Science EOG, 5th Grade, Animals and Ecosystems

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Ecosystem

A community that includes all living and nonliving things found in a certain area.

Predator

Animals that each each other.

Prey

Animals that other animals hunt for food.

Consumers

Some organisms must get energy by eating other organisms.

Producers

Are organisms that use the Sun's energy to make their own food (all plants).

Omnivore

Animals that eat both plants and other animals.

Herbivore

Animals that eat only plants.

Carnivore

Animals that eat only meat.

Decomposers

Organisms such as fungi, worms, and bacteria get energy by breaking down nutrients in dead organisms.

Habitat.

Is the physical space used by a population.

Niche

Is the role each animal has. Sometimes different populations occupy the same area and must compete for resources like food, water, and shelter. Usually the weaker population will die and move to a new area.

Population

A group of organisms of the same species living in the same place.

Community

Is made up of all different kinds of populations living in the same area.

Food Web

A diagram of several connected food chains.

Food Chain

Is a series of organisms through which energy is passed.

Adaptations

When animals go through changes that make them fit in better with the environment around them.

Hibernate

Is to go to sleep for the winter and live on stored food.

Migrate

Is to move from one place to another, usually with the change of seasons.

Organisms

Are all living things.

Parasites

An organism that must live on or inside another organism in order to get energy.

Host

An organism that is infected by a parasite.

Behavior

Is the way an organism responds to a change in the environment.

Scavengers

Eat the dead flesh of animals.

Biotic

Include all the living things in an ecosystem (example: Trees, Flowers)

Abiotic

Include all the non-living things in an ecosystem (example: light, temperature, and soil composition).

Limiting Factor

A resource or environmental factor that limits the size of the population.

Forest Ecosystems

Found in areas where the temperature of the air is mild and there is plenty of rainfall.

Temperate Deciduous

Contains trees that lose their leaves each fall. Have animals like bears, rabbits, deer, and snakes. Plants such as ferns and mosses also grow.

Coniferous

Have colder temperatures and contain trees that produce seeds in cones and have leaves shaped like needles (pine trees). Animals include: finches, jays, elk, moose, beavers, and wolves.

Tropical Rainforests

Found in much warmer areas and have plenty of rainfall. Animals include monkeys, reptiles, parrots, and toucans.

Grasslands

Found in warm and temperate area that receives rainfall. They are usually flat or having rollng hills. They are sometimes called prairies, savannahs, plains, and pampas. Animals that live there include: prairie dogs, mice and bison.

Marine Ecosystems: Coral Reefs

Are found in shallow parts of the ocean where it is very warm and sunny.

Marine Ecosystems: Estuaries

Bodies of water found in areas where freshwater from rivers and streams and salt water from the ocean meet. (Shrimp, crabs, clams, reeds, grasses and turtles live here).

Marine Ecosystems: Lakes and Ponds

Freshwater ecosystems, animals include algae, cattails, snails, insects, frogs, and fish.

Deforestation

The clearing of forest lands.

Pollution

An unwanted change in the environment.

Pollutant

A substance that causes pollution.

Carbon Cycle

The cycle in which carbon flows through the environment and living things.

Nitrogen Cycle

Is the cycle in which nitrogen moves through the environment and living things.

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