Chinese Exclusion Act
(1882) Denied any additional Chinese laborers to enter the country while allowing students and merchants to immigrate.
Rocky Mountain Fur Company
Founded in St. Louis in 1822 by William Ashley & Andrew Henry, their mountain men lived rugged lives
Indians were promised gifts and payments; meant to cut down intertribal warfare and enable government negotiations with separate tribes
was an incident in the Indian Wars of the United States that occurred on November 29, 1864, when Colorado Territory militia attacked and destroyed a village of Cheyenne and Arapaho encamped on the eastern plains.
In attempts to block the construction of this road to MT, Sioux massacred and mutilated 81 soldiers under Capt. Fetterman's command
leader of the Oglala who resisted the development of a trail through Wyoming and Montana by the United States government (1822-1909)
an American general/colonel that took part in the Sioux War and ultimately died in an engagement at the Big Horn.
a chief of the Sioux who resisted the invasion of the Black Hills and joined Sitting Bull in the defeat of General Custer at Little Bighorn (1849-1877)
Custer's Last Stand
when there was a gold rush in the reservations and the sioux tribe lead by chief crazy horse and cheif sitting bull tried to hold back the rush and georage a custer and his troops got trapped with his 264 troops all were killed
Led by Chief Joseph, they fled to Canada after the U.S. authorities tried to put them in a reservation. They eventually surrendered and where placed in a reservation in Kansas, where most of them died. After that they were allowed to live in a reservation in Idaho
Leader of Nez Perce. Fled with his tribe to Canada instead of reservations. However, US troops came and fought and brought them back down to reservations
Dawes Severalty Act of 1887
dissolved many tribes as legal entities, wiped out tribal ownership of land, and set up individual Indian family heads with 160 free acres. If the Indians behaved like "good white settlers" then they would get full title to their holdings as well as citizenship. The Dawes Act attempted to assimilate the Indians with the white men. The Dawes Act remained the basis of the government's official Indian policy until the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934.
first discovered in 1858 by Henry Comstock, some of the most plentiful and valuable silver was found here, causing many Californians to migrate here, and settle Nevada.
Timber Culture Act
1873-act of Congress added to the Homestead Act stating a person who planted 40 acres of trees and maintained timber for 10 years were granted 160 acres of land
Passed in 1862, it gave 160 acres of public land to any settler who would farm the land for five years. The settler would only have to pay a registration fee of $25.
large farms that came to dominate agricultural life in much of the West in the late 1800s; instead of plots farmed by yeoman farmers, large amounts of machinery were used, and workers were hired laborers, often performing only specific tasks(similar to work in a factory).
Pacific Railway Act of 1862
provides federal subsidies in land and loans for the construction of a transcontinental railroad by companies (mainly Union Pacific and Central Pacific)
James J. Hill
driving force of the Gr. Northern Railway , Became a Shipping Agent For Winnipeg Merchants Nicknamed the "Empire Builder"
a cattle trader who built large cattle pens called stockyards near some railroad tracks in Abilene, Kansas
Open Range Ranching
people weren't buying land and fencing it off, they were branding their stock and letting them roam free, they would drive them to the cattle towns
John Wesley Powell
explorer and geologist who warned that traditional agriculture could not succeed west of 100th meridian
Desert Land Act
1906, Federal government sold arid land cheaply on the condition that the purchaser irrigate the thirsty soil within 3 years.
Barbed Wire Wars
cowboys started roping off area around water and grazing areas that only their cattle could use, lead to decline of that market
Refers to the industrialists or big business owners who gained huge profits by paying their employees extremely low wages. They also drove their competitors out of business by selling their products cheaper than it cost to produce it. Then when they controlled the market, they hiked prices high above original price.
Essentials of Industrial Growth
REASONS: new natural resources: gold, silver, oil, iron; Growth of population added to market; Protective tariffs. LED TO: huge immigrant work force; tech growth; cut throat businesses; displacement; "New Industry" = Railroads; business genius
made fortune in shipping business: a railroad owner who built a railway connecting Chicago and New York. He popularized the use of steel rails in his railroad, which made railroads safer and more economical.
dominant system builder, who would put together properties just to unload them for a profit
made his fortune by designing and building sleeper cars that made long distance rail travel more comfortable. Built a company town near Chicago for his employees.
A way to manufacture steel quickly and cheaply by blasting hot air through melted iron to quickly remove impurities.
