Developmental EXAM 3

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Soothing a distress infant:

helps the infant to regulate his own emotions.

High level of emotional _______ is associated with a reactive autonomic nervous system.

arousal.

With increasing age, regulation of emotion shifts from being:

external to internal.

Although she is upset, Olivia controls her emotions during a heated discussion with a coworker. Olivia has a high level of emotional:

regulation.

Children of emotion-coaching parents are more likely to:

self-soothe, focus attention, regulate negative effect, and behave appropriately.

Gayle insists that her daughter is being silly and should not be upset by a friend's insensitive comments. Gayle is practicing:

emotion dismissing.

The school psychologist teaches the anger management group a three-step method to help group members cope in a difficult situation. She is helping the group to build:

emotional competence.

What type of emotions are surprise, interest, joy, anger, sadness, and fear?

primary

Which type of emotions develops in the second half of the first year through the second year?

self-conscious

Infant Nathan is smiling and "talking" with short, loud noises. His mother responds each time Nathan expresses himself by smiling and talking. This interaction is described as:

reciprocal or synchronous.

Baby Jonah is hungry. He will alert his mother with a(n):

basic cry

Baby Alex smiles mostly during sleep and not in response to his mother's kind expressions. These smiles are:

reflexive.

Six-week-old Elizabeth looks at her mother and smiles. Researchers call this a(n) __________ smile.

social

Fearful emotions, tend to appear earlier in some infants because o16

abuse or neglect

The most frequent expression of an infant's fear involves:

stranger anxiety

Fifteen-month-old Teri cries when her mother drops her off at day care. Baby Teri is experiencing:

separation protest.

Separation protest is initially displayed around 7 to 8 months and peaks at about __________ months.

15

Which of the following would MOST likely cause an infant to express fear?

stranger anxiety

The pediatrician warns a mother that responding to her baby's every cry will reward and increase crying. Which view does this doctor hold?

behaviorist

Adolescents are more likely than adults to report feeling:

both very happy and very sad.

Beth has fewer friends than she did when she was younger, but each relationship is deeply satisfying and enjoyable to her. This is an example of Laura Carstensen's theory of:

socioemotional selectivity.

Socioemotional selectivity affects the goals of older adults. Knowledge-related goals __________ during this time, whereas emotion-related goals __________.

decline; increase

Temperament refers to individual differences in all of the following EXCEPT:

attachment.

When Gehrig is left at preschool, he cries and will not play with the other children for some time. According to Chess and Thomas, what type of temperament does Gehrig exhibit?

slow-to-warm-up

According to Kagan, what shows considerable stability from infancy though early childhood?

inhibition

Which of the following temperament categories coincide with each other?

easy, extraversion/surgency, uninhibited

Janey is a difficult and inhibited child. As an adult, she is likely to:

experience marital conflict.

Goodness of fit occurs when a child's temperament matches:

environmental demands.

Which of the following is NOT a recommended parenting strategy to use in relation to a child's temperament?

expose the child to situations which make them uncomfortable so they can work on overcoming their fears

Ellie wants to touch a plant she sees in the doctor's office. She moves toward the plant and looks for her mother's reaction. Her mother frowns and shakes her head. Ellie retreats and leaves the plant alone.

social referencing

Freud believed that infants become attached to the person or object that:

provides oral satisfaction

Which theorist believed that during the first year of life responsive, sensitive parenting helps an infant to develop a lifelong trust that the world will be a pleasant place?

Erik Erikson

Infants develop a simple mental model of the caregiver, their relationship, and the self as deserving of nurturing care. This is known as a(n):

internal working model of attachment.

Erik Erikson's concept of trust is similar to Mary Ainsworth's notion of:

secure attachment.

Devon clings to his mother. When she leaves the room, he cries loudly, but when she returns to comfort him, he kicks and squirms. Mary Ainsworth would say he is:

insecurely resistant.

Caregiver research indicates that fathers:

interact with their babies in different ways than mothers do.

Secure attachment to parents in adolescence may facilitate:

social competence.

Which of the following statements regarding individuals who are securely attached is true?

They are not overly concerned about their romantic relationships.

What are the two major forms of love?

romantic and affectionate

Which of the following is the central aspect of an individual's personality?

self

Being attentive and positive toward one's image in a mirror appears as early as __________ month(s) old.

