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"A personality inventory is a subjective test, often using numbered scales or multiple choice, used to assess personality." Which part of her definition is in error?

subjective test; it's an objective test

An 80 year old man has about ____ the fertility of a 25 year old man.

50%

About the same time that infants begin to crawl, usually between 6 and 8 months, they also begin to show separation anxiety. This indicates that they

now recognize who does and does not belong in their social world

According to a large meta-analysis involving thousands of participants (Kling, Hyde, Showers, & Buswell, 1999), ____.

males have a very small advantage over women in self-esteem

According to a study of over 42, 000 Americans beginning in 1972 (Davis, Smith, & Marsden, 2006), who is most likely to report being "very happy"?

Noah, age 28, who has been married for four years

According to an influential model of relationships, the persistence of a relationship is a direct result of the partners' commitment, which in turn is determined by the partners' satisfaction with the relationship, the amount of investment they have already put into their relationship, and ____

The quality of their alternatives

According to Erikson, one key to successful intimacy in adulthood is to

establish a solid identity in adolescence

According to Freud, what is the resolution of the Oedipus complex?

Identification with the same-sex parent

According to initial research regarding online communications (Lee, Park, Lee, & Cameron, 2010), how are user-generated materials, such as blogs and reviews, viewed in comparison to formal news reports prepared by professional journalists?

They are viewed as equally credible and accurate.

According to research (Bryan & Rudd, 2006), almost 20% of 18-to-20-year olds who had experienced at least ____ attempted suicide.

one depressive episode in the past year

According to terror management theory, self-esteem works together with a cultural worldview to ____.

buffer our fear of death

According to the work of Jean Rich Harris (1998), correlations between parenting styles and child outcomes are due to ____.

genetics

According to your text, what does the science of personality explore

Characteristic patterns of thinking, feeling, and behaving

The adaptive advantage to living long after reproductive years is called

the grandmother effect

The Adverse Childhood Experiences Study (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2010b) is using an integrated model of health to address gaps in understanding about the relationships between social, emotional, and cognitive impairments and prior ____.

childhood experiences such as abuse and neglect

Advertisers direct much advertising towards children and grocery stores place products appealing to children on lower shelves. Why?

Children are more likely than adults to respond to persuasive arguments emotionally rather than logically.

African immigrants living in South London were more likely to be diagnosed with schizophrenia if they lived in a predominantly White neighborhood than if they lived in a primarily non-White neighborhood (Boydell et al., 2001). According to the text, what do these findings suggest?

The stress of minority status might contribute to higher risk for schizophrenia.

After evaluating Bart, Dr. Aimes considers switching him from Thorazine to Clozaril, a drug that affects several neurotransmitters, including ____.

serotonin

After several failed attempts at treating his major depressive episodes over the years, Patrick contemplates undergoing electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). He discusses this with his doctor, who warns him that ECT can lead to ____.

memory loss

Agreeing to a request from a person with no perceived authority is called ____.

compliance

Alcohol contributes to an enormous loss of potential years of life due to ____.

automobile crashes, homicides, and suicides

Alex is generally a reasonable person -- unless he becomes very drunk. Then, he is quick to anger at his wife, accuses her unfairly of infidelity, and has on occasion tried to hit her. What role does alcohol play in these instances?

It has disinhibiting effects on behavior.

Alicia would be hurt not to be included, but might dampen the party with her anxiety, anger, hostility, and tendency towards depression. Leanne never knows what she will do or say next. The Big Five trait that best describes this aspect of Alicia's personality is ____.

neuroticism

Although the American Psychological Association (APA) has the primary responsibility for accrediting Ph.D. or Psy.D. psychology degree programs, the Psychological Clinical Science Accreditation System (PCSAS) was recently formed to increase ____.

the scientific basis of clinical treatment and research literacy among clinical psychologist

Analia is training to be a clinical psychologist. She is interested in using a cognitive approach when dealing with patients; however, she knows that for cognitive therapy to be most successful, it should be combined with ____ techniques.

behavioral

Antisocial behavior is associated with abnormalities of the orbitofrontal cortex, which often leads to ____.

