Chapters 15-20 Biology

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Cell cycle, *** Linked Inheritance, Biotechnology, Mitosis, and Meiosis,Developmental Genetics, Genetic Technology

Cytogenetic is

The field of genetics that involves the microscopic examination of the chromosomes and cell division

DNA associates very tightly with nucleosomes because

negative charges on DNA are attracted to positive charges of the histone proteins.

The control of the cell cycle involves all of the following EXCEPT

Cytokinesis which involves the formation of cleavage furrow to separate the cells.

During metaphase

chromosomes are much shorter than they were in interphase

Which of the following statements is correct about the cell cycle?

When the S phase of the cell cycle is finished, a cell actually has twice as many chromatids as the number of chromosomes in the G1 phase

Humans have __________ different types of autosomes.

22

Consider an organism whose karyotype shows it to have a total of 60 chromosomes. How many chromosomes would be contained in the sperm of this organism?

30

Which of the following statements is incorrect concerning sister chromatids?

Sister chromatids separate during telophase

Which of the following is not a part of the mitotic spindle apparatus in plants?

centriole

Place the following events of mitosis in the correct order. I. Sister chromatids align on the metaphase plate. II. The cleavage furrow forms. III. The nuclear membrane breaks up. IV. Sister chromatids condense. V. Sister chromatids separate.

IV, III, I, V, II

The process by which haploid cells are produced from diploid cells is called

meiosis

The formation of the bivalent during meiosis

contributes to the genetic diversity of a species

At the end of meiosis I

the cells are haploid and the homologous pairs are in separate cells

The major way that meiosis II differs from mitosis is that

in meiosis II, the cells are haploid.

In a haploid dominant species

the multicellular organism is haploid and the zygote is diploid.

Why must the life cycle of sexually reproducing species alternate between haploid and diploid stages?

Meiosis must occur at some point in the life cycle to prevent a doubling of chromosomes in each generation.

You prepare the first ever karyotype of an endangered species of frog. Upon examination you find that all the chromosomes are metacentric. This is going to make it difficult to identify

both the p and q arms of the chromosome.

During crossing over in meiosis

an incomplete exchange of genetic material occurs. This would most likely produce,a deficiency in one homologue and a duplication in the other homologue

Consider a diploid species where n=5. If an individual of this species was found to have 11 chromosomes

it would be categorized as,both aneuploid and trisomic.

Horses and donkeys are closely related species that can interbreed. However

the offspring produced are usually sterile and cannot reproduce. What term would best describe the offspring from this mating?,alloploid

Consider a cell in which all of the homologous chromosomes experience nondisjunction during meiosis I. What would be the result of this event?

two polyploid gametes

Polyploidy in plants

All of these statements are true regarding polyploidy in plants.

Most human embryos that are aneuploid

are spontaneously aborted in the first trimester.

When a gamete that is lacking a sex chromosome due to nondisjunction has fused with a gamete carrying an X chromosome

this type of abnormality leads to the _________ .,the Turner syndrome

Chromosomes inside the nucleus do not overlap with each other because

they all have a specific chromosome territory that is determined by the nuclear matrix

What does not happen in the cytokinesis of plant cells?

Formation of cleavage furrow to separate the cells.

Put the following steps in the procedure for producing a karyotype in the correct order. I. Cells are visualized under the microscope. II. Cells are stimulated to divide. III. Homologues are organized into sets by matching size and banding patterns. IV. The cells are exposed to a hypotonic solution. V. Cells are stained and placed on a microscope slide.

II, IV, I, V, III

The centromere

is not present on the chromosomes of the daughter cells until the S phase

In mitosis

the main difference between plant and animal cells is that,plants produce a cell plate to segregate the daughter nuclei, while animals form a cleavage furrow.

A species that has three sets of homologous chromosomes can have up to __different combinations of chromosomes in the gametes.

