Principles of Democracy
Personal liberty, respect for the individual, equality of opportunity, popular consent, free and fair elections, majority rule, freedom of expression, and the right to assemble and protest
the interests of a society as a whole, also called "public good" and "general welfare."
A system of government in which citizens elect representatives, or leaders, to make decisions about the laws for all the people.
Articles of Confederation - No president, or national court and congress was limited. Unanimous consent was needed. Congress had no powers of taxation, regulate commerce or pass laws.
a system in which power is divided between the national and state governments
Separation of Powers
the division of power among the legislative, executive, and judicial branches of government
Checks and Balances
A system that allows each branch of government to limit the powers of the other branches in order to prevent abuse of power
Rule of Law
concept that no individual is above the law
Framers of the Constitution
all the delegates who met in 1787 to write the Constitution including James Madison, and Bejamin Franklin
McCullock v. Maryland
United States Bank in Baltimore did not have to pay MD state taxes because of the supremacy clause
step 1: amendment proposed by 2/3 vote of both houses of congress OR a constitutional convention called by congress on petition of 2/3 out of 50 states. THEN amendment ratified by 3/4 of the 50 state legislatures OR 3/4 of special constitutional conventions called by 50 states THEN the new amendment!
Consent of the Governed
agreement by the people of a nation to subject themselves to the authority to a government. Natural rights philosophers, such as John Locke, believe that any legitimate government must draw its authority from the consent of the governed.
Governance according to the expressed preferences of the majority
The concept that political power rests with the people who can create, alter, and abolish government. People express themselves through voting and free participation in government
The part of the Constitution that permits Congress to make any laws "necessary and proper" to carrying out its powers
the transfer of powers and responsibilities from the federal government to the states
this conflict in Massachusetts caused many to criticize the Articles of Confederation and admit the weak central government was not working; uprising led by Daniel Shays in an effort to prevent courts from foreclosing on the farms of those who could not pay the taxes
The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.
Powers denied to both the states and the national government
Powers specifically given to the federal government by the US Constitution, for example, the authority to print money.
powers that the Constitution does not give to the national government that are kept by the states
Powers that the Constitution gives to both the national and state governments, such as the power to levy taxes (shared)
powers that congress has that are specifically listed in the constitution
Powers inferred from the express powers that allow Congress to carry out its functions
The clause in the Constitution (Article I, Section 8, Clause 1) that gives Congress the power to regulate all business activities that cross state lines or affect more than one state or other nations.
Gibbons v. Ogden
steamboat case, state of NY tried to grant a private concern a monopoly of waterborne commerce between NY and NJ...developed interstate trade
Full Faith and Credit
first words of Article IV, Section 1 of the Constitution, which requires states to respect the "public acts, records, and judicial proceedings" of all the other states.
The process of reassigning representation (house) based on population after every census (10 years)
tendencies of people grouped by age, gender, ethnicity, education, or income that change over time
older - R; male - R; catholic - R; wealthy and highly educated - R opposite for democrats
information gathered from a formal counting of people
The practice of letting voters accept or reject measures proposed by the legislature
allowed all citizens to introduce a bill into the legislative and required members to take a vote on it
Election in which voters choose the candidates from each party who will run in the general election
Used to be held in Washington and California -- all voters could vote for any candidate, regardless of party.
a primary in which any registered voter can vote (but must vote for candidates of only one party)
Primary election in which only persons registered in the party holding the primary may vote.
Election in which voters choose their leaders for elected offices
those already holding office. In congressional elections, incumbents usually win.
The process -- most notably in families, the media, and schools -- by which we develop our political attributes, values, and beliefs.
an individuals coherent set of values and beliefs about the purpose and scope of government
The belief that one's political participation really matters - that one's vote can actually make a difference
1. Class(more income- more involvement and higher rates of voting) 2. Age(middle age and 65+ vote most) 3. Race(Blacks vote more and mroe) 4. Ethnicity(lations is lower) 5. Gender Gap( since 1980 women have exceeding mens votes), Results of Elections; Surveys and Polls; Political Socialization
-is becoming weaker-, a citizen's self-proclaimed preference for one party or the other
less gov. spending, less use of troops, freedom of choice, oppose prayer in schools, favor affirmative action, view gov. as a regulator in the public interest, tax the rich more, spend more money on the poor, solve problems that cause crime and guard defendants rights' carefully
maintain peace through strength (military spending), supports troops, right to life, support prayer in schools, oppose affirmative action, favor free-market solutions, low taxes, low spending, go after the criminals, free gun control, less criminal rights
a person who takes a position in the political center, most of the voters are moderate
French political writer noted for his analysis of American institutions (1805-1859); Introduced America to the world
The redrawing of congressional and other legislative district lines following the census, to accommodate population shifts and keep districts as equal as possible in population.
A shift of voting patterns to form new coaltions of party support
Separate powers - layer cake; , A system of government in which both the states and the national government remain supreme within their own spheres, each responsible for some policies.
