Although she is upset, Olivia controls her emotions during a heated discussion with a coworker. Olivia has a high level of emotional:
Children of emotion-coaching parents are more likely to:
self-soothe, focus attention, regulate negative effect, and behave appropriately.
Gayle insists that her daughter is being silly and should not be upset by a friend's insensitive comments. Gayle is practicing:
The school psychologist teaches the anger management group a three-step method to help group members cope in a difficult situation. She is helping the group to build:
Which type of emotions develops in the second half of the first year through the second year?
Infant Nathan is smiling and "talking" with short, loud noises. His mother responds each time Nathan expresses himself by smiling and talking. This interaction is described as:
reciprocal or synchronous.
Baby Alex smiles mostly during sleep and not in response to his mother's kind expressions. These smiles are:
Six-week-old Elizabeth looks at her mother and smiles. Researchers call this a(n) __________ smile.
Fifteen-month-old Teri cries when her mother drops her off at day care. Baby Teri is experiencing:
Separation protest is initially displayed around 7 to 8 months and peaks at about __________ months.
The pediatrician warns a mother that responding to her baby's every cry will reward and increase crying. Which view does this doctor hold?
Beth has fewer friends than she did when she was younger, but each relationship is deeply satisfying and enjoyable to her. This is an example of Laura Carstensen's theory of:
Socioemotional selectivity affects the goals of older adults. Knowledge-related goals __________ during this time, whereas emotion-related goals __________.
When Gehrig is left at preschool, he cries and will not play with the other children for some time. According to Chess and Thomas, what type of temperament does Gehrig exhibit?
According to Kagan, what shows considerable stability from infancy though early childhood?
Which of the following temperament categories coincide with each other?
easy, extraversion/surgency, uninhibited
Janey is a difficult and inhibited child. As an adult, she is likely to:
experience marital conflict.
Which of the following is NOT a recommended parenting strategy to use in relation to a child's temperament?
expose the child to situations which make them uncomfortable so they can work on overcoming their fears
Ellie wants to touch a plant she sees in the doctor's office. She moves toward the plant and looks for her mother's reaction. Her mother frowns and shakes her head. Ellie retreats and leaves the plant alone.
Freud believed that infants become attached to the person or object that:
provides oral satisfaction
Which theorist believed that during the first year of life responsive, sensitive parenting helps an infant to develop a lifelong trust that the world will be a pleasant place?
Infants develop a simple mental model of the caregiver, their relationship, and the self as deserving of nurturing care. This is known as a(n):
internal working model of attachment.
Devon clings to his mother. When she leaves the room, he cries loudly, but when she returns to comfort him, he kicks and squirms. Mary Ainsworth would say he is:
Caregiver research indicates that fathers:
interact with their babies in different ways than mothers do.
Which of the following statements regarding individuals who are securely attached is true?
They are not overly concerned about their romantic relationships.
Being attentive and positive toward one's image in a mirror appears as early as __________ month(s) old.
When describing herself, Cali says that she is the oldest child in her family, is president of the honor society at school, has a few close friends, and is on the student council. These aspects of Cali's self-understanding are based on?
roles and membership categories
For most children, the ability to recognize oneself in the mirror occurs around __________ year(s) of age.
Todd explains that he is different from Davion because he is tall and has blonde hair and Davion is short and has brown hair. Todd is a(n):
Mariah identifies herself as a kind person, a girl scout, and the best soccer player on her team. Mariah is in:
middle to late childhood.
In a recent cross-cultural study, older children showed increased skepticism of others' self-reports concerning value-laden traits because of increased ability in perspective taking. Which of the following would a 10 to 11-year-old most likely reject?
claims that one never lies
Kelsy wants to become a teacher, lawyer, or singer. She is a talented, intelligent girl who vows not to be satisfied in a dead end job. Kelsy is considering her:
Self-esteem refers to global self-evaluation, while self-concept refers to:
domain-specific evaluations of the self
Which of the following is NOT a strategy for increasing self-esteem?
Avoid problems to prevent failure or disappointment.
Which of the following might interfere with the development of self-regulation in adolescence?
feelings of invincibility and social comparison
Donna has congestive heart failure and is confined to a wheel chair. She remains active in the community by using email and teleconferencing software. Her 24-hour caregiver assists her with daily living tasks. Donna has learned how to effectively use __________ strategies to maintain an active, positive life.