Developed in the 1880s, a practice by which railroads would give money back to its favored customers, rather than charging them lower prices, so that it could appear to be charging a flat rate for everyone.
long haul/short haul evils
Different railroad companies charged separate rates for hauling goods a long or short distance. The Interstate Commerce Act made it illegal to charge more per mile for a short haul than a long one.
JP Morgan's process of taking over troubled businesses to reorganize them. Morgan reorganized business structures and management in order to return them to profitability. His reputation as a banker and financier also helped bring interest from investors to the businesses he took over
Firms or corporations that combine for the purpose of reducing competition and controlling prices (establishing a monopoly). There are anti-trust laws to prevent these monopolies.
Edison's company; in fear of technological competition, they created one of the first corporate laboratories in 1900, increasing corporate research and development labs, but causing a decline in government support in research. This attracted more skillful researchers and decentralized the sources of research funding.
Progress and poverty
Written by Henry George, critical of entreprenuers, after studying poverty in America, determined that rich didn't pay fair share of taxes and proposed "Single Tax" on incremental value of land
Creates Carnegie Steel. Gets bought out by banker JP Morgan and renamed U.S. Steel. Andrew Carnegie used vertical integration by buying all the steps needed for production. Was a philanthropist. Was one of the "Robber barons"
Standard Oil Company
Rockefeller's trust company w/monopoly on refining oil using horizontal integreation; Supreme Ct. ordered to be dissolved
Creator of the Standard Oil Company who made a fortune on it and joined with competing companies in trust agreements that in other words made an amazing monopoly.
William Graham Sumner
He was an advocate of Social Darwinism claiming that the rich were a result of natural selection and benefits society. He, like many others promoted the belief of Social Darwinism which justified the rich being rich, and poor being poor.
policy based on the idea that government should play as small a role as possible in the economy
The application of ideas about evolution and "survival of the fittest" to human societies - particularly as a justification for their imperialist expansion.
Gospel of Wealth
This was a book written by Carnegie that described the responsibility of the rich to be philanthropists. This softened the harshness of Social Darwinism as well as promoted the idea of philanthropy.
wrote Progress and Poverty, an attack on the uneven distribution of wealth. Proposed a property tax
flat tax proposed by Henry George. (A flat tax is one in which every person pays the same amount, regardless of whether they are rich or poor.)
written in 1888 by Edward Bellamy, tells the story of a young man who wakes in 2000
Henry Demarest Lloyd
He wrote the book "Wealth Against Commonwealth" in 1894. It was part of the progressive movement and the book's purpose was to show the wrong in the monopoly of the Standard Oil Company.
Socialist LAbor PArty
founded in the 1870s and led for many years by Daniel De Leon (immigrant from teh WEst Indies)-he attracted a modest following in the industrial cities but failed to become a major political force-never polled more than 82000 votes-it appealed more to intellectuals than to workers
German philosopher, economist, and revolutionary. With the help and support of Friedrich Engels he wrote The Communist Manifesto (1848) and Das Kapital (1867-1894). These works explain historical development in terms of the interaction of contradictory economic forces, form the basis of all communist theory, and have had a profound influence on the social sciences.
Daniel De Leon
leader of the socialist labor party during the 1890s. He believed in military labor activities and created an union.
Knights of LAbor
one of the most important American labor organizations of the 19th century, demanded an end to child and convict labor, equal pay for women, a progressive income tax, and the cooperative employer-employee ownership of mines and factories; replaced by AF of L after a botched protest
National Grange of the Patrons of Husbandry
This organization better known as the Grange, was organized in 1867 by Oliver H. Kelley; its objective was to enhance the lives of isolated farmers through social, educational, and fraternal activities; the Grangers gradually raised their goals from individual self-improvement to the farmer' collective plight
Munn v. Illinois
1876; The Supreme Court upheld the Granger laws. The Munn case allowed states to regulate certain businesses within their borders, including railroads, and is commonly regarded as a milestone in the growth of federal government regulation.
Pacific Railroad v. Illinois
declared unconstitutional an Illinois regulation outlawing the long-and-short-haul evil
Interstate Commerce Act
prohibited rebates and pools, required railroads to publish rates, forbade discrimination against shippers, and outlawed charging more for short haul than for a long one over the same line; Set up ICC.