poor judgment and impulsivity

Arthur is a retired auto mechanic who proudly owned his own auto repair shop, which his sons now run. He and his wife enjoy their grandchildren and enjoy spending the winters in Florida. In Erikson's stages of social development, he is likely to experience ____

integrity

As Erin walks to the front of the classroom to write on the board, she stubs the toe of her shoe on the floor and nearly trips in front of her professor. She is so embarrassed. However, her professor is actually thinking about his lunch plans. Erin's reaction is an example of ____.

the spotlight effect

As medical knowledge improved in the 18th and 19th centuries, psychological disorders became ____.

less mysterious

At the onset of puberty

there is a significant amount of gray matter growth

Avoidant or anxious-ambivalent attachment is more common in children with

high negative affect

Based on a meta-analysis of almost 300 studies and about 20,000 participants (Segerstrom & Miller, 2004), who is most likely to suffer the greatest suppression of his or her immune system?

Andrew, whose wife fell in love with his best friend and initiated divorce proceedings

Based on a meta-analysis of almost 300 studies and about 20,000 participants (Segerstrom & Miller, 2004), who is most likely to suffer the greatest suppression of his or her immune system?

Andrew, whose wife fell in love with his best friend and initiated divorce proceedings

Based on research (Gardner, Gabriel, & Lee, 1999), which of the following is true?

Independent and interdependent views of the self are human universals and the relative dominance of one over the other is modifiable by a person's experience and situation.

Because of the severity and lifelong nature of autism, parents of children with autism are especially vulnerable to "cures" that have little research support. What is an example of one of these so-called "cures?"

hyperbaric oxygen treatment

Beth, while riding her bicycle down a city street, was nearly knocked into traffic by the abrupt opening of a parked car door. What did her hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis do in response to the perceived stressor?

The hypothalamus communicated with the pituitary gland, which told the adrenal glands to release cortisol into the bloodstream.

Bianca is trying to decide between pursuing a Ph.D. or Psy.D. degree in psychology. As her friend, you tell Bianca that a major critique of the Psy.D. degree is that it ____.

lacks an emphasis on research and the objective evaluation of data

Biologists have cataloged many species that determine the allocation of mating opportunities, food, and other resources, both within and between groups, by ____.

competition, usually in the form of fighting

Blake is trying very hard to quit smoking but his friend Javier still smokes, often while they watch sports events together on the TV. Just the smell of Javier's cigarette makes him crave a cigarette. What should he do?

Avoid situations where Javier will light a cigarette to avoid conditioned stimuli.

Bob received a C on his Calculus II exam and an A on his Macroeconomics exam. Which of the following would best reflect a self-serving bias on his part?

Bob felt he did poorly on the Calculus II exam because he was coming down with the flu and well on his Macroeconomics exam because of his innate gift for understanding how the world works.

Caleb feels very discouraged upon learning that he had been cut from the varsity football team and now will play with the junior varsity. Which of the following would be the most positive emotion-focused coping response?

He and a friend go to see a comedy at the movie theater.

A change in attitudes in response to information provided by another person is called ____.

persuasion

A child's pattern of mood, activity, or emotional responsiveness that is linked to later personality is called her ____.

temperament

Children and youth are exposed to increasingly violent and graphic images and ideas through films, video games, and music lyrics. Some research results show correlations between media exposure and aggression, which indicates that ____.

there may or may not be some relationship between the two

Chris and Ivan are fourteen. Chris dares Ivan by saying, "Let's take a bottle of wine from your grandmother's house; she'll never notice." According to Kohlberg's stages of moral reasoning, this represents ____.

preconventional morality

The cognitive organization that helps us think about the self and process self-relevant information is ____.

self schema

Cognitive-behavioral therapies work best for which somatoform/somatic symptom disorder?

body dysmorphic disorder

Consider the prisoner's dilemma (Poundstone, 1992). In which of the following pairings would the participants likely cooperate the least?