3

When describing herself, Cali says that she is the oldest child in her family, is president of the honor society at school, has a few close friends, and is on the student council. These aspects of Cali's self-understanding are based on?

roles and membership categories

For most children, the ability to recognize oneself in the mirror occurs around __________ year(s) of age.

2

Todd explains that he is different from Davion because he is tall and has blonde hair and Davion is short and has brown hair. Todd is a(n):

preschooler.

Mariah identifies herself as a kind person, a girl scout, and the best soccer player on her team. Mariah is in:

middle to late childhood.

In a recent cross-cultural study, older children showed increased skepticism of others' self-reports concerning value-laden traits because of increased ability in perspective taking. Which of the following would a 10 to 11-year-old most likely reject?

claims that one never lies

Kelsy wants to become a teacher, lawyer, or singer. She is a talented, intelligent girl who vows not to be satisfied in a dead end job. Kelsy is considering her:

possible self.

Self-esteem refers to global self-evaluation, while self-concept refers to:

domain-specific evaluations of the self

Low self-esteem is correlated to:

depression.

Which of the following is NOT a strategy for increasing self-esteem?

Avoid problems to prevent failure or disappointment.

Which of the following might interfere with the development of self-regulation in adolescence?

feelings of invincibility and social comparison

Donna has congestive heart failure and is confined to a wheel chair. She remains active in the community by using email and teleconferencing software. Her 24-hour caregiver assists her with daily living tasks. Donna has learned how to effectively use __________ strategies to maintain an active, positive life.

compensation

Bill believes that he should persevere and keep trying until he reaches his goals. Bill is using a(n) __________ strategy.

optimization

Compared to older adults, younger adults are more likely to assess their well-being in terms of:

their careers.

Which of the following includes awareness and assessment?

identity

According to Erik Erikson, an adolescent's crisis is based on the need to:

form an identity.

Erikson held adolescence as a critical period for identity development and that unsuccessfully resolved crises during this time result in confusion about who one truly is. In contrast, contemporary theorists believe that identity is formed:

in a gradual process of discovery that occurs across the lifespan.

An adolescent who is experimenting with different vocational possibilities is experiencing what psychologist James Marcia terms an identity:

crisis.

Thirteen-year-old Cody does not understand or care about how his strengths and weaknesses will guide him into different roles in the future. According to Marcia, Cody is in a state of identity:

diffusion.

For positive identity development, a family atmosphere should promote:

both individuality and connectedness.

Which of the following is an enduring aspect of the self that includes a sense of membership in an ethnic group, along with the attitudes and feelings related to that membership?

ethnic identity

Today, most personality psychologists believe that personality is a product of:

trait-situation interaction.

The big five factors of personality is the view that personality is made up of:

openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism.

What do most researchers believe regarding the concept of a midlife crisis?

The idea of midlife crisis has been exaggerated.

The seventh stage of Erikson's life-span theory takes place during middle age and is termed:

generativity versus stagnation.

All of the following personality traits increase in middle adulthood EXCEPT:

neuroticism.

Gender is the:

characteristics of people as females or males.

Gender typing is the:

process by which children acquire the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors that are considered appropriate for being female or male in a particular culture.

__________ are sex hormones produced both by the testes and adrenal glands.

Androgens

Researchers have found links between hormone levels and certain behaviors. Which of the following is a documented correlation?

High levels of testosterone are linked with aggressive and sexual behavior.

Which developmental approach argues that different environmental pressures in primeval times forced the separation of gender roles?

evolutionary

Social cognitive theory attributes psychological differences between men and women to:

observation and imitation, rewards and punishment of gender-related behavior.

Which theory of gender emphasizes the role of peers in gender typing?

social cognitive theory of gender

The psychoanalytic theory purports that gender typing occurs:

because of identification or lack of identification with the same sex parent.

Observation, imitation, and rewards and punishment are facets of which gender theory?

social cognitive

Paulo unconsciously knows what it means to be a boy. He interacts with others, chooses activities, and interprets information in accordance with this cognitive representation of "maleness." This is an example of which gender development theory?

gender schema

Broad impressions and beliefs about females and males are termed:

gender stereotypes.

