The art of Constantinople (whose ancient name, before constantine renamed it after himself, was Byzantium) and the regions under its influence. Nucknamed the "New Rome."
Byzantine political power, wealth and culture reached it's height under this emperors rule, he was a tremendous patron of the arts.
Any structure designed with a primary central space surrounded by symmetrical areas on each side.
In architecture, a semicitcular niche. On a small scale, often used as decoration, whereas larger ones can form interior spaces.
The concave triangular section of a vaullt that forms the transition between the square or polygonal space and the circular base of a dome.
emperor leo 3
Launched a campaign of iconoclasm. Wide spread destruction of devotional pictures. Those who defended these images were persecuted.
An image in any material representing a sacred figure or event in the Byzantine and orthodox church. were venerated by the faithful, who believed them to have miraculous powers to transmit messages to God.
The banning or destruction of images, especially icons and religous art. Arose from differing beliefs about the power, meaning, function and purpose of imagery in religion.
The portion screen in a Byzantine or orthodox church between the sancuary and the body of the church. It displays icons.
A painting technique using pigments mixed with hot wax as a medium.
A handwritten book or document; on paper or parchment paper. Usually done in rich colors, often supplemented by gold and other precious materials.
A fine animal skin prepared for writing and painting; most expensive grade of leather from small, baby calfs.
Italian for almond. Light encircling, or emanating from, the entire figure of a sacred person.
"God Bearer". Imagery of Mary where she was viewed as the powerful, everforgiving intercessor, appealing to her divine son for mercy on behalf of repentant worshipers.
supports an arch; a masonry support made up of many stones or rubble and concrete, often square or rectangular in plan, and capable of carrying very heavy architectural loads.
In church architecture, the story found above the side aisles of a church, usually open to and overlooking the nave.
Focuses on eastern part of Byzantium and renames it "constantinople" after himself.
Images formed by small colored stone or glass, tesserae, affixed to a hard, stable surface.
A writing surface made from treated skins of animals-leather from adult, mother cows.
Muhammad's visions where he recieved wisdom form Gabriel. In opposition of ruling classes in Meccah.
One who submits' or servant of god. A person who is islamic.
muslim book of scripture.
chapter divisions of the qu'ran.
when muhammed fled from mecca to medina.
Obligatory muslim pilgramage to mecca to circumambulate the kaaba during the month of pilgramage.
Also known as a horseshoe arch.
represents the center of the islamic world. It's cubical form is draped with a black textile that is embroidered with Qu'ran verses in gold. Inside mosque of mecca; shrine where muslims kneel during Hajj.
Ruled from Damascus in Syria, built mosques and palaces throughout the islamic empire. Constructures of the Dome of the Rock.
A symbolic representation with out images of human figures; anti-image, lead Islamics to create floral, geometric designs.
Handwritting as an art form.
An ornamental, angular Arabic script. Earliest type of calligraphy. Skinny, linear lettering.
An edifice used for communal/muslim worship. Part of the muslim faith is to go once a week.
A type of linear surface decoration based on foilage and calligraphic forms, usually characterized by flowing lines and swirling shapes.
Aisles or ambulatories that permit devout visitors to circumambulate the rock inside the Dome of the rock.
Huge tower from which the faithful are called to prayer.
The mosque wall oriented toward mecca indicated by the mihrab.
A recess or niche that distinquishes the wall oriented toward mecca (qibla) in a mosque.
High platform or pulpit in a mosque.
Horseshoe painted arch
Specifically arabic architecture; arch.
Type of arch; small niche like component, that is usually stacked and used in multiples as interlocking, successive, non-load-bearing, vaulting units. Used to cover vaults, nitches, etc.
The oblong, wedge-shaped stone blocks used to build and arch. The top most one is called a keystone.
A very large palace window, providing ecterior views to courtyards or to exterior landscape; had lattice covering it to block anyone from being able to see inside.
an arch or lintel built across the upper corners of a square space, allowing a circular or polygonal dome to be more securely set above the walls.
ceramic pottery decorated with metallic glazes; makes it shine.
Lowfire, white clay. Quartz is added to thr vlay to allow it to be a low fire; inexpensive way to get a porcelean look.
