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You respond to a nursing home's call regarding an older patient who fell. During your assessment, you note injuries that are not consistent with the mechanism described. You should:

transport the patient and report your suspicions

When treating an anxious and uncooperative patient with chest pain, you state, "If you don't settle down, I am going to put a large IV in your arm." What is this an example of?

Assault

You respond to a call for an 16-year-old boy who injured his arm. As you are assessing the child, he tells you that he does not want you to touch him. His mother tells you to begin treatment and transport the child to the hospital if necessary. What should you do?

Continue your assessment and transport if necessary

The concept of standard precautions assumes that:

every patient is potentially infected or can spread an organism that could be transmitted in the health care setting

After several years in EMS, you begin to experience chronic stress. An effective way to deal with this is to:

sustain friends or activities outside of EMS

You respond to a call for an older woman who has fallen. Upon arrival at the scene, you assess the patient, who is responsive and alert to person, place, time, and event. She states that she does not want to go to the hospital; however, her son requests that you take her. What should you do?

Ensure the patient is fully aware of the consequences of refusing treatment

A self-motivated AEMT should be able to:

discover problems and solve them without someone else's direction

Which of the following is NOT a typical warning sign of stress?

Increased appetite

Physical signs that indicate an emotionally disturbed patient may become violent include all of the following, EXCEPT:

large physical stature

Which of the following statements regarding HIV is correct?

HIV cannot enter the bloodstream through intact skin

Which of the following foods provides the safest, most reliable source for long-term energy production?

Pasta

Under which of the following situations would the AEMT NOT have a legal duty to act?

You are off duty and encounter a man in cardiac arrest

Continuous quality improvement (CQI) involves all of the following components, EXCEPT:

negative feedback to those who make mistakes while on a call

All of the following are roles and responsibilities of the AEMT, EXCEPT:

providing definitive care for the patient's condition

You arrive at the scene of an overturned semi-trailer truck. There is an odd odor in the air and you can see material leaking from the truck. After ensuring that fire department and law enforcement personnel are notified, you should:

use binoculars to try to read the placard

The function of the National Registry of EMTs is to:

assess competence through a valid testing process

You have just established an IV on a critically injured patient. As you prepare to dispose of the needle in the appropriate container, you get stuck with the needle. You should:

report the incident to your supervisor as soon as possible

En route to the hospital, a diabetic patient regains partial consciousness. He tells you that he feels fine and that he does not want to go to the hospital. Under these circumstances, you should:

assess whether the patient's mental condition is impaired

For consent to be informed, the AEMT must:

explain the risks and benefits of treatment

An AEMT administers 1,000 mL of IV fluid to a patient with severe pulmonary edema and a stable blood pressure. The patient then develops profound respiratory distress and becomes apneic. What is this situation an example of?

Gross negligence

While triaging patients at a multiple-casualty incident, you encounter a 40-year-old female with an obvious fracture of her right forearm and multiple abrasions to her face and arms. She is responsive and alert and does not appear to have any airway or breathing problems. You note that she is wearing an organ donor bracelet. You should:

assign her an appropriate triage category and move to the next patient

Which of the following defines your scope of practice within your local response area?

Local protocols and standing orders

A direct relationship between a patient's injury and the AEMT's actions or inactions is called:

proximate cause

Which of the following patients has the legal right to refuse treatment?

Responsive and alert 45-year-old male with chest pressure

Molecules that bind to a cell's receptor and trigger a response by that cell are called:

agonists

The olfactory nerve (cranial nerve I) is responsible for:

smell

The semilunar valves of the heart function by:

preventing backflow of blood into the ventricles

Which two pairs of cranial nerves do NOT exit from the brainstem?

Optic and olfactory

The __________ nerve innervates the muscles that cause motion of the eyeballs and upper lid

oculomotor

Which of the following is NOT a lymphatic organ?

Liver

The primary waste product of metabolism is:

carbon dioxide

To prevent the tissues from becoming edematous, the __________ system must absorb excess fluid and return it to the central venous circulation

lymphatic

The myocardium is the only muscle that can generate its own electrical impulses. This process is called:

automaticity

The chemical neurotransmitter of the parasympathetic nervous system is:

acetylcholine

In the pregnant patient, the secretion of oxytocin causes:

uterine smooth muscle contraction

The aorta divides into the two common iliac arteries at the level of the:

fifth lumbar vertebra

The most common solvent in the body, in which solutes or other substances will dissolve, is:

water

How many milliliters per kilogram (mL/kg) of blood are contained within the average adult male's body?

70

With regard to the heart, ejection fraction is defined as the:

percentage of blood ejected from the heart

Afterload is defined as the:

degree of pressure against which the left ventricle pumps

What part of the brain regulates a person's level of consciousness?

Reticular activating system

The movement of a substance against a concentration or gradient, such as the cell membrane, is called:

active transport

Which layer of the heart would be penetrated during an emergent medical procedure in order to remove fluid?

Pericardium

What is the cardiac output of a person with a stroke volume of 60 mL and a heart rate of 90 beats/min?