8

Meiosis I produces __________

and meiosis II produces _________ cells,two haploid, 4 haploid

A chromosome with the centromere located two-thirds of the distance from its end could be classified as

either submetacentric or acrocentric.

Which of the following mutations will not alter the amount of genetic material on the chromosomes?

inversion

In a tetraploid species

a euploid individual would have ___sets of chromosomes.,4

A person who inherits an extra X chromosome will have

Klinefelter syndrome.

Chromosomes are replicated during the ______ phase.

S

Synaptonemal complexes form during

prophase of meiosis I.

Sister chromatids separate during

anaphase of meiosis II.

If two triploid species interbreed

the offspring will be,allohexaploid.

The life cycle of a sexual reproducing organisms includes

mitosis, meiosis, and fusion of the gametes

True or False: Homologous chromosomes are identical copies of each other

false

True or False: Mitotic cell division is never used by organisms as a means of reproduction

false

A diploid queen honeybee produce eggs by meiosis. Some of these eggs are never fertilized

while the rest are. These unfertilized eggs develop into haploid male honeybee. This can be an example of sexual reproduction,TRUE

For any given species

cells in metaphase II of meiosis would contain 2× more genetic material than cells in metaphase of mitosis,FALSE

True or False: The karyotype of a normal human male would show a total of 23 pairs of homologous chromosomes

FALSE

If a cell contains 20 units of DNA during G2

it will have 40 units of DNA during S.,FALSE

During prometaphase

the sister chromatids organize into a single row in the center of the cell.,FALSE

True or False: A cell undergoing meiosis that contains sister chromatids may be either haploid or diploid.

TRUE

True or False: One major difference between metaphase I and metaphase II is the presence or absence of bivalents.

TRUE

True or False: Sexual life cycles include both haploid and diploid stages

TRUE

The concept that offspring can inherit the acquired skills of their parents is called

blending inheritance or Lamarck's hypothesis.

What personal characteristics and events in Gregor Mendel's life significantly contributed to his ultimate contribution to the study of inheritance?

His training in physics and mathematics at the University of Vienna.

Mating a purebred Labrador retriever to a purebred poodle to produce "Labradoodles" is an example of

hybridization.

Which of these is NOT a reason that Mendel used pea plants as a model to study inheritance?

They cannot self-fertilize.

Which of the following are incorrectly matched for a single-factor cross?

F2 generation / result of P cross

A cross of a true-breeding smooth pod and yellow pod plants results in all smooth pod offspring. This indicates that

two of the answers are correct. Yellow and smooth are variants of the same gene, and smooth is the dominant trait.

Polydactylism is a dominant trait that results in extra fingers and toes in humans. A polydactyl man marries a woman with 10 fingers and toes. They have a child that has a normal number of digits. The phenotype of the man's father is unknown but his mother has a normal phenotype,

woman dd, man Dd

A cross between two pea plants produces a population of 732 purple and 268 white plants. What is the genotype and phenotype of the parents that produced this population?

both parents heterozygous purple

In humans having dimples in the cheeks is a dominant trait. If a child has dimples but only one of her parents does, what are the genotypes of her parents?

one parent must be dd, the other parent could be either Dd or DD

A male is heterozygous for the trait that produces freckles on the skin and he has freckles. If he marries a woman who is also heterozygous for freckles, ______ percent of their children will be freckled and __________percent of their children will be heterozygous.

75% freckled, 50% heterozygous

How can you determine the genotype of a plant showing the dominant phenotype of red color?

Cross the red plant with a white plant to see if any white plants appear.

The single-factor crosses performed by Mendel support the observation that

the two alleles for a given gene are distributed randomly among an individual's gametes.

The two-factor crosses performed by Mendel support the observation that

alleles for a given trait are distributed randomly among an individual's gametes independent of the alleles for other traits.

An organism that is heterozygous for two traits can produce a maximum of _______ different gametes for these traits

4

Which of the following INCORRECTLY states a principle of the chromosome theory of inheritance

Gametes contain either a maternal or paternal set of chromosomes.