One participant from China and one participant from the United States

Contemporary views on human development focus on age-related changes that occur

across the life span

Couples typically experience a drop in marital satisfaction after the birth of a first child. In a longitudinal study that followed two cohorts of participants (Lawrence, et al., 2008), marital satisfaction continued to drop up to ____

The child's 15th birthday

Courtney is desperately sad, has trouble concentrating, and has lost some of her appetite. She has started to skip most of her classes and can't maintain eye contact with others for long. She calls her college's mental health help line and says, "I'm so worried about my grades that my stomach hurts. I don't know what to do." Based on the text's continuum from normal behavior to severely disordered behavior, Courtney's status would be considered ____.

psychological disorder, less severe

Cross-cultural data show that homicide rates are often high in cultures that ____.

feature loving socialization of children and aversion to interpersonal conflict

Daryl is a painter and poet. His work often portrays fantasy images that evoke strong emotion. He loves to travel, particularly in Asia, to view the art at sacred sites and learn about local culture. The Big Five trait that best describes this aspect of Daryl's personality is ____.

openness

A delusion is a(n) ____.

false, illogical belief

The discovery of which class of drugs after World War II changed the treatment of anxiety dramatically?

benzodiazepines

The discovery of which class of drugs after World War II changed the treatment of anxiety dramatically?

benzodiazepines

A dissociative disorder is characterized by disruptions in a person's ____.

identity, memory, or consciousness

Dominic is memorizing vocabulary for his psychology exam, including the term "allele." Which of the following approaches will most help him remember this term?

He reflects on how certain alleles have shaped his own life.

Dr. Blagojevich is interested in understanding how antidepressants affect brain structure. After administering SSRIs to a group of rats for several weeks, Dr. Blagojevich analyzes their brain tissue. He is likely to find an increase in ____ (Malberg, Eisch, Nestler, & Duman, 2000; Nasrallah, Hopkins, & Pixley, 2010).

the number of neurons in the hippocampus

Dr. Cohen uses a humanistic approach when treating his clients. What underlying ideology influences his therapeutic style?

Societal judgments interfere with healthy behavior

Dr. DeMarco prefers to use cognitive-behavioral techniques rather than medication to treat his clients with anxiety disorders because ____.

therapy produces longer-lasting effects

Dr. Moran believes that depression is purely the result of chemical imbalances of the brain and that a simple prescription should address each of his patient's needs. This single-perspective thinking usually leads to ____.

single-perspective treatments

Dr. O'Shea meets with a new patient, Doris, to discuss performing deep brain stimulation for the treatment of her severe depression. He describes the technique to Doris and explains that microelectrodes will be placed in Doris's ____.

nucleus accumbens

Dr. Schwartz is developing transgenic mouse models to better understand the efficacy of drugs used to treat schizophrenia. She manipulates several genes in the mice and then tests the effects of phenothiazines on the rodents. What should she measure to ensure the effectiveness of phenothiazines in her transgenic mouse models?

activity of dopamine receptors

Dr. Sebastian asks his client to say whatever comes to mind about his mother without attempting to censor the content. This technique is referred to as ____.

free association

Dr. Smirnova feels that she made significant progress with her client, Alyssa, at their last session. This week, Alyssa cancels her appointment at the last minute, stating that she does not feel well. Dr. Smirnova suspects that Alyssa is showing signs of ____.

resistance

Dr. Tran, a pediatric psychiatrist, cautions his colleagues against prescribing stimulants for long-term use to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder because of the risk of ____.

growth suppression

A drawback to the purely statistical approach to abnormality is that it might result in very different definitions of psychological disorder ____.

from one culture to the next

During adolescence, what reaches adult levels?

working memory and reaction time

During the 20th century, psychological approaches to treatment reflected the rise of the ____ perspectives.

behavioral and humanist

During what time period does the human brain show rapid growth in gray matter?

in the latter months of pregnancy and the first 18 months of life

Eddie and Tom have been arrested for a crime for which the police have limited evidence against them. They are being questioned about the crime in separate rooms. According to the prisoner's dilemma model, what would bring about the best result for Eddie?

Eddie confesses and Tom remains silent.

Eduardo wants to live a long life for his kids. What should he focus on?