Bill believes that he should persevere and keep trying until he reaches his goals. Bill is using a(n) __________ strategy.
Compared to older adults, younger adults are more likely to assess their well-being in terms of:
Erikson held adolescence as a critical period for identity development and that unsuccessfully resolved crises during this time result in confusion about who one truly is. In contrast, contemporary theorists believe that identity is formed:
in a gradual process of discovery that occurs across the lifespan.
An adolescent who is experimenting with different vocational possibilities is experiencing what psychologist James Marcia terms an identity:
Thirteen-year-old Cody does not understand or care about how his strengths and weaknesses will guide him into different roles in the future. According to Marcia, Cody is in a state of identity:
For positive identity development, a family atmosphere should promote:
both individuality and connectedness.
Which of the following is an enduring aspect of the self that includes a sense of membership in an ethnic group, along with the attitudes and feelings related to that membership?
Today, most personality psychologists believe that personality is a product of:
The big five factors of personality is the view that personality is made up of:
openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism.
What do most researchers believe regarding the concept of a midlife crisis?
The idea of midlife crisis has been exaggerated.
The seventh stage of Erikson's life-span theory takes place during middle age and is termed:
generativity versus stagnation.
Gender typing is the:
process by which children acquire the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors that are considered appropriate for being female or male in a particular culture.
Researchers have found links between hormone levels and certain behaviors. Which of the following is a documented correlation?
High levels of testosterone are linked with aggressive and sexual behavior.
Which developmental approach argues that different environmental pressures in primeval times forced the separation of gender roles?
Social cognitive theory attributes psychological differences between men and women to:
observation and imitation, rewards and punishment of gender-related behavior.
Which theory of gender emphasizes the role of peers in gender typing?
social cognitive theory of gender
The psychoanalytic theory purports that gender typing occurs:
because of identification or lack of identification with the same sex parent.
Observation, imitation, and rewards and punishment are facets of which gender theory?
Paulo unconsciously knows what it means to be a boy. He interacts with others, chooses activities, and interprets information in accordance with this cognitive representation of "maleness." This is an example of which gender development theory?
Dr. Barlow displays pictures of 10 individuals and asks students to match them with a list of occupations. Unwittingly, the students align traditionally male jobs with pictures of men and traditionally female jobs with pictures of women. This is an example of:
Males, following a stressful event, will experience an stronger sympathetic response:
faster clotting and higher blood pressure.
The 2007 National Assessment of Education Progress reports:
girls score significantly higher in reading and writing than boys.
Tammy is a fifth grade student who frequently spreads rumors about her least favorite classmates. This behavior is an example of:
Psychological and behavioral differences tend to increase during adolescence because of increased social pressures to conform to traditional gender roles. This is:
the gender-intensification hypothesis.
Charlie disputes Helen's complaint that they never talk. "What do you mean? I just gave you my work schedule and evening plans for the week." Charlie engages in __________, whereas Helen desires __________.
report talk; rapport talk
Which of the following statements regarding current-day knowledge about sexual orientation is correct?
No firm answers are available as to why some individuals are homosexual, whereas others are heterosexual.
Although adolescent contraceptive use is increasing, the United States continues to have one of the highest __________ rates in the industrialized world.
Programs that aim to reduce adolescent pregnancy, such as Taking Care of Business and Health Bridge:
result in less cases of teen pregnancy.
A recent large-scale study of American women found that most postmenopausal women reported:
no severe physical or psychological problems related to menopause.
Potential negative effects of hormone replacement therapy include which of the following?
increased risk of heart attack
Steven now recognizes the signs indicating that his infant daughter needs a nap. This is an example of:
Being single offers the potential advantage of __________, but the potential disadvantage of __________.
self-reliance; lack of intimacy
In 2007, the U.S. average age for a first marriage for men was 27.5 years for men and 25.6 years for women. These ages for first marriages are:
higher than at any point in U.S. history.
Which of the following is true of marital satisfaction?
Individuals in happy marriages tend to live longer than those in unhappy relationships.
Which of the following statements is true of divorce?
Divorce is linked to psychological and physical problems.
Which of the following is an advantage of having children later (in their 30s)?