A homologous pair of sister chromatids will possess _______ copies of the alleles for each locus.

8

Which of the following accurately gives the distribution of phenotypes produced from a cross of purple dwarf pea plants that are heterozygous for flower color and plant height?

63 purple dwarf; 28 purple tall; 27 white dwarf; 7 white tall

What features of meiosis allow for independent assortment of chromosomes?

random alignment of homologous sister chromatids on the metaphase plate

The probability of obtaining a dominant phenotype from self-fertilization of a heterozygous individual is

3/4

The probability of a couple having either a boy or a girl is ½. However many families have more boys than girls and VICE VERSA. Why is the observed ratio of boys to girls in typical families different than the predicted ratio?

Two of the answers are correct. There is a large random sampling error due to the small size of human families and the sex of each child is determined independently.

A nearsighted woman (Nn) with hazel eyes (Hh) marries a man with normal vision and hazel eyes (Hh). Their three children all have blue eyes and normal vision. What is the probability that their next child will have blue eyes and be nearsighted?

3/8

Which of the following phrases INCORRECTLY finishes this statement? A genetic disease that causes death in infancy and has an autosomal recessive inheritance pattern can persist in a population because

if both parents are carriers, they have a 50% chance of having normal children.

A woman comes to your genetic counseling center because she knows that Huntington disease occurs in members of her family. Her paternal grandfather was afflicted but so far her father shows no symptoms. Her two great-great grandmothers on her father's side were healthy well into their 90s and one of her great-great grandfathers died of unknown causes at 45. Testing for Huntington disease is extremely expensive but she is concerned that she may fall victim to this disease and wants to plan her life accordingly. After examining her pedigree you advise her to

get tested because her father could be a carrier.

For mechanisms of sex determination

which of the following is incorrectly paired?,1n-2n, pea plant

In mammals males are ________ and females are ____________.

hemizygous, homozygous

In Thomas Hunt Morgan's experiments males had white eyes but females did not. What cross could you perform with his flies to obtain white-eyed females?

crossing either the F1 or F2 females with a white-eyed male will produce some white-eyed females.

In Thomas Hunt Morgan's experiments the ratio of red-eyed flies to white-eyed flies appeared to follow

A simple Mendelian pattern of inheritance.

What observation(s) did he make that led to his conclusion that the white-eyed trait was actually not a simple Mendelian trait?

He was able to correlate the expression of white eyes to the inheritance of an X chromosome because only F2 males had white eyes and the trait is recessive.

Which of the following inheritance patterns is matched with an inaccurate molecular basis?

Simple Mendelian inheritance; The protein produced by a single allele cannot produce the dominant phenotype.

You discover a new sunflower that has blue flowers instead of yellow. When you cross this blue variety with a common yellow variety you get blue and yellow speckled flowers. What type of inheritance pattern does this gene exhibit?

co-dominance

Which of these statements INCORRECTLY describes an example of pleiotropy?

A mutation in one allele for phenylalanine hydroxylase results in lower levels of this enzyme in the blood which causes high blood levels of phenylalanine.

When a single-gene mutation can have phenotypic effects at multiple stages of development

it is,pleiotropic

If a pink snapdragon is self-fertilized the offspring are red- pink- or white. What type of inheritance pattern does flower color exhibit in this example?

incomplete dominance

Color blindness is a recessive X-linked trait. A normal couple has a color-blind child. Who else in this family is probably color blind?

the child's maternal grandfather

Two babies are mixed up in the hospital nursery. The blood types of Couple 1 are A and O and the blood types of Couple 2 are AB and B. Baby Joe has blood type O and Baby Jane has blood type A. Who are the parents of Baby Joe and Baby Jane?

Couple 1, Baby Joe or Baby Jane; Couple 2, Baby Jane

What is the difference between the blood types A, B, and O?

