A.P. U.S. Government Important Supreme Court Cases and Amendment

60 terms by sdinapoli92 

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This is basically important stuff from the Princeton review book. all states are abreviated without punctuation all cases are v. not vs.

Schenck v. US

clear and present danger for 1st amendment speech

Griswold v. CT

implied right to privacy (about contraceptives)

Mapp v. Ohio

exclusionary rule (no improperly obtained evidence)

Smith v. Allwright

African Americans must be allowed to vote in primary

Wesberry v. Sanders

One man one vote doctrine about district lines (for congress)

Buckley v. Valeo

campaign donations are a form a free speech (case that weakened FECA)

Reynolds v. Sims

voting districts must be roughly equal in population (for state bicameral legislatures)

Shaw v. Reno; Miller v. Johnson

can't use race to draw district lines

Marbury v. Madison

established judicial review (about madision putting in midnight judges right before he left office)

Fletcher v. Peck

judicial review for states

McCulloch v. MD

states can't tax national banks; congress can charter a bank

Gibbons v. Ogden

NY can't control interstate waterway; interstate commerce

Gideon v. Wainwright

incorporated the right to counsel (have a lawyer)

Gitlow v. New York

freedom of speech limited with bad tendency rule

Tinker v. Des Moines

students have freedom of speech in schools; clothing is freedom of speech as well

Texas v. Johnson

flag burning is protected speech

Miller v. CA

3 Part Obscenity Test: 1. normal person would think it's very sexual 2. how much artisitc value it has 3. has offensive sexual depictions

New York Times v. US

limited government's ability/reasons to keep the press from printing information (over the Pentagon Papers)

Boyscouts v. Dale

since it's private group, membership can be discriminated based on sexual orientation

Engel v. Vitale

no state-sanctioned prayer in schools

Epperson v. AR

no banning schools from teaching evolution (religious endorsement/entanglement)

Lemon v. Kurtzman

Lemon Test: 1. action has secular purpose 2. no effect for or against a certain religion 3. no excessive government entanglement

Miranda v. AZ

inform suspect of their rights before arresting them (or else there is self-incrimination, something protected against in the constitution)

Furman v. GA

temporarily suspended all death penalties until a less arbitrary policy was presented

Gregg v. GA

presented a specific system for deciding on death penalty as a sentence so death penalty sentencing resumed

Atkins v. VA

no capital punishment for the mentally retarded

Roe v. Wade

choice for abortion protected as right to privacy; banned any extreme limits that place undue difficulty to get abortion

Webster v. Reproductive Health Services

allows stricter abortion limitations

Planned Parenthood v. Casey

woman doesn't have to tell husband first but the other 2 parts of the law--24 hour wiating period and parental consent for minors--upheld

Lawrence v. TX

struck down law criminalizing sodomy

Heart of Atlanta Motel, Inc. v. US

hotels and etc. count as public accomodation and can't discriminate

University of California Regents v. Bakke

can't have affirmative action plan based on quotas

Korematsu v. US

upheld executive orders for internment camps

US v. Nixon

executive priviledge does not apply to criminal cases

Clinton v. NY

no line-item vetoes

First

religion (free exercise; establishment), speech, press, assembly, petition

Second

right to bear arms

Fourth

protection against unreasonable search and seizure

Fifth

justice system: grand jury for criminal cases, no double jeopardy, no self incrimination, due process of law, eminent domain

Sixth

right to a speedy trial, habeas corpus, a lawyer, and to subpoena witnesses

Eighth

no excessive bail and no cruel and unusual punishment

Ninth

any right not mentioned in the Constitution goes to the people or the states (way to assure Federalists the Bill of Rights doesn't define the only rights we have)

Tenth

states have all powers not given to the federal government unless those powers conflict with federal laws or the Constitution

11th

states can't be sued by people from outside the state without the state's consent

12th

in the elctoral college, one vote for president, one vote for vice president

13th

prohibited slavery

14th

guaranteed rights to everyone, incorporation

15th

all men can vote

16th

progressive income tax

17th

direct election of US senators

18th

prohibition (no alcohol)

19th

gave women the vote

20th

set when presidents' terms begin and inauguration (there had been problems with the psace in between each president)

21st

abolished the Prohibition

22nd

only two terms per president

23rd

D.C. can vote for president and has electoral votes

24th

no poll tax

25th

rules for presidential succession and also removing president from office

26th

the voting age is 18

27th

when congress raises its pay, they don't get paid more until after the next election

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