Sherman Antitrust Act
First federal action against monopolies, it was signed into law by Harrison and was extensively used by Theodore Roosevelt for trust-busting. However, it was initially misused against labor unions
US v. EC Knight Company
Court undermined the authority of the fed to act against monopolies; said that the American Sugar Refininng Company had not violated the law by taking over a number of important competitors
National Labor Union
1866 - established by William Sylvis - wanted 8hr work days, banking reform, and an end to conviction labor - attempt to unite all laborers
Labor disorders had broken out and on May 4 1886, the Chicago police advanced on a protest; alleged brutalities by the authorities. Suddenly a dynamite bomb was thrown that killed or injured dozens, including police. It is still unknown today who set off the bomb, but following the hysteria, eight anarchists (possibly innocent) were rounded up. Because they preached "incendiary doctrines," they could be charged with conspiracy. Five were sentenced to death, one of which committed suicide; the other three were given stiff prison terms. Six years later, a newly elected Illinois governor recognized this gross injustice and pardoned the three survivors. Nevertheless, the Knights of Labor were toast: they became (incorrectly )associated with anarchy and all following strike efforts failed.
American Federation of LAbor
Federation of craft labor unions lead by Samuel Gompers that arose out of dissatisfaction with the Knights of Labor; had some utopian ideas
United States labor leader (born in England) who was president of the American Federation of Labor from 1886 to 1924 (1850-1924)
In 1894, a strike at this location was ordered to halt and was told that their striking violation the Sherman anti-trust act of 1890. This led to people like Gompers being very upset with the judge. The Sherman anti-trust at was created to stop monopolies from limiting competition. Instead it was used against labor unions, saying that they limited competition, and forcing workers to avoid unions.torkers
any decision that J. P. Morgan made had such a great impact on the economy that he pretty much controls the economy giving him a money trust
Luisa May Alcott
Little Women; novelist whose tales of family life helped economically support her and her own struggling transendentalist family
Middle Class Life
lost reform zeal with the civil war, smaller families, children were treasured and well supervised, marriage for love, women remained home, fashionable clothes, "culture of consumption"
economist, wrote Theory of the Leisure Class, condemned conspicuous consumerism, where status is displayed and conveyed through consumption.
member of the working class who performs manual labor and earns an hourly wage; began to rise in industrial hierarchy because large corporations were employing management
name for rural farmers. came about because the farmers place in the economy is declining, as is the percentage of people who live in rural areas
wages varied greatly and some were well off others were not; diverse group of opinions: some content, some wanted graduated income tax, some wanted child labor to end; overall dissatisfaction although living conditions had improved; able to work ones way up; rags to riches myth; focus on education to improve working opportunities
Italians and Greeks; Southern and Eastern Europe; mostly peasants; some didn't plan to stay but to earn money and return to Europe; faced discriminiation
Or labor boss, met immigrants upon arrival and secured jobs for them in New York, Chicago, or wherever there was an immediate demand for industrial labor. (Usually Italians)
a policy of favoring native-born individuals over foreign-born ones; in US disliked Catholics and other minority groups more than immigrants
American Protective Association
an American anti-Catholic society (similar to the Know Nothings) that was founded on March 13, 1887 by Attorney Henry F. Bowers in Clinton, Iowa
Immigration Restriction League
A Nativist group who wanted to restrict immigration into the U.S. to certain groups they deemed desirable. Because of them congress passed a bill in 1897 requiring a literacy test for immigrants.
the most popular sports hero of the ninetheenth century; a heavywieght boxer. He came out of retirement to defend a win the Police Gazette's championship belt from his rival kilrain.
focused on improving living conditions rather than on saving souls; advocated civil service reform, child labor legislation, regulation of big corporations, and heavy taxes on incomes and inheritance
Congregationalist minister who followed the social gospel and supported social reform. A prolific writer whose newspaper cloumns and many books made him a national leader of the Social gospel movement.
United States architect known for his steel framed skyscrapers and for coining the phrase 'form follows function' (1856-1924)
A Danish immigrant, he became a reporter who pointed out the terrible conditions of the tenement houses of the big cities where immigrants lived during the late 1800s. He wrote How The Other Half Lives in 1890.
a welfare agency for needy families, combated juvenile delinquency, and assisted recent immigrants in learning the English language and in becoming citizens. Jane Addams of the Hull House Settlement in Chicago
1860-1935. Founder of Settlement House Movement (Hull House). First American Woman to earn Nobel Peace Prize in 1931 as president of Women's Intenational League for Peace and Freedom.