When muhamad fled from mecca to medina, also caleld hijira.
Muhammad unites staes and religions. A governement ruled by or subject to religous authority.
Successive leaders of Islam.
Art made during the time when, in europe, several tribes and groups of ppl were migrating.
Decorative style, germanic, dominates medieval time period. Design is complex, lines filling spaces in horror vacuii. symmetrical mirror images; animals from the imagination created in work.
Animals that morph into other animals.
An enamel technique in which metal wire or strips are affixed to the surface to form the design. The resulting areas are filled with enamel.
"1,000" flowers. Glass fused together to form a rod, then sliced together.
pieces of ribbons that move, spiral into one another; type of stone/metal decoration. A decorative matif consisting of threads passing over and under each other like threads in lace.
Anglo-saxons eventually settle in england. Art of England, ireland, and Scotland. Where interlacing is most present.
Room in a monistary used to make illuminated manuscripts.
chi rho iota
XPI the first three letters in "cristus"
classical, new germanic, religion of christianity
3 characteristics of westernization during medieval.
A political and economic system based on family and clan ties, on personal loyalty and mutual support, on the echange of personal service and labor for protection.
work, fight, pray
3 orders of Feudalism consist of .. those who;
Irish cross; large, stone, a circle encloses the arm of the cross.
rope like trim; a form of decoration on architecture and in metal work characterized by sequential convex moldings that curve around a circular space; the opposite of fluting.
A decorative knob like element. can be found in many places, such as at the intersection of a gothic rib vault. Also button like projections in decorations and metal work.
germanic groups settling down; the arts of romanized, british, germanic, and norse cultures gernerated a new culture. also called hiberno-saxon.
large, elaborate pin. "Celts" known for creating good metal work such as this.
treatment of stones; polished but unfaceted.
migrated from scandanavia; irish. "Celts".
Norsemen from Scandanavia Norway; plundered water ways.
Came from carolingian. King at 29 years ols. Emphasis on learning and education.
Time of Carolingian period when Charlemagne focused on education and learning.
Religous order created by saint benedict. Builds a network of monistaries and through the church created libraries and literacy. Used religion to unite.
The monumental, west facing entrance section of a Carolingian church. The exterior consists of multiple stories between two towers; the interior includes an entrance vestibule, a chapel, and a series of galleries overlooking the nave.
A container, often made of precious material, used as a repository to protect and display scared relics.
Wrote a guide to pilgramage. Included routes, places to go, places not recommended, meals, etc.
The arm of a cruciform church, perpendicular to the nave.
The point where the nave and the transcept intersect.
Function to reinforce the groins or may be purely decorative, outlines transverse arch.
A turret like structure situated on a roof, vault, or dome with windows that allow light into the space below.
walkway. In Romanesque, more defined. Allow pilgramage visitors to walk all the way around; solves traffic problem of the pilgramage.
A series of arches, carried by comlumns or piers and supporting a common wall or lintel.
In church architecture, the story found above the side isles of a church, usually open to over looking nave.
supporting arch which runs across the vault from side to side, dividing the bays. It usually projects down from the surface of the vault.
Feature of a nave arcade designed for the support of arches and to bring arch and pier into harmony.
A grand entrance, door, or gate, usually to an important public building, and often decorated with sculpture.
Columns; In architecture, the vertical element found on both sides of an opening in a wall, and supporting and arch or lintel.
The basically semicicular area enclosed by the arch above the lintel of an arched entrance way. This area is often decorated with sculpture on the Romanesque and gothic periods.
Architect and sculptor; responsible for historiated capitals.
4 animals representing the gospels; Mathew as a Man, Mark as a lion, Luke as an ox, and John as an eagle.
A column, pier, or post found at the center of a large portal or doorway, supporting the lintel.
Thousands of people, traveling great distances. Spiritual and social exchange of ideas and goods. Offerings to the saints paid for the road construction and other constructions needed in the town.
cult of saints
Relics, the remains of the holy dead, were thought to have miraculous powers that could convert pagans and cure the sick. Consequently, the great desire to obtain relics led to the commercial exchange and even theft of them
A way of life chosen by religous people; rule of saint Benedict. Focused on pverty, chastity, and obedience.
pilgrimage and monasticism
The two things that influenced Romanesque work:
Can be characterized by the use of 1) ribvaulting 2) buttress, 3) pointed arch, and 4) stained glass
Rebuilt the choir of Saint Denis and ushered in the Gothic style.
gives visual regularity
The area of the church between the transcept and main apse. It is the area where the service is sung and clergymen stand, and the main high alter is located.