A and B individuals have different modifications made to their carbohydrate tree. O individuals have no modifications made to their carbohydrate tree.

A man with pattern baldness and a woman who has no baldness have a son who develops pattern baldness. Their son has a daughter who also develops pattern baldness. They determine that her expression of this trait is not a symptom of a medical condition. If her mother does not have pattern baldness the daughter's genotype is ________ and her mother's genotype is _____________.

BB and/or Bb

A woman visits her doctor's office complaining of pattern baldness. Her mother and father do not have pattern baldness but her brother does. The doctor is concerned that she may have the serious condition of _______ and he immediately orders blood tests to check her ________ levels.

tumor of the adrenal gland, 5-dihydrotestosterone

The color of petunia flower can be changed from red to blue by altering the pH of the soil. This is an example of

norm of reaction

A person who is homozygous for a mutation of the phenylalanine hydroxylase gene

can lead a normal life if the environment is controlled.

_________ occurs when 50% of a protein produces a different phenotype than that produced by 100% or 0% of the protein

Incomplete dominance

A couple has five sons. What is the probability that their next child will be a girl?

50%

True or False:The law of independent assortment states that the two alleles of the same gene will segregate from each other during gamete formation.

FALSE

True or False:Offspring receive both the alleles for a given trait from one parent

FALSE

True or False: A locus encodes different genes in different individuals of the same species.

FALSE

True or False:The sex of all animals is determined by chromosomes.

FALSE

True or False:If you were to examine a typical population at a single locus

you would find more copies of the wild-type allele than any other allele.,TRUE

True or False:When some recessive human diseases are present in the heterozygous state

incomplete dominance occurs.,TRUE

True or False: Only fathers can pass on pattern baldness to their sons.

FALSE

True or False:A person with blood type O can donate blood to people of any blood type.

TRUE

True or False:A Punnett square is best used to predict the likelihood of producing many offspring with a particular genotype.

FALSE

True or False:Pea plants cannot self-fertilize because one plant has either ovaries and stamens but not both.

FALSE

You are breeding different varieties of roses in your garden. When you cross a true-breeding yellow "Texas Beauty" rose with a true-breeding "Ruby" red rose you get all red roses. But when you cross a "Texas Beauty" yellow with the yellow variety "Jealousy" you get a 9:7 ratio of red to yellow flowers! What can you conclude from these results?

There are epistatic interactions between at least two genes for rose pigment.

Which of the following statements correctly describes a quantitative trait?

People who are homozygous for the group of genes associated with skin pigment have either lighter or darker skin than those who are heterozygous for those genes

You breed a black long-haired rabbit with a white short-haired rabbit. All of the offspring have long black hair. If the genes for hair color and length are linked .What would be a possible ratio for the F2 population?

5 long-haired black plus 4 short-haired white plus 1 short-haired black and 2 long-haired white

If a testcross for two different traits produces more nonrecombinant than recombinant offspring then the alleles for the two traits, are on the same chromosome. You are mapping the location of two genes in Drosophila= listless l and blind b. (l+ l+ b+ b+) and (l+ l- b+ b-) flies are normal but ( l- l- b- b-) flies don't move around very much and cannot detect the location of a light source. You perform a testcross and get the following results: listless- sighted 100 listless-blind 400 normal activity,-sighted 400 normal activity- blind 100. What is the distance between these two genes on the chromosome?

They are 20 map units apart.

If a plant species exhibits maternal inheritance for leaf pigmentation.What is the phenotype of the parents of a variegated (green and white leaves) plant?

The maternal plant must be variegated and the paternal plant can be any color.

A man has a mutation in the ATP synthase gene. This results in an inability to synthesize ATP properly causing extreme muscle weakness. If this man has children . . .what is the likelihood that they will inherit this disease from him?

0%

A gene for sweat gland production is found on the X chromosome. If a man who lacks sweat glands marries a woman who has normal sweat glands what will be the phenotype of their children?