Granted land to each state @ a per with senator and rep, provided it gave important universities land or financial aid
Harvard president, revised curriculum, set up elective system, lectures and discussions, moved Harvard to the top
Based on Say's Law, Classical economists believed that if left alone, an economy would always tend back toward full employment. They were strong proponents of the Laissez Faire approach to economic management - "Hands off."
English philosopher and sociologist who applied the theory of natural selection to human societies (1820-1903)
developed a theory of social evolution and showed how kinship relationships reflected and affected tribal institutions
Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr.
Said laws should evolve, published The Common Law. Was an American jurist who served as an associate justice on the Supreme Court of the United States from 1902 to 1932. Noted for his long service, his concise and pithy opinions, and his deference to the decisions of elected legislatures, he is one of the most widely cited United States Supreme Court justices in history, particularly for his "clear and present danger" majority opinion in the 1919 case of Schenck v. United States, and is one of the most influential American common-law judges.
He was a philosopher who believed in "learning by doing" which formed the foundation of progressive education. He believed that the teachers' goal should be "education for life and that the workbench is just as important as the blackboard."
Dewey made great contributions; set forth the principles of "learning by doing" that formed the foundation of progressive education' workbench was as essential as black board; "education for life" should be primary goal for teachers
Frederick Jackson Turner
American historian who said that humanity would continue to progress as long as there was new land to move into. The frontier provided a place for homeless and solved social problems.
Age of Realism
truthful representation of reality of common, contemporary (often middle class) life or "verisimilitude;" authors include Chopin, Tolstoy, Dickinson, and Longfellow
William Dean Howells
self-conscious realist; wrote about problem that arose with industrialization; also a critic of books; books were well read
The term naturalism describes a type of literature that attempts to apply scientific principles of objectivity and detachment to its study of human beings. Unlike realism which focuses on literary technique naturalism implies a philosophical position
was a painter, photographer, sculptor, and fine arts educator. He was one of the greatest American painters of his time, an innovating teacher, and an uncompromising realist
broke the Old World traditions in art, and was vigorously American in his paintings of New England maritime life and other native subjects.
James McNeill Whistler
He painted a portrait of his mother ("Whistler's Mother") is probably the most famous painting by an American. He was an eccentric, but he was also talented and versatile, proficient in both realistic and romantic art.
an American in exile in Paris, painted sensitive portrayals of women and children that earned her a place in the pantheon of the French impressionist painters.
theory that eternal truths were difficult to justify in a world that was constantly evolving
One of the first adult education programs. Started in 1874 as a summer training program for Sunday School teachers, it developed into a travelling lecture series and adult summer school which traversed the country providing religious and secular education though lectures and classes.
Hungarian-born journalistic tycoon who lead the techniques of sensationalism, especially with his New York World. Published the first comic, the Yellow Kid.
William Randolph Hearst
United States newspaper publisher whose introduction of large headlines and sensational reporting changed American journalism (1863-1951)
Separation of Powers
Senate overshadowed the House, presidents were weak; Democrat-Republican differences were sectional
Political Questions (4)
1) Bloody shirt 2) Tariff/Free Trade 3) Currency Reform/Deflation 4) Civil Service reform/Patronage
New England: Repub; South: Dem; Bloody Shirt; Bribes....Both parties favored a protective tariff, nothing got done, people wanted patronage dropped and civil service reform
Grand Army of the Republic
This organization was founded by former Union soldiers after the Civil War. It lobbied Congress for aid and pensions for former Union soldiers. It was also a powerful lobbying influence within the Republican party.
Mass. congressman dramatically displayed to his colleagues in the House the bloodstained shirt of an Ohio carpetbagger who had been flogged by terrorists; meant to remind the electorate of the northern states that the men who had precipitated the Civil War had been Democrats
National Greenback Party
Founded in 1878, the party was primarily composed of prairie farmers who went into debt during the Panic of 1873. The Party fought for increased monetary circulation through issuance of paper currency and bimetallism (using both gold and silver as legal tender), supported inflationary programs in the belief that they would benefit debtors, and sought benefits for labor such as shorter working hours and a national labor bureau. They had the support of several labor groups and they wanted the government to print more greenbacks.
American Politician, Lawyer, military leader, and the 19th president of the United States. Only president elected by Congressional Commission. Approved resumption of gold payments. Wanted fairness toward blacks but took no action. Fought for but failed to achieve, civil service reform. Played down tariff issue.
