Unit 12: Abnormal Psychology - Schizophrenia, Personality Disorder, Rates

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Schizophrenia, or "split mind", refers not to a split personality but rahter to a split from ___.

reality

Three manifestations of schizophrenia are disorganized ___, disturbed ___, and inappropriate ___ and ___.

thinking; perceptions; emotions; action

The distorted, false beliefs of schizophrenia patients are called ____.

delusions

Many psychologists attribute the disorganized thinking of schizophrenia to a breakdown in the capacity for ___ ___.

selective attention

The disturbed perceptions of people suffering from schizophrenia may take the form of ___, which usually are (visual/auditory). Some victims of schizophrenia lapse into a zombielike state of apparent apathy, or ___ ___; others who exhibit ___, may remain motionless for house and then become agitated.

hallucinations; auditory; flat effect; catatonia

People with schizophrenia who display inappropriate behavior are said to have ___ ___, while those with toneless voices and expressionless faces are said to have ___ ___.

positive symptoms; negative symptoms

Schizophrenia is a cluster of disorders, including five subtypes: preoccupation with delusions or hallucinations, or ___; disordered speech or behavior, or ___; immobility, or ___; many and varied symptoms, or ___; and withdrawal, or ___.

paranoid; disorganized; catatonic; undifferentiated; residual

When schizophrenia develops slowly (called ___ schizophrenia), recovery is (more/less) likely than when it develops rapidly in reaction to particular life stresses (called ___ schizophrenia).

chronic/process; less; acute/reactive

The brain tissue of schizophrenia patients has been found to have an excess of receptors for the neurotransmitter ___. Drugs that block these receptors have been found to (increase/decrease) schizophrenia symptoms.

dopamine;decrease

Brain scans have shown that many people suffering from schizophrenia have abnormally (high/low) brain activity in the ___ lobes.

low; frontal

Enlarged, ___-filled areas and a corresponding ___ of cerebral tissue is also characteristic of schizophrenia,. Schizophrenia patients also have a smaller-than-normal ___, which may account for their difficulty in filtering ___ ___ and focusing ___.

fluid; shrinkage; cortex; sensory input; attention

Some scientists contend that the brain abnormalities of schizophrenia may be caused by a prenatal problem, such as ___ ___ ___; birth complications, such as ___ ___; or a ___ ___ contracted by the mother.

low birth weight; oxygen deprivation; viral infection

Twin studies (support/do not support) the contention that heredity plays a role in schizophrenia.

support

The role of the prenatal environment in schizophrenia is demonstrated by the fact that identical twins who share the same ___ and are therefore more likely to experience the same prenatal ____, are more likely to share the disorder.

placenta; viruses

Adoption studies (confirm/do not confirm) a genetic link in the development of schizophrenia.

confirm

It appears that for schizophrenia to develop there must be both a ____ predisposition and other factors such as those listed earlier that "___ ___" the ___ that predispose this disease.

genetic; turn on; genes

Personality disorders exist when an individual has character traits that are enduring and impair ___ ___.

social functioning

A fearful sensitivity to rejection may predispose the ___ personality disorder. Eccentric behaviors, such as emotionless disengagement, are characteristic of the ___ personality disorder. The third cluster exhibits dramatic or ___ behaviors, such as the ___ or ___ personality disorders.

avoidant; schizoid; impulsive; histrionic; narcissistic

An individual who seems to have no conscience, lies, steals, is generally irresponsible, and may be criminal is said to have an ___ personality. Previously, this person was labeled a ___.

antisocial; psychopath/sociopath

Studies of biological relatives of those with antisocial and unemotional tendencies suggest that there (is/is not) a biological predisposition to such traits.

is

Some studies have detected early signs of antisocial behavior in children as young as __________. Antisocial adolescents tended to have been ___, ___, unconcerned with ____ ___, and low in ___.

3-6; impulsive; uninhibited; social rewards; anxiety

PET scans of murderers' brains reveal reduced activity in the ___ ___, an area of the cortex that helps control ___.

frontal cortex; impulses

As in other disorders, in antisocial personality, genetics (is/is not) the whole story. In one study, two combined factors -- ___ ___ and a gene that altered neurotransmitter balance -- predicted antisocial behavior.

is not; childhood maltreatment

Research reveals that approximately ___ percent of adult Americans suffered a clinically significant mental disorder during the prior year.

26

The incidence of serious psychologists disorders is (higher/lower) among those below the poverty line.

higher

In terms of age of onset, most psychological disorders appear by (early/middle/late) adulthood. Some, such as the ___ ___ and ___, appear during childhood.

early; antisocial personality; phobias

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