Lifestyle factors

Eileen works in an crowded downtown neighborhood. She constantly worries that her car will be stolen while she is at work, and repeatedly goes back and checks to see that it is locked before finally arriving at the office, frequently late. Her therapist explains that returning to her car so often is a way to reduce the anxiety created by her obsessive thoughts. This is a(n) ____.

learning explanation based on operant conditioning

The Elaboration Likelihood Model predicts responses to persuasive messages by distinguishing between ____.

central and peripheral routes to persuasion

Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) results in the induction of ____.

seizures

Elena's brother was diagnosed with schizophrenia when he was in his twenties. Sometimes he reports that his neighbors are trying to control his behavior through the television set. Which part of the brain shows excess activity during such delusions of control?

the right hemisphere

Elizabeth's boss removes her from a project team working on an important presentation because of repeated tardiness. Her response is to leave the office immediately and drown her sorrows by eating a pint of her favorite ice cream. This is an example of ____.

negative problem-focused coping

Ellie, a sophomore in college, is feeling very stressed about keeping up with her coursework, part-time job, extracurricular activities, social scene, and friends and family at home. What is the first step she should take?

consider whether any stressors can be eliminated

Evidence across diverse cultures, including the United States, Japan, Korea, Germany, Portugal, Israel, and China, suggests that the Big Five personality traits ____ (McCrae & Costa, 1997).

represent a universal human characteristic

The Food and Drug Administration has approved what class of drugs for the treatment of autism?

antipsychotics

For an individual or small group to influence a larger group, it is important to ____.

speak with consistency and confidence

For Freud, what leads to the emergence of personality characteristics?

The resolution of conflicts among the id, ego, and superego

For our hunter-gatherer ancestors to survive, physical activity was essential. Today, what do children and adults in the United States spend an average of 55% of their day doing?

sitting

For which of the following groups do testosterone levels correlate with the violent nature of the crimes for which they were sentenced, as well as the dominance and violence they demonstrated while in prison?

both male and female criminals

Four students in sociology class received a D on their final project and are required to re-write and re-submit it. In their response to this situation, who exemplifies the attribution style that is most prone to depression?

Gina, who feels that she never does well on written assignments and that she's just not good at sociology

Francesca sees how popular budding actors are at her new high school, so although she has never been involved in this area, she decides to join the drama club. This is an example of ____.

the bask in reflected glory approach

Frank knew that his elderly neighbor Madge did not believe in banks and that she kept large amounts of cash hidden in her home. Frank murdered Madge one day when he knew that she would be home alone, and stole her cash. During his trial, expert testimony was presented that Frank fit the criteria for a psychopath. It is highly likely that his crime was found to be ____.

premeditated

From the following list, which client is the least ideal for group therapy?

Dean, who attempted suicide last month

Frontal lobotomies were performed well into the 1960s, despite the fact that damage to the frontal lobe can severely impair a person's ____.

judgment

George has gone into a deep depression after the death of his wife, for whom he had provided daily care for over two years after her first stroke. What role might cortisol play?

Consistently elevated levels of cortisol due to stress can overwhelm the hippocampus's feedback loop and lead to excess levels of cortisol in the bloodstream, which is associated with depression.

Grace is serving on a jury for the first time. She entered the jury room with a dollar amount in mind for damages but, following deliberations, she agreed to a significantly higher number. This is an example of ____.

group polarization

Greg dreamed of being an Olympic rower and a surgeon but ended up not rowing and became an anesthesiologist. He has a happy family and is content. According to Erikson, he is most likely to experience

generativity

Gregory feels that he did well on the final exam in his social history class; however, he is actually in the bottom quarter of the class. If Gregory were to estimate his class standing, he would most likely place himself ____.

in the top half of the class

The group decides to write a letter expressing concern to the local police department, without checking the accuracy of the member's information. This is an example of ____.

groupthink

Hailey plans a family reunion at the lake and wants it to be perfect. With over fifty people attending, though, things do not go exactly according to plan and Hailey is highly stressed all day. Which of the following would most help Hailey reduce her stress levels for future events?

Be flexible with new situations.