All the boys will have sweat glands, and the girls will have sweat glands in some areas but not others.

The Xist gene product
A. is never translated into protein.
B. is required for the production of Barr bodies.
C. coats the X chromosome with RNA.
D. associates with proteins to compact the chromosome
E. All of these statements are correct.

All of these statements are correct.

Epigenetic inheritance . . .

can result in the expression of different alleles in different generations.

Bicoid is a maternal effect gene that is essential for the development of head structures in Drosophila. The F1 generation from a cross of two phenotypically normal flies produces normal embryos but in the F2 cross 25% of the embryos lack heads and die. What was the genotype of the mother in the P generation?

Bb

The inheritance pattern where two or more genes do not assort independently because they are close together on the same chromosome is called

linkage.

The inheritance pattern in which the mother provides gene products to the developing egg cells is called A. X inactivation

maternal effects.

Albinism in most animals is an epistatic trait characterized by a lack of melanin pigment in the eyes- skin- and hair. If the allele for albinism is a-the allele for brown coat color is B- and the allele for red coat color is b . . . which of the following genotypes would result in an albino cow?

aaBB and aabb

Quantitative traits
A. are polygenic.
B. encode genes for continuous traits.
C. are influenced by the environment.
D. are both polygenic and influenced by the environment.
E. Are correctly described by all of these statements

E.are correctly described by all of these statements.

Height (tallness) in humans is a polygenic trait. Assume the following: There are 4 genes that determine height (Aa Bb Cc Dd). Each dominant allele adds 2 inches of height to an individual. The height of the recessive individual (aa bb cc dd) is 5 feet. What is the height of a person with the genotype (AA Bb cc DD)?

5′10″

In the sweet pea crossing experiment by Bateson and Punnetthe F2 generation had many more offspring with the phenotypes of purple flowers P, long pollen L and red flowers p, round pollen l than expected from independent assortment. This is because
A. in sweet peas, there are always more PL gametes than Pl ones.
B. in sweet peas, the alleles for flower color and pollen shape are on the same chromosome.
C. there were few recombination events between these genes during meiosis.
D. flower color and pollen shape are within the same linkage group.
E. All of the statements given are true.

E. All of the statements given are true.

Which of the following statements is not part of Morgan's Theory of Independent Assortment?

Linked genes are always inherited together

Barr bodies will be formed in both males and females depending on ?

The number of X chromosomes possessed by an individual.

Which of the following organelle(s) has/have a genome separate from the genome in the cell nucleus?

mitochondria and chloroplast

A plant cell contains _____ genomes and an animal cell contains ______ genomes

3-2

In plants most chloroplasts are inherited from the maternal plant because maternal gametes contribute the most __________ to the zygote

cytoplasm

The genomes of mammalian mitochondria contain
A. a total of 37 genes.
B. genes for proteins used in oxidative phosphorylation.
C. genes whose products are used in translation of mRNA.
D. ribosomal genes
E. All of the items listed are correct

E. All of the items listed are correct.

Which of the following diseases is not caused by a mutation in a mitochondrial gene?

Turner syndrome

A modification of a gene or chromosome that occurs during gamete formation or early development which permanently alters the expression of that gene for the lifetime of the individual is called

epigenetic inheritance

If a male cat with orange fur produces female offspring with calico fur.What color was the mother cat?

black or calico

Which of the following is not evidence supporting the Lyon hypothesis of X inactivation?

A genetically normal male cat can never be calico.

ALD is a fatal disease that results from a lack of peroxisomes in the liver. It is diagnosed by the presence of high levels of very long-chain fatty acids in the blood. The disease results in destruction of brain myelin leading to progressive cognitive impairment coma, and death by the age of 14. There has never been a case of ALD described in girls. You have just started your internship at the Mayo clinic and a 10-year-old girl comes in who is in a coma and having seizures. Blood tests show she has extremely elevated levels of long-chain fatty acids. This looks like ALD, but a girl has never been afflicted. When you go to your supervisor to give your diagnosis.Which of the following hypotheses do you present to support it?