5.4 L

The thick fibrous sac that surrounds the heart is called the:

pericardium

During an allergic reaction, basophils release histamines and heparin. What respective roles do these chemicals play?

Increase tissue inflammation and inhibit blood clotting

The sebaceous glands of the skin secrete sebum, which:

keeps the skin soft and prevents cracking

Stimulation of alpha receptors of the sympathetic nervous system result in:

peripheral vasoconstriction

During an infection, white blood cells consume bacteria and foreign particles. This process is called:

phagocytosis

The point where the first cervical vertebra (C1) articulates with the base of the skull is called the:

atlanto-occipital joint

After the aorta arises from the left ventricle, it first:

ascends and branches into the coronary arteries

Nonfunctional erythrocytes are destroyed in the spleen by cells called:

macrophages

A patient was struck in the right lower anterior chest with a baseball bat. In addition to fractured ribs, you should be suspicious of injury to the:

liver

Which of the following is a function of the trigeminal nerve (cranial nerve V)?

Provides motor innervation to the muscles of chewing

The study of the body functions in a diseased state is called:

pathophysiology

If the concentration of H+ increases, the pH of the blood will:

decrease

The layer of tissue that lines the inside of the chest cavity is called the:

parietal pleura

The primary respiratory stimulus in a healthy adult is a/an:

increased arterial carbon dioxide level

All of the following are voluntary muscles, EXCEPT:

smooth muscle

Stimulation of beta receptors of the sympathetic nervous system results in:

increased myocardial contractility

The jugular notch is located:

at the superior border of the sternum

The second heart sound (S2) represents:

closure of the semilunar valves

Chemicals that become ionic conductors when dissolved in water are called:

electrolytes

As an electrical impulse travels down the electrical conduction system, it transiently slows at the:

Av Node

Phagocytosis is the process by which:

monocytes digest microbes

If the body is sliced so that you have a left and right portion, a __________ plane is formed.

sagittal

Tidal volume is defined as the volume of air that:

is moved into or out of the lungs during a single breath

The renin-angiotensin system in the kidneys helps to regulate:

blood pressure

A bruit differs from a murmur in that a bruit:

is auscultated over a main blood vessel

If too much water enters a cell during osmosis, it will burst. This process is called:

lysis

The atrioventricular (AV) valves of the heart include the:

tricuspid and mitral

In most instances, a valid do not resuscitate (DNR) order must meet which of the following requirements

It must clearly state the patient's medical condition

An AEMT witnessed a call in which his partner gave adequate physical care; however, he was deliberately rude because the patient was thought to be infected with HIV. The AEMT ignored his partner's treatment of this patient and took no steps to prevent this behavior from happening again. This lack of action on the part of the AEMT is considered:

legal but unethical

Which of the following scenarios involves an ALS skill?

Administering oxygen and infusing IV fluids

You and your partner are the first to arrive at a potential crime scene involving a critically injured patient. The scene is safe. Your FIRST priority is to:

provide emergency care to the patient

A male patient is reporting crushing chest pain. Prior to informing an invasive procedure on him, you must:

explain the risks and benefits of the procedure to the patient

You are dispatched for a young male who, according to witnesses, is "not acting right." The patient is found sitting on the ground outside of a grocery store, rocking back and forth. He has blood on his arm from an apparent wound to his wrist. You should:

talk to him as you approach him, but be prepared for him to turn violent

Which of the following information is NOT considered confidential?

time of dispatch

You respond to the home of a 75-year-old man who is in cardiac arrest. The family states that the patient is terminally ill and has an advance directive; however, they are unable to locate it. How should you manage this situation?

Begin CPR and contact medical control

Which of the following components is NOT required to establish negligence?

Abandonment

Which of the following is NOT a standard licensure requirement for the AEMT?

Completion of an NREMT-developed AEMT course

Warning signs of stress include which of the following?

Indecisiveness

Authorization to use an automatic transport ventilator when transporting a patient requires which minimum level of EMS provider?

EMT

Which of the following physiologic responses is common during an acute stress reaction?

Increased blood glucose levels

A man is experiencing significant anxiety and depression regarding the impending death of his wife. However, the wife is trying to comfort her husband by telling him that she loves him and is prepared to die. What stage of the grieving process is the patient experiencing?

Acceptance

Critical incident stress management is a program designed to:

confront the responses to critical incidents and defuse them

While caring for a 40-year-old male with shortness of breath and a history of tuberculosis, the AEMT should place a:

HEPA respirator on himself and a nonrebreathing mask on the patient

An AEMT is trained and generally authorized to perform all of the following interventions EXCEPT:

interpretation of cardiac rhythms

Which of the following is your BEST protection against being accused of defamation of character?

Documenting objective findings only

You arrive at the scene of a domestic violence situation. As you approach the doorway of the apartment, you hear screaming and the statement "He has a gun!" At this point, you should:

retreat immediately and call for law enforcement assistance

Which of the following statements would be MOST appropriate to make to the family member of a patient who has just died?