Dr. Barlow displays pictures of 10 individuals and asks students to match them with a list of occupations. Unwittingly, the students align traditionally male jobs with pictures of men and traditionally female jobs with pictures of women. This is an example of:

gender stereotyping.

Whereas male traits are generally instrumental, female traits are:

expressive.

Males, following a stressful event, will experience an stronger sympathetic response:

faster clotting and higher blood pressure.

The 2007 National Assessment of Education Progress reports:

girls score significantly higher in reading and writing than boys.

Tammy is a fifth grade student who frequently spreads rumors about her least favorite classmates. This behavior is an example of:

relational aggression.

Psychological and behavioral differences tend to increase during adolescence because of increased social pressures to conform to traditional gender roles. This is:

the gender-intensification hypothesis.

Charlie disputes Helen's complaint that they never talk. "What do you mean? I just gave you my work schedule and evening plans for the week." Charlie engages in __________, whereas Helen desires __________.

report talk; rapport talk

Which of the following statements regarding current-day knowledge about sexual orientation is correct?

No firm answers are available as to why some individuals are homosexual, whereas others are heterosexual.

Which of the following STIs is caused by a virus rather than bacteria?

genital herpes

Male rapists share all of the following characteristics EXCEPT:

they were abused as children.

Although adolescent contraceptive use is increasing, the United States continues to have one of the highest __________ rates in the industrialized world.

adolescent pregnancy

Programs that aim to reduce adolescent pregnancy, such as Taking Care of Business and Health Bridge:

result in less cases of teen pregnancy.

A recent large-scale study of American women found that most postmenopausal women reported:

no severe physical or psychological problems related to menopause.

Potential negative effects of hormone replacement therapy include which of the following?

increased risk of heart attack

Steven now recognizes the signs indicating that his infant daughter needs a nap. This is an example of:

reciprocal socialization.

Being single offers the potential advantage of __________, but the potential disadvantage of __________.

self-reliance; lack of intimacy

Patricia is single and just turned 30. She is likely to feel:

societal pressure to marry.

In 2007, the U.S. average age for a first marriage for men was 27.5 years for men and 25.6 years for women. These ages for first marriages are:

higher than at any point in U.S. history.

Which of the following is true of marital satisfaction?

Individuals in happy marriages tend to live longer than those in unhappy relationships.

Which of the following statements is true of divorce?

Divorce is linked to psychological and physical problems.

Which of the following is an advantage of having children later (in their 30s)?

Parents are likely to be more mature.

Karri spends time finding positive, interesting activities for her fifteen-year-old daughter, Brooke. Karri encourages Brooke to offer input and choose among the activities. Karri's parental role is best described as:

manager

The restrictive, punitive parenting style in which parents exhort the child to follow directions and be respectful is termed by Baumrind as:

authoritarian.

The parenting style that encourages a child to be independent but still places limits and controls on their actions is termed by Baumrind as:

authoritative.

Matt and Tamela reward good behavior and ignore bad behavior when possible. When punishment is required, they calmly employ techniques like time-out and verbal reasoning. Which of Baumrind's parenting styles do Matt and Tamela employ?

authoritative

An authoritative parenting style is generally preferred for raising well-adjusted children. However, elements of a different parenting style have shown to protect children from physical danger, lead to high academic achievement, and engender respect and obedience depending on culture. Which parenting style aides these characteristics?

authoritarian

Which parenting style may lead children who are egocentric, domineering, and noncompliant?

indulgent

Which country has the MOST favorable view of corporal punishment in parenting?

United States

Who is the MOST likely to abuse a child?

a parent

Which of the following outcomes is linked to having a history of physical abuse?

depression

Which of the following is usually present when other forms of maltreatment are identified?

emotional abuse

Heather is dating seventeen-year-old Tyler, who was severely maltreated as a child. Heather is at risk for which of the following?

Tyler's abusive behaviors

Much of adolescent-parent conflict is born of a need to balance:

autonomy and attachment.

Teen-parent conflict in early adolescence is likely to center around:

everyday events of family life.

Which of the following is a key difference in the old and new models of parent-adolescent relationships?

The new model suggests that most adolescent-parent conflict is moderate and can serve a positive function.

Which country has the highest percentage of single-parent families?

the United States

Jeff's parents are getting a divorce. What kinds of problems will he most likely suffer?

minor problems—the majority of children in divorced families do not have significant adjustment difficulties

Which of the following is true regarding remarriage and blending families?