Hayes's successor; murdered. Oratory skills made him a prominent republican; his vp was Chester Arthur
Abolitionist; spoils system follower; had been Garfield's VP; gave some support to the movement for civil service reform
It made compulsory campaign contributions from federal employees illegal, and established the Civil Service Commission to make appointments to federal jobs on the basis of examination rather than cronyism
Democrat who followed Arthur's presidency. Liked by civil service reformers and business men; vetoed a popular bill to force a reduction of fares on railway in NY saying it was unconstitutional causing his rep to soar; won an election based on personal issues; served two separate terms
group of eastern Republicans campaigned for Democrats; wanted to do away with government corruption
23rd President; Republican, poor leader, introduced the McKinley Tariff and increased federal spending to a billion dollars; Sherman anti-trust act was passed under him
Blacks after Reconstruction
Hayes said there was an Era of good feelings (he was wrong); Garfield said time was the only cure; Arthur gave federal patronage to antiblack groups in an effort to split the democratic south; hypocritical politicians; poll taxes and literacy taxes
Civil Rights Cases
This post civil war decision stated that the 14th Amendment only outlawed government discrimination and could not stop PRIVATE businesses (theatres, hotels...) from discrimination.
Plessy v. Ferguson
sumpreme court ruled that segregation public places facilities were legal as long as the facilites were equal
Booker T. Washington
felt that african americans should accept segregation and the best way to overcome it is to improve you farming an d vocational skills
Booker T. Washington built this school to educate black students on learning how to support themselves and prosper
delighted white southerners and won Washington financial support in every Section of the country. Blacks had mixed feelings. Washington had asked the whites to lend blacks a hand in their efforts to advance themselves. He promised that they'd be surrounded by the most patient and unresentful ppl that the world had ever seen.
Confrontation and Accommodation
a choice faced by many blacks, especially in the late 1800s. The choice was whether or not to confront or accommodate discrimination against them
A Farmers' organization founded in late 1870s; worked for lower railroad freight rates, lower interest rates, and a change in the governments tight money policy
Also Known as the People's Party, they demanded unlimited coinage of silver, a graduated income tax, direct election of senators, and immigration restrictions
United States politician and member of the United States House of Representatives, representing Iowa as a member of the Greenback Party. He ran for President two times on third party tickets in the late 19th century. An opponent of the gold standard and national banks, he is most famous as the presidential nominee of the Populist Party in the 1892 election His close race for presidency showed the rise of a third party.
Bland-Allison Silver Purchase Act
Authorized the buying of between $2-3 million of silver a month had little inflationary effect because the government consistently purchased the minimum amounts
Sherman Silver Purchase Act
In 1890, an act was passed so that the treasury would by 4.5 million ounces of silver monthly and pay those who mined it in notes that were redeemable in either gold or silver. This law doubled the amount of silver that could be purchased under the Bland-Allison Law of 1878.
Depression of 1893
caused by excessive building and overspeculation as well as a continued agricultural depression along with the free coining of silver and the collecting of debts by European banking houses, this was the worst economic downturn of the nineteenth century
Supporters of Ohio populist Jacob Coxey who in 1894 marched on Washington, demanded taht the government create jobs for the unemployed; although this group had no effect whatsoever on policy, it did demonstrate the social and economic impact of the Panic of 1893.
William Marcy Tweed
N.Y. political boss (did not hold a political office) controlled the Democratic political machine known as Tammany Hall; Stole $200 million form New York City
Pollock v. Farmers' Loan and Trust Company
invalidated Federal income tax law even though it had been allowed during civil war
William Jennings Bryan
Politician who ran for president 1896, 1900 and 1908 under Democrats, was a pro-silverite and Populist leader
Marcus Alonzo Hanna
Used the money he made in the iron business to support William McKinley's presidential campaign. He became a personification of big business in politics.
25th president, Republican, Spanish-American War, Philippine-American War, and the Annexation of Hawaii, imperialism
Election of 1896
Republican William McKinley defeated Democrat William Jennings Bryan in 1896. Bryan was the nominee of the Democrats, the Populist Party, and the Silver Republicans. Economic issues, including bimetallism, the gold standard, Free Silver, and the tariff, were crucial. Funding by Hanna helped McKinley win. Battle between gold and silver proved unimportant. McKinley's campaign was the first modern one.