a war between people of the same country
a drastic and far-reaching change in ways of thinking and behaving; a fight for change in government
Bill of Rights
a statement of fundamental rights and privileges (especially the first ten amendments to the United States Constitution)
A King or Queen is the official head of state but power is limited by a constitution.
(1491-1547) King of England from 1509 to 1547; his desire to annul his marriage led to a conflict with the pope, England's break with the Roman Catholic Church, and its embrace of Protestantism. He established the Church of England in 1532; hint: divorced, beheaded, died, divorced, beheaded, survived :+)
Queen of England from 1558 to 1603; daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn; she succeeded Mary I (who was a Catholic) and restored Protestantism to England; never married; her reign is often referred to as the Golden Age of England or the Elizabethan Age
English poet and dramatist considered one of the greatest English writers (1564-1616); wrote Romeo and Juliet, Hamlet, and a Midsummer Night's Dream
William Shakespeare's theater in London; 3 stories high and had 20 sides so it was almost round
belief that a rulers authority comes directly from god.
a member of a Christian church founded on the principles of the Reformation; e.g. Presbyterian, Lutheran, Baptist, etc.
Age of Reason
a period in history characterized by a critical approach to religious, social, and philosophical matters that seeks to fight against beliefs or systems not based on human reason
A period of revolution, a time that saw a major shift in the way people thought. People of this time period had a great confidence in a human's ability to think and use rational thought to explain the natural world; the light bulb got really, really, bright during this time period in Europe and the American Colonies
a method of investigation involving observation and theory to test scientific hypotheses in a controlled environment; observe first and then use reason to draw conclusions about the physical world around them
the concept that there is a universal order built into nature that can guide moral thinking; forces that rule the behavior of the universe
For hundreds of years people of Medieval Europe made their ideas about science fit religious beliefs or teachings of the Catholic Church; with this time period people began looking at how the universe really works based on science
system of settling new lands that remain under the government of their native land; example: European explorers occupying foreign lands for their native countries
This scientist proved Copernicus' theory that the sun was the center of the solar system and he was put on house arrest for stating this although the Catholic Church said it was incorrect
English mathematician and physicist that realized that there are natural laws or forces that rule behavior of the universe; developed laws of motion and gravity
Enlightenment thinker that believed all people have a right to life, liberty, and property; Thomas Jefferson studied his ideas extensively
Jean Jacques Rousseau
Enlightenment philosopher who believed that everyone is born good, but civilization corrupts people. He believed that the titles of nobility should be abolished and that governments should use direct democracy. "Man is born free, and everywhere he is in chains."
Enlightenment thinker that believed that people are born selfish and need a strong central authority; believed in absolute power
Baron de Montesquieu
Enlightenment thinker that believed that government should run on separation of powers, checks and balances
Enlightenment thinker; virginian, architect, author, governor, and president. Lived at Monticello. Wrote the Declaration of Independence. Second governor of Virgina. Third president of the United States. Designed the buildings of the University of Virginia.
Enlightenment thinker, Virginian, patriot, general, and president. Lived at Mount Vernon. Led the Revolutionary Army in the fight for independence. First President of the United States.
Taxation without representation
The colonists were angry because they had to pay taxes to England but they did not get to have a representative in the English Parliament.
This political revolution began with the Declaration of Independence in 1776 where American colonists sought to balance the power between government and the people and protect the rights of citizens in a democracy.
begun about 1760 in England and later in other countries, characterized chiefly by the replacement of hand tools with power-driven machines, as the power loom and the steam engine, and by the concentration of industry in large establishments.
of or relating to fabrics or fabric making; cloth making; this type of factory became much more common during the Industrial Revolution
An organization of workers in a particular industry or trade, created to defend the interests of the workers and ensure safe and fair working conditions
Alexander Graham Bell
He was an American inventor who was responsible for developing the telephone. This greatly improved communications in the country.
Inventor of light bulb, phonograph and numerous other innovations
This political revolution began with a peasant revolt in 1789 when women marched on the palace of Versailles to demand bread for their starving children; it sought to limit the powers of the Catholic church, to weaken the power of the nobility and the monarch and strengthen the political voice of the common man.
- King of France (1774-1792). In 1789 he summoned the Estates-General (tried to lock out the assembly), he did not grant the reforms that were demanded and revolution followed. He and his queen, Marie Antoinette, were executed in 1793 by beheading.
the idea that your national culture and interests are superior to any other
A policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries poitically, socially, and economically (page 193 of your textbook)
This was the civil code put out by a french general that granted equality of all male citizens before the law and granted absolute security of wealth and private property. It also secured this by creating the Bank of France which loyally served the interests of both the state and the people
French general who became emperor of the French (1769-1821); Overthrew French Directory in 1799 and became emperor of the French in 1804. Failed to defeat Great Britain and was abdicated in 1814. Returned to power briefly in 1815 but was defeated and died in exile; Le Petit Corporal
"The incorruptible;" the leader of the bloodiest portion of the French Revolution. He set out to build a republic of virtue; his rule became known as the Reign of Terror in which it is estimated that 70 to 80 people were beheaded daily
Battle of Waterloo
the battle on 18 June 1815 in which Napoleon met his final defeat at the hands of the British
Wife of Louis the XVI. She cared mainly about herself. She bought herself many extravagant things while the common people were starving; executed along with her husband King Louis XVI
Medieval fortress that was converted to a prison stormed by peasants for ammunition during the early stages of the French Revolution.
How many states are there in the United States
I won many victories in Italy. By 1796, Austria had become my country's chief enemy. I started my attack on Austria, my first big campaign. I quickly defeated four armies larger than my own. After that, my troops gave me the name "Le Petit Caporal" or "Little Corporal." Who am I?
This document, signed by King John of England in 1215, is the cornerstone of English justice and law. It declared that the king and government were bound by the same laws as other citizens of England. It contained the ideas of due process and the right to a fair and speedy trial that are included in the protection offered by the U.S. Bill of Rights in our country today
A political ideology that emphasizes the civil rights of citizens, representative government, and the protection of private property. This ideology, derived from the Enlightenment, was especially popular among the property-owning middle classes.
the supreme law of the United States of America adopted on September 17, 1787, by the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia
many territories and peoples controlled by one government
Congress can't make any law about your religion, or stop you from practicing your religion, or keep you from saying whatever you want, or publishing whatever you want (like in a newspaper or a book). And Congress can't stop you from meeting peacefully for a demonstration to ask the government to change something. What important amendment am I?
They call me a terrible and cruel King. Ok... I executed (had killed) anyone who disagreed with me (including two of my own wives!) Who am I?
Leonardo da Vinci
I was a gentle vegetarian who loved animals and despised war, yet I worked as a military engineer to invent advanced and deadly weapons.
I was one of the greatest painters of the Italian Renaissance, yet I left only a handful of completed paintings.
I had a keen eye and quick mind that led me to make important scientific discoveries, yet I never published my ideas. Who am I?
Best team in baseball; northsiders; Home is Wrigley Field; Mr. Whitman goes every summer :+)