Having the long or short version of the gene related to serotonin function interacts with life stress to produce, among other things, different levels of activity in the amygdala and hippocampus, which can be associated with depression. This is an example of ____.

epigenetics

He came home physically healthy but suffering from PTSD. Jake was not much of a drinker before he went to Iraq, but now, he frequently drinks alone at night. To what might this be related?

Lower levels of naturally occurring benzodiazepine activity in the frontal cortex

He wonders whether David let her win because she is so attractive. This is an example of maintaining a stereotype through ____.

situational attribution

The Holmes and Rahe scales have been used to predict vulnerability to physical illness and psychological disorder due to different stressors that are ____.

negative and positive changes in life

How can cultures positively influence "emotion knowledge" development in their youth?

By focusing on information relevant to the self

How does your text define prejudice?

A prejudgment, usually negative, of another person on the basis of his or her membership in a group

Human twin and adoption studies imply that aggressive tendencies in human beings are ____.

at least partly influenced by genetics

If Ethan experiences a big jolt of cortisol due to a stressor late in the evening, how will his sleep likely be affected?

He likely will have difficulty falling asleep and may wake frequently during the night.

In 1960, about 13% of American adults were obese (having a BMI greater than or equal to 30). In 2008, that number was about ____.

34%

In a research study on cognitive dissonance (van Veen, Krug, Schooler, & Carter, 2009), one group of participants undergoing functional MRI was asked to describe the somewhat unpleasant scanner experience as pleasant. The other group was asked to describe it as neutral. Which part(s) of the brain showed higher levels of activity in the participants who made dissonant statements, as compared to those who made neutral statements?

anterior cingulate cortex and insula

In a study among college students (Hystad et al., 2009), the trait of hardiness ____.

was negatively correlated with health complaints within the high academic stress group

In a study at Stanford University (Walton & Cohen, 2011), what was the result of a one-time treatment that framed the stress of fitting into the college experience as common and limited in duration?

It significantly improved the grade point averages (GPAs), happiness ratings, and health of African American students at Stanford University three years later.

In addition to scientific evidence, what does evidence-based practice (EBP) utilize to provide the best outcome for a client?

Clinical expertise and client values

In Freud's personality theory, the self that others see is called the ____.

ego

In Freud's view, it is the job of the ego, or self, to ____.

balance the pleasure-seeking impulses of the id with the morality imposed by the superego

In Freudian theory, projection is ____.

a defense mechanism

In Koscik and Tranel's study regarding the Trust Game (Koscik & Tranel, 2011), the participants most likely to increase the amount of money they gave a partner when the partner had decreased or not changed his contribution were those ____.

with damage to the amygdala

In order to understand the reciprocal relationships between factors leading to psychological disorders, which is the most helpful perspective?

integrated

In research using surveillance camera footage of public places, researchers observed actual fighting behavior and found that third parties ____.

were more likely to intervene when the number of bystanders was larger

In some cultures, children are expected to walk earlier than what would be considered normal in the U.S. This doesn't work because

changes in developmental timeline are virtually imperceptible because motor milestones are genetic

In Sternberg's model, the closeness or bonding we experience with another person is referred to as ____.

intimacy

In the "tit-for-tat" strategy, your first move is to ____.

cooperate

In the 1950s, Henri Laborit encouraged his psychiatric colleagues to try phenothiazines on their psychotic patients. What led him to make this suggestion?

The drugs produced a calming effect on surgical patients.

In the United States, which of the following persons is most likely to smoke?

John, who is from a multi-racial background, has difficulty finding and keeping jobs, has not attended college, and is starting to show signs of paranoia

In the upcoming DSM-V, the criteria for antisocial personality disorder will ____.

be more similar to the definition of psychopathy

In what order do these occur?

raise head, roll, sit, crawl, walk, hop

In which of the following situations is Molly more likely to comply with the request of Valeria, whom she is meeting for the first time?

Valeria is an attractive and energetic woman about the same age as Molly.

In whose life have epigenetic processes likely played the most dominant role?

Sixty-five old Oliver, who has worked hard as a truck driver since he was 19 years old

Individual, gender, cultural, and task variables interact to produce social loafing. Who has the greatest potential for social loafing?

Robert is a male from a Western culture and is working in a group to pick up trash along the highway.