According to the Gothic beliefs; the way to get to beauty is symmetry, and the way to get to ------ is beauty.
Used b/c the nave is not even to the side aisles. A free standing buttress attached to the main vessel (nave, choir, or transcept wall) by an arch or 1/2 arch which tranmits the thrust of the vault to the buttress attached to the outer wall of the aisle.
a slender, pointed window.
molten glass is given color that becomes intrinsic to the material. Additional colors may be fused to the surface.
A lead strip that holds together stained glass.
A circular window composed of patterened tracery arranged in a petal-like formation.
A continuous projecting horizantal band set in the surface of a wall and usually molded.
stylized lily which served as the symbol for the french monarchy.
tracery which uses thick areas of stone to seperate glazed areas; filling in the open space of a window, openings are cut through the wall.
space where one can walk; a narrow passage in the thickness of the wall with arches opening onto the nave.
chartres red color
Secret ingredient of adding pure gold into the melting pot gave chartres a unique look.
climax of the gothic period with stained glass; means rays of light. Buildings made almost purely out of glass.
reincarnation; a continuous cycle of birth and rebirth.
The divinely ordained moral law believed to keep the universe from falling into chaos.
The curl of hair on the forehead that is a characteristic of Buddah; symbol for divine wisdom.
A knob or a bun on the top of Buddah's head that is symbolic of enlightenment.
"signs." Ancient symbolic hand geststures that are reguared as physical expressions of different states of being. Used in Buddist as iconagraphy and to read energy.
Maurya period emperor; put forth easrliest examples of Buddist architecture, made buddist temples and ashokan pillars.
symbolic, buddist columns.
A concept of an "axis of the world" which marks sacred sites and denotes a link between the human and celestial realms.
Wheels on underside of feet and hands of Buddah representing the wheel of life, and referenceing Dharma.
An image of the cosmos represented by an arrangement of circles or concentric geometric shapes containing diagrams or images. Used for meditation.
mesopotamia, egypt, indus valley, china
4 early civilizations
Evolved out of hinduism and offered an escape from predetermined destiny.
Tribal and nomadic ppl in euro-asia. Introduce bronze, horse and chariot.
Town planning, hygenic water, grid street planning, no large temples or sculpture.
An ancient Indic language that is the language of Hinduism and the Vedas and is the classical literary language of India.
Lifestyle with out property, alone. more spiritual than physical property.
The founder of Buddism; Buddah himself.
"Awakened one", "Enlightened one", achieved nirvana.
4 noble truths
1) Life is suffering. 2) This suffering has a cause, which is ignorance. 3) This ignorance can be overcome and extinguished. 4) The way to overcome this ignorance is by the 8-fold path.
The extinction of samsara for oneself. A state of freedom. Enlightenment gained from an ascetic lifestyle.
The study of the signifigance and interpretaion of the subject matter of art.
most anceint sacred literature of hinduism. Collection of poems, hymns, ceremonial formulas representing the beliefs of several aryan tribes. Eventually took written work in from sanskrit.
In buddist architecture; a bell shaped or pyramidal religous monument, made of piled earth or stone, and containing sacrid relics.
An ornamental gateway arch in a temple, usually leading to the stupa.
The male (a) and female (i) nature spirits that act as agents of the hindu gods. Their sculpted images are often found in hindu temples and other sacred places. Associated with fertility.
Buddist temple cut into exsisting terrain, houses shrine or stupa for worship.
Yokshi/yaksha couple; evokes harmony and fertility of the universe.
A medium made from clay fired over a low heat and sometimes left unglazed.
Ife word for King; could communicate with living and dead ancestors.
Benin word for king; could communicate with living and dead ancestors.
unique b/c use of choral beads
mother of the king.
The wooden beams that project from the walls, used as support for the scaffolding erected annually for the replastering of the building.