Cooperation among federal, state, &local govts; "marble cake" federalism
to be a candidate, one must file for office, win a party primary, and then win a general election. to be a voter in Maryland, a person must be an 18 year old citizen by general election day and must register 30 days before the election
"Horse Race" Journalism
Election coverage by the mass media that focuses on which candidate is ahead rather than on national issues.
organization of people who share political, social or other goals; and agree to try to influence public policy to achieve those goals.
Groups of people trying to advance themselves political by gaining office, organization that tries to influence gov. policy by promoting its ideas and backing candidates for office
Political Action Committees
groups formed for the purpose of raising money to elect or defeat political candidates , They usually represent business, unions, or idealogical interests. maximum of $5000
representatives of interest groups who contact lawmakers or other government officials directly to influence their policy making; grassroots lobbying, electioneering and legislative
of or involving the common people as constituting a fundamental politico-economic group
Direct group involvement in the electoral process. Groups can help fund campaigns, provide testimony, and get members to work for candidates, and some form political action committees (PAC)
a legal proceeding in a court
people seeking elected office
the process which a candidate tries to become elected to a public office.
A body of attitudes, beliefs, and views pertaining to specific issues held by a significant proportion of a society.
non-profit organizations with unlimited campaign money contribution, independent groups that seek to influence the political process but are not subject to contribution restrictions because they do not directly advocate the election of a particular candidate.
partisans who contribute time, energy, and effort to support their party and its candidates
Baker v. Carr
case that est. one man one vote. this decision created guidelines for drawing up congresional districts and guaranteed a more equitable system of representation to the citizens of each state
Shaw v. Reno
The Court ruled that although it was a legitimate goal for state legislatures to take race into account when they draw electoral districts in order ot increase the voting strength of minorities, they may not make race the sole reason for drawing district lines; made gerrymandering illegal
House Rules Committee
Determines the rules for debate of each bill, including whether the bill may be amended. This is the most powerful committee in the House.
Powers of Congress
The power to levy, or collect, taxes, and to borrow money. Also has the power coin money, establish post offices, to fix standard weights and measures, and declare war, commerce power, bankruptcy, promote science and arts (copyright laws)take private property (eminent domain), necessary and proper
Powers of Senate
can introduce any legislation except money bills, can veto legislation, neither chamber has power to override amendant or veto the other , ratifies treating; confirms appointments of cabinet and court judges; holds impeachment trials
Powers of House
initiate impeachment, appropriation, determine prez if tie; starts revenue bills
Favors members of Congress do for constituents- usually in the form of help n dealing with the federal bureaucracy
The people to whom a politician feels responsible to and will usually be willing to do favors for in order for votes. However because of voter turnout the constituents are usually only 40% of the population. helps community as a whole
Assistance given to constituents by congressional members, answering questions/doing favors
a tactic for delaying or obstructing legislation by making long speeches
Powers of the President
chief of state, chief executive, appointment powers, grant reprieves and pardons, wartime powers, proposal and ratification of treaties, executive agreements, passing or denying legislation sign/veto bills, commander in chief of military, makes treaties, appoints government officials
Role of minor / third parties
they bring up new topics and force the two major parties to discuss them
Rank and file party members
average party members who aren't leaders or hold office
Council of Economic Advisors
established by Employment Act of 1946- advise the President on economic policy- 3 members, appointed by President and approved by Senate,
Office of Management and Budget
the executive agency that advises the President on the federal budget
the body of electors who formally elect the United States president and vice-president
committee appointed by the presiding officers of each chamber to adjust differences on a particular bill passed by each in different form.
Relating to issues that impact two or more states bordering each other, or geographically close sections of the nation. For example: the Northeast, the Southwest, the Pacific Coast.
a procedure for terminating debate, especially filibusters, in the Senate
Limits of Presidential Power
permissibility, available funds, previous commitments
White House Staff
managed by the White House Chief of Staff, who directly advises the president on a daily basis, it includes the more than 600 people who work at the White House, from the chef to the advanced people who make travel arrangements. The key staff departments include the political offices of the Office of Communications, Legislative Affairs, Political Affairs, and Intergovernmental Affairs. It includes the support services of Scheduling, Personnel, and Secret Service and the policy offices of the National Security Affairs, Domestic Policy Affairs, and cabinet secretaries
first 100 days of presidential office
freedom of religion, speech, press, assembly, and petition
right to bear arms
In times of peace, citizens do not have to quarter soldiers (obsolete because of military bases)
No unreasonable searches or siezures
right to grand jury, indictment, no double jeopardy, freedom from self-incrimination, due process of law
Right to a fair, speedy trial
Right to a trial by jury in civil cases
No cruel and unusual punishments
Citizens entitled to rights not listed in the Constitution
The Legislative Branch
Explains the relationship of the states to one another and to the national government.
How to amend the Constitution
contains supremacy clause; establishes the constitution as "supreme law of the land"
Ratification of the Constitution
1) Citizenship for African Americans, 2) Repeal of 3/5 Compromise, 3) Denial of former confederate officials from holding national or state office, 4) Repudiate (reject) confederate debts
Brought about by the Jefferson/Burr tie, stated that presidential and vice-presidential nominees would run on the same party ticket. Before that time, all of the candidates ran against each other, with the winner becoming president and second-place becoming vice-president.
limits the number of terms a president may be elected to serve