cool Conditions

1.
Lower pH (reddish tint).
2.
Higher pH (purple tint).

Grapes that grow in the shade, compare to those that grow in the sun

Ripen slower and have less color

The decision to make a particular style of wine dictates the choice of grape variety as specific varietals have specific characteristics.

true

On the average, the overall process of making red wines from grape to bottle takes longer than the overall process of making white wines.

true

Pinot Noir has naturally low concentrations of lighter pigments and is low in tannins, so California winemakers commonly collect the stems at the crusher and add them to Pinot Noir fermentations to produce premium wines.

false

The juice of Zinfandel and most other red wine grapes is

colorless

Its inherent qualities make Pinot Noir a good candidate for Blanc de Noirs wine production.

true

One thing a grower or winemaker does not have to worry about in Pinot Noir production is using the right clone.

false

The same viticultural practices that produce the best flavor, also produce the best color.

true

The higher alcohol contents and stronger odors of red wines, when compared to white wines, might lead you to have more olfactory fatigue while tasting red wines versus white wines?

true

Descriptors from the floral and tropical fruit segments of the aroma wheel are used less often for red table wines than they are for white table wines.

true

If tasters wait 40 seconds or more between sip the effect of tannins is red wines

is lessened

Most vegetative/herbaceous red wine on the list.

Cabernet Sauvignon

When off odors, particularly the acetaldehyde odor of oxidation, predominate in a wine.

the wine is likely dead

Used for sparkling wine production in California and France.

pinot noir

Which red table wine on the list below would you predict would have the darkest color and most tannin? It also can have an aroma of fresh ground black pepper. All are from the same vintage.

syrah

Refer to the five wines marked A, B, C, D, and E in the article "Napa Pinot Noirs Still Rank at the Top" (page 177) from the SAN FRANCISCO CHRONICLE, May 8, 1991. Which of the sound wines would you predict to have the shortest aging life in the bottle?

c

A California wine made from Pinot Noir grapes with warmer fermentation temperatures and oak aging would be?

a Burgundian-style wine

Which sensory change on the list below would not not expect as a fine bottle of Cabernet Sauvignon ages?

The total acid content increases.

From the Rhône Valley of France

syrah

The most commonly made blush varietal wine in California starts with this grape.

Zinfandel

What element of red wines will probably cause you to have palate fatigue if tasting many red wines?

The astringency from tannins

Most likely to be vinified by carbonic maceration.

Gamay

Grown in the best vineyards of Bordeaux, France.

Cabernet Sauvignon

Which odor descriptors would you expect to find in a bottle of Napa Valley Cabernet Sauvignon that was spoiled by vinegar bacteria?

acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate

A fruity raspberry aroma is typical of this variety when young; originally from Italy.

Zinfandel

Which sensory change on the list below would not not expect as a fine bottle of Cabernet Sauvignon ages?

The total acid content increases.

From the Rhône Valley of France

syrah

The most commonly made blush varietal wine in California starts with this grape.

Zinfandel

What element of red wines will probably cause you to have palate fatigue if tasting many red wines?

The astringency from tannins

Most likely to be vinified by carbonic maceration.

gamay

Grown in the best vineyards of Bordeaux, France.

Cabernet Sauvignon

Which odor descriptors would you expect to find in a bottle of Napa Valley Cabernet Sauvignon that was spoiled by vinegar bacteria?

acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate

A fruity raspberry aroma is typical of this variety when young; originally from Italy.

Zinfandal

What element of red wines will probably cause you to have palate fatigue if tasting many red wines?

The astringency from tannins

Which sensory change on the list below would not not expect as a fine bottle of Cabernet Sauvignon ages?

The total acid content increases.

The most commonly made blush varietal wine in California starts with this grape.

Zinfandel

Which red table wine on the list below would you predict would have the darkest color and most tannin? It also can have an aroma of fresh ground black pepper. All are from the same vintage.

syrah

The most commonly made red varietal wine in California starts with this grape.