Children in remarried families have similar adjustment problems to those in divorced families.

In middle adulthood, MOST relationships among siblings are:

close.

Cherilyn's parents often ignore her affect or try to explain that her problems should not upset her. Cherilyn's parents can be described as:

emotion-dismissing.

Hannah and Sarah are arguing. Their mother sympathetically helps each girl to manage her emotions while they talk about solutions. This is an example of:

emotional coaching.

Jenna cries when her mother leaves her with the babysitter. Jenna is showing:

separation protest

Alan's infant daughter begins to cry only minutes after she goes down for a nap. According to John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth, Alan should:

go immediately to his daughter to soothe her crying.

Best friends, Gina and Miranda, have infants close to the same age. Gina's daughter is generally cheerful and happy, whereas Miranda's son seems to be upset and crying much of the time. These children have different:

temperaments.

For a child with a difficult temperament:

provide access to experiences that foster coping and self-regulatory skills

Reading emotional cues from others to help determine how to act in a particular situation is known as:

social referencing.

Amanda is a self-assured, competent, and independent young adult. Amanda did not feel a secure attachment to her mother while growing up. What can account for her current success?

all of these

Kierra is a young, single parent who is emotionally distant to her children. When she does interact with them, she often gets frustrated and sends them away from her. What type of attachment are her children likely to form?

avoidant

Research on attachment indicates a likelihood that:

people with secure attachment to parents have secure attachments to romantic partners

"While my husband and I were eating breakfast today, neither of us talked, but it was a comfortable silence. I love it!" What type of love does this illustrate?

affectionate

Twenty-month-old Michael is placed in front of a mirror with a spot of rouge on his nose. Michael will MOST likely:

touch his nose in attempt to wipe off the spot.

Which of the following is an example of how a 5-year-old child might perceive a friend in terms of psychological traits?

My friend is funny

Mary Ann wants to help her young daughter better understand what other people are feeling. What should Mary Ann say the MOST to help her daughter understand others?

"How do you think your friend feels because you took her toy?"

What individuals might become, what they would like to become, and what they dread they will become constitutes the:

possible self.

As individuals get older, they describe __________ possible selves and portray them in more __________ ways.

more; abstract

Cross-cultural research shows which of the following about adolescents around the world?

Almost three-fourths of the adolescents had a healthy self-image.

Letti allows her young son to try many different activities—sports, chess, music, and so on. She wants him to discover his natural abilities and interests in order to:

increase his self-esteem.

The ability to manage one's behavior without help from others is known as:

self-regulation

Sometimes Kianna is angry that her parents will not let her date who she pleases. Other times she is upset because they do not coddle her like they do her younger siblings. Kianna's mixed feelings are an example of Erikson's:

psychological moratorium.

According to Erik Erikson, the adolescent identity crisis is:

a natural and healthy part of development

According to Marcia, adolescents who have not explored meaningful alternatives or made any commitments are in a state of identity:

diffusion.

An assignment in Chad's career development course has reopened the issue of choosing a major. According to Marcia, Chad is in a state of identity:

moratorium.

According to Marcia, adolescents who have explored alternatives and have made a commitment are in a state of identity:

achievement.

According to Cooper, self-assertion and separateness are two dimensions of:

individuality.

Maria is a family therapist. She encourages her clients to recognize and respect other's points of view and be open to different ideas. Maria is fostering a sense of:

connectedness

The big five factor of conscientiousness has emerged as a key predictor of:

all of these

Beverly spends as much time with her grandchildren as she can. She wants them to remember the fun times they have shared when she passes. According to Erikson, Beverly is striving to achieve:

generativity

High levels of conscientiousness in older adults are linked to:

reduced mortality rates.

Gender role is the:

set of expectations that prescribe how females and males should act, think, and feel

What general class of sex hormones primarily influences the development of female physical sex characteristics and helps regulate the menstrual cycle?

estrogens

Dr. Estrada attributes gender differences to the possibility that women's lower-status positions in society have encouraged them to become more cooperative and less dominant than men. Her view most closely matches Eagly's:

social role theory.

With regard to gender stereotyping, recent research shows that parents:

continue to interact differently with sons and daughters, often fostering behaviors that reinforce traditional gender roles.

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