Her mother is a carrier, and she could have genetically normal Barr bodies in the liver or Turner syndrome.

The karyotype of a young patient shows two Barr bodies per cell. What condition might this child have?

Triple X syndrome.

You discover a gene that results in a complete lack of hair in rats and you name the gene "chromedome." A cross of homozygous normal and homozygous bald rats results in all bald rats. You conclude that the baldness allele is dominant but when you repeat the cross with different rats none of the offspring are bald. Extremely puzzled you study your records and discover that in the first cross the bald rat was female, while in the second cross the bald rat was male. What do you conclude from this information?

Chromedome is imprinted in females

DNA methylation of a gene during spermatogenesis would result in . . .

the inactivation of the paternal allele in the offspring.

Which of the following is NOT a type of epigenetic inheritance?

maternal effect

Black-cheeked BC zebra finches are extremely desirable but relatively rare. This phenotype is caused by a recessive mutation but the mating of two BC birds is considered unethical because it results in very small birds. Therefore BC birds are created by crossing carriers of the BC gene. Despite problems with the homozygous recessive some unscrupulous breeders continue to breed them together because of the high prices they fetch. Which of the following statements could explain why BC homozygous birds are unusually small?

The BC gene and growth gene are close together on the same chromosome and/or both of these genes are mutated.

If the recombination frequency between gene A and B is 10 out of 100 offspring gene A and C is 30 out of 100 offspring and gene B and C is 40 out of 100 offspring. What is the location of these genes in relation to each other on a chromosome?

either CAB or BAC

What quality of the traits that Mendel chose to study allowed him to establish the basic laws of inheritance?

The alleles that he studied were either dominant or recessive

A trait that is expressed as a continuum rather than as a few discrete phenotypes is

codominant

A horticulturist is breeding a new variety of houseplant in which two genes control leaf color. G (allele for green) is dominant to g (yellow) and B (second allele for green) is dominant to b (yellow). The recessive homozygous condition of either gene will mask a dominant allele. What color is a plant with the genotype GgAa?

green

An animal cell contains ___________ genome(s) while a plant cell contains ___________ genome(s).

2-3

An experimenter crosses two fruit flies with different phenotypes. The results in the F2 generation are: 478 crooked legs

trembling behavior 372 stumpy legs, circling behavior 175 crooked legs, circling behavior 98 stumpy legs, trembling behavior What were the genotypes / phenotypes in the Parental generation?, Both parents homozygous / Male or female parental phenotype: crooked legs- trembling-Second parental phenotype: stumpy legs-circling

You are trying to improve growth in an economically important fish species. These fish have a gene for large size with two alleles (Ll). You cross a large female (LL) with a small male (ll) and get all large fish! The genotypes of the F1 are 100% Ll so you assume that large size is dominant to small. You then cross a small female with a large male and get all small fish! The genotypes of this F1 are normal. How do you explain this result?

The gene for large size is a maternal effect gene

True or False: Maternal effect genes are inherited via the mitochondria.

FALSE

True or False: Epistasis often involves genes of an enzymatic pathway

TRUE

True or False: The actions of Xist result in an organism that is a phenotypic mosaic.

TRUE

True or False: In biparental inheritance paternal and maternal gametes provide chloroplasts to the zygote.

TRUE

True or False: Genomic imprinting can result in offspring with identical genotypes that have different phenotypes.

TRUE

True or False: Mendel's laws do not adequately explain all the patterns of inheritance.

TRUE

True or False: The DNA methylation state of a zygote will be maintained throughout the life of the organism and then passed on unchanged to its offspring.

FALSE

True or False: Epistatic gene interactions do not follow Mendel's laws of inheritance.

FALSE

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