This must be hard for you to accept

The AEMT should wear double gloves when caring for a patient who:

is bleeding heavily from a large artery laceration

Life-long immunity would MOST likely occur after a patient is infected with:

rubella

A critical incident stress debriefing (CISD) should ideally be held within how many hours after the incident?

24-72 hours

While treating a man with severe chest pain and difficulty breathing, you are presented with a valid do not resuscitate (DNR) order by the patient's wife. She tells you that her husband does not want any "heroics." How should you manage this situation?

Provide supportive care and transport the patient

In an enhanced 9-1-1 system:

the phone number from which the call is made is displayed on a screen

In most instances, a valid do not resuscitate (DNR) order must meet which of the following requirements?

It must clearly state the patient's medical condition

While attempting resuscitation of a patient in cardiac arrest, you initiate CPR, defibrillate the patient with an AED, and insert a multilumen airway prior to contacting medical control. What does this scenario most accurately describe?

Standing orders

As an AEMT, you may have to function as an advocate for your patient. This involves:

protecting the best interests of the patient

You are NOT covered under the Good Samaritan law if you:

perform an act beyond your scope of care

Common hazards associated with a structural fire include all of the following, EXCEPT:

carbon dioxide deficiency

When writing your patient care form involving an acutely intoxicated patient, you document that the patient was "drunk." What does this statement constitute?

Libel

Which of the following circumstances would require a written release of confidential information from the patient?

Family members wanting information about an adult patient

When establishing negligence, which of the following factors is NOT a consideration?

The patient's injury was life threatening

Normal inspiration is the result of:

negative pressure in the thoracic cavity

The vagus nerve:

carries parasympathetic fibers to the thoracic and abdominal organs

The pulmonary circulation is responsible for:

ensuring that blood gets reoxygenated

As electricity travels down the left and right bundle branches, it first stimulates the:

interventricular septum

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is manufactured in the:

ventricles of the brain

Which of the following statements regarding type O blood is correct?

It contains no surface antigens

Proteins of the immune system that recognize foreign substances is/are called:

antibodies

A specialized part of the venous system that filters the blood and metabolizes various drugs is called the:

hepatic portal system

What type of valves are the aortic and pulmonic valves?

Semilunar

Which portion of the spinal column articulates with the pelvis?

Sacral

The respiratory center of the brain is located in the:

medulla

Leakage of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from the nose following severe head trauma suggests:

fracture of the cribriform plate

The first artery to branch from the aortic arch is the:

brachiocephalic artery

Severe injuries to the liver are life threatening because it is:

highly vascular and very fragile

Cardiac output is equal to:

stroke volume multiplied by heart rate

Oxygen and carbon dioxide pass across the alveocapillary membrane through a process called:

diffusion

Which layer of the blood vessel wall is composed of elastic tissue and smooth muscle cells?

Tunica media

The term inotropy refers to the:

strength of myocardial contraction

How do the blood vessels of the skin respond to cold temperatures?

Constriction, which diverts blood away from the skin

Which of the following statements regarding interstitial fluid is correct?

It is located in the extracellular space and in between the cells

The two major veins that drain the head and neck of blood are the:

jugular veins

What occurs during the initial phase of hemostasis?

Local vasoconstriction and platelet activation occur

During an acidotic state, the kidneys attempt to maintain a normal pH by:

retaining bicarbonate

The majority of the body's total body water is contained within the:

intracellular space

All of the following are formed components of the blood, EXCEPT:

plasma

White blood cells are also known as:

leukocytes

Motor nerves of the peripheral nervous system are responsible for:

carrying commands from the central nervous system to the muscles

The germinal layer contains cells that produce pigment granules, which help to produce:

skin color

Insulin and glucagon are produced in specialized groups of cells in the pancreas known as the:

islets of Langerhans

When oxygen levels are low or absent, the cells revert to a process of:

anaerobic metabolism

Which of the following is NOT a function of the skin?

Production of antibodies to foreign organisms

The process of moving air in and out of the lungs is called:

ventilation

The middle muscular layer of the heart is called the:

myocardium

A normally balanced condition of the body that is resistant to change is called:

homeostasis

A projection of the second cervical vertebra (C2) that fits into the vertebral foramen of the first cervical vertebra (C1) is called the:

odontoid process

All of the following are facial bones, EXCEPT the:

parietal

The left main coronary artery rapidly divides into the:

left anterior descending and circumflex arteries

The ilium is defined as the:

bony prominence of the pelvis

What body system is comprised of various glands located throughout the body?

Endocrine system

Detoxification of toxic substances, production of bile, and production of certain clotting factors are all functions of the:

liver

Systemic vascular resistance is the resistance to blood flow within all the blood vessels, EXCEPT the:

pulmonary vessels

Which of the following physiologic responses would you expect to see in a patient with a pH of 7.50?

Decreased respirations

A medication that possesses a positive chronotropic effect is one that:

increases heart rate

Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) targets the adrenal cortex and causes it to secrete:

cortisol

The sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves arise from the:

autonomic nervous system

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