Cabernet Sauvignon

Descriptors from the floral and tropical fruit segments of the aroma wheel are used less often for red table wines than they are for white table wines.

true

A California wine made from Pinot Noir grapes with warmer fermentation temperatures and oak aging would be?

a Burgundian-style wine

Most vegetative/herbaceous red wine on the list.

Cabernet Sauvignon

From the Rhône Valley of France

syrah

Which odor descriptors would you expect to find in a bottle of Napa Valley Cabernet Sauvignon that was spoiled by vinegar bacteria?

acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate

Grown in the best vineyards of Bordeaux, France.

Cabernet Sauvignon

Most likely to be vinified by carbonic maceration.

gamay

A fruity raspberry aroma is typical of this variety when young; originally from Italy.

zinfandel

Used for sparkling wine production in California and France.

pinot noir

If tasters wait 40 seconds or more between sip the effect of tannins is red wines

is lessened

The higher alcohol contents and stronger odors of red wines, when compared to white wines, might lead you to have more olfactory fatigue while tasting red wines versus white wines?

true

To emulate the characteristics of grapes produced under conditions in France's Champagne district, ________
_____ grape growing regions are preferred and the grapes are harvested ___
____ wherever méthode chamenoise wines are made.

cool, early

The _________________ is a method of producing sparkling wines in which the wines undergo their second fermentation in bottles which are then opened and their pooled wine filtered to remove the yeast, receive a dosage, and be re-bottled.

transfer

The sugar is adjusted in the méthode champenoise after the yeast is removed. This step is called:

dosage

Reserve wines

are blends of still wines from previous vintages

are added to cuvées

help minimize vintage-to-vintage variation

Which of the following are added along with an actively growing yeast culture to start the prise de mousse?

Both sugar and yeast nutrients

Every sparkling wine is a Champagne

false

The neck of the bottles are frozen in the ______
_______ step in order to ________
______ collected by _____
________.

disgorging, trap the yeast, riddling

The process of collecting the yeast for removal is:

riddling

While Dom Pérignon, Cellarmaster at the Benedictine Abbey in Hautvilliers from 1668 to 1715 is often credited with the discovery of Champagne, the residents of Limoux fiercely disagree with this. They They claim that their own monks of the famed Abbey of St. Hilaire discovered "Champagne" in 1531.

true

Pressing whole clusters is one fruit-handling procedure which was originally developed to minimize color extraction from dark skinned Pinot Noir grapes.

true

Which spice would you not expect to find in a sparkling wines but would be anticipated in (red) table wines?

black pepper

Under appearance, the bubble display of sparkling wines is evaluated and tasters look for small bubbles that evolve from the wine over a long time and form a smooth, white foam on the surface of the wine.

true

When evaluating sparkling wines, a rapid release of carbonation and large bubbles are more highly prized/desired than small bubbles and a slow release.

false

When evaluating sparkling wines, varietal aromas are

not expected

The ____________ in sparkling wines are carried out of the wine and into the air by the carbon dioxide in the wine.

odorants

Which of the following would be most desired in a sparkling wine?

marked acidity

When the sparkling wine aroma wheel is compared to the more general wine aroma wheel, we find more spicy, floral, and fruity odors suggested for sparkling wines and fewer vegetative and herbaceous odors.

true

It is not necessary to __
__ sparkling wines to increase the release of volatile odor components in sparkling wine.

swirl

If a sparkling wine has a deep color, this suggests that the wine may be sweet.

true

Descriptive terms for champagne bouquet would be found in all but one of these categories on the sparkling wine aroma wheel? Please identify the descriptor least likely to be used in describing sparkling wines.

fruity

The degree and type of flor development decides which type of Sherry will be produced

true

Wine spirits used in fortified wines are chosen based on their __
__ as they need to be compatible with the wine being fortified.

flavors

Botrytis produces an anti-fungal that kills yeast and fermentation may stop before the wine has reached sufficient/desired levels of alcohol

true

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