Jack has been drinking daily for many years. He finds that over time, he has had to increase the amount he drinks to feel the same buzz. This is an example of ____.

tolerance

Jacob is nine years old. He dislikes and often avoids doing things that require sustained mental effort, such as his schoolwork and homework. According to the DSM, ____.

he has met one criterion for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

Javier is disciplined in his research process and in his record-keeping, and follows his advisor's recommendations to the letter, as he wants to eventually accomplish a lot in this field. The Big Five trait that best describes this aspect of Javier's personality is ____.

conscientiousness

Jenny and her mom Alice's facial expression interpretation may differ because

Jenny's amygdala has matured before her frontal lobes

Jessica, Zach, and their dog Max have been together for twelve years. Their friends joke that they all look alike. Jessica and Zach are both very attractive with dark hair and dark eyes. This similarity is known as ____.

the matching hypothesis

Jim is on a diet. At his office, his co-workers often bring in donuts, cookies, and other snacks for the group. He has done fairly well in resisting the temptations each day. How does he likely feel by late afternoon?

He's focused on his favorite snack

Joanne's puppy is very large, but also submissive. When the puppy meets a more dominant dog, she lies on the grass on her back, shows her belly, and wiggles. This is an example of ____.

minimizing within-group conflict by clear signals of lower status

Jonah is a very physical and quite aggressive eight-year-old. All his friends were signed up for soccer but his parents chose football. This is an example of ____.

sublimation

Joshua is eight years old and cannot control his temper. His parents encourage him to vent his anger by punching an inflatable doll. This approach will most likely ____.

heighten his feelings of aggression

Joshua whines and often demands attention from his parents and won't leave them at the park. What kind of parenting style do his parents have?

unresponsive or inconsistent

A judgment about the cause of a person's behavior is called a(n) ____.

attribution

Julio's term paper is due on Thursday at 5 P.M. On Wednesday, he asks his professor if he can turn it in on Friday morning, to which his professor agrees. On Thursday afternoon, he asks his professor if he can hand the paper in on Monday morning. What persuasive technique does this most resemble?

foot in the door

Justin is nineteen. In the past, he drove at an abnormally high speed if no police cars were in sight. Now he believes it is in everybody's best interests to obey speed limits and other traffic rules. According to Kohlberg's stages of moral reasoning, this represents ____.

conventional morality

Kimberly learns that each of her three best friends has a BMI of 30 or greater, which means that they are obese. She herself is overweight, with a BMI of 27, but is not obese. Which of the following is true?

Having obese friends increases her risk of obesity by 57%.

Kohlberg's postconventional reasoning has been criticized as not representing a universal stage of moral development, but rather being ____

A characteristic of males in Europe and the United States

Lauren has been chosen to introduce the guest speaker to her economics class. She is worried about how she will look and sound to her classmates, her palms are sweaty, and she can feel her heart beating. This is best described as ____.

social anxiety

The lifetime risk of developing schizophrenia for a person in the general population is about 1%. For an identical twin of someone with schizophrenia, it is about ____.

50%

Long term marriage partners have more similarities to one another because of their lifetime in each other's company and

lack of attention to past negative events and personality traits

Lucas is someone who would score high on the Big Five trait of neuroticism. When dealing with interpersonal stress, with whom would he be most likely to use a positive relationship-focused coping method, such as empathy?

his barista

Lucia has always been what some researchers call a cooperator, that is, someone who gives freely of her time, her money, and so forth, usually irrespective of the behavior of others. Cooperators, though small in number in society, are very important because ____.

most people are reciprocators who cooperate only after seeing others do so

Mahatma Gandhi employed non-violent civil disobedience in his efforts towards India's independence from foreign powers. These actions reflects Kohlberg's stage of ____.

postconventional morality

The major theme of physical and cognitive development during midlife is

stability

Mania, unlike many other disorders, actually ____.

increases productive, goal-directed behavior

Manny coaches a team of ten-year-old boys in baseball. When they lost to their arch rivals by a score of 7-2, the boys complained that the umpire was not fair and that they would have won if they had played on their home field. This is an example of ____.

group-serving bias

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