Parents are likely to be more mature.
Karri spends time finding positive, interesting activities for her fifteen-year-old daughter, Brooke. Karri encourages Brooke to offer input and choose among the activities. Karri's parental role is best described as:
The restrictive, punitive parenting style in which parents exhort the child to follow directions and be respectful is termed by Baumrind as:
The parenting style that encourages a child to be independent but still places limits and controls on their actions is termed by Baumrind as:
Matt and Tamela reward good behavior and ignore bad behavior when possible. When punishment is required, they calmly employ techniques like time-out and verbal reasoning. Which of Baumrind's parenting styles do Matt and Tamela employ?
An authoritative parenting style is generally preferred for raising well-adjusted children. However, elements of a different parenting style have shown to protect children from physical danger, lead to high academic achievement, and engender respect and obedience depending on culture. Which parenting style aides these characteristics?
Which parenting style may lead children who are egocentric, domineering, and noncompliant?
Which of the following is usually present when other forms of maltreatment are identified?
Heather is dating seventeen-year-old Tyler, who was severely maltreated as a child. Heather is at risk for which of the following?
Tyler's abusive behaviors
Teen-parent conflict in early adolescence is likely to center around:
everyday events of family life.
Which of the following is a key difference in the old and new models of parent-adolescent relationships?
The new model suggests that most adolescent-parent conflict is moderate and can serve a positive function.
Jeff's parents are getting a divorce. What kinds of problems will he most likely suffer?
minor problems—the majority of children in divorced families do not have significant adjustment difficulties
Which of the following is true regarding remarriage and blending families?
Children in remarried families have similar adjustment problems to those in divorced families.
Cherilyn's parents often ignore her affect or try to explain that her problems should not upset her. Cherilyn's parents can be described as:
Hannah and Sarah are arguing. Their mother sympathetically helps each girl to manage her emotions while they talk about solutions. This is an example of:
Alan's infant daughter begins to cry only minutes after she goes down for a nap. According to John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth, Alan should:
go immediately to his daughter to soothe her crying.
Best friends, Gina and Miranda, have infants close to the same age. Gina's daughter is generally cheerful and happy, whereas Miranda's son seems to be upset and crying much of the time. These children have different:
For a child with a difficult temperament:
provide access to experiences that foster coping and self-regulatory skills
Reading emotional cues from others to help determine how to act in a particular situation is known as:
Amanda is a self-assured, competent, and independent young adult. Amanda did not feel a secure attachment to her mother while growing up. What can account for her current success?
all of these
Kierra is a young, single parent who is emotionally distant to her children. When she does interact with them, she often gets frustrated and sends them away from her. What type of attachment are her children likely to form?
Research on attachment indicates a likelihood that:
people with secure attachment to parents have secure attachments to romantic partners
"While my husband and I were eating breakfast today, neither of us talked, but it was a comfortable silence. I love it!" What type of love does this illustrate?
Twenty-month-old Michael is placed in front of a mirror with a spot of rouge on his nose. Michael will MOST likely:
touch his nose in attempt to wipe off the spot.
Which of the following is an example of how a 5-year-old child might perceive a friend in terms of psychological traits?
My friend is funny
Mary Ann wants to help her young daughter better understand what other people are feeling. What should Mary Ann say the MOST to help her daughter understand others?
"How do you think your friend feels because you took her toy?"
What individuals might become, what they would like to become, and what they dread they will become constitutes the:
As individuals get older, they describe __________ possible selves and portray them in more __________ ways.
Cross-cultural research shows which of the following about adolescents around the world?
Almost three-fourths of the adolescents had a healthy self-image.
Letti allows her young son to try many different activities—sports, chess, music, and so on. She wants him to discover his natural abilities and interests in order to:
increase his self-esteem.
Sometimes Kianna is angry that her parents will not let her date who she pleases. Other times she is upset because they do not coddle her like they do her younger siblings. Kianna's mixed feelings are an example of Erikson's:
According to Erik Erikson, the adolescent identity crisis is:
a natural and healthy part of development
According to Marcia, adolescents who have not explored meaningful alternatives or made any commitments are in a state of identity:
An assignment in Chad's career development course has reopened the issue of choosing a major. According to Marcia, Chad is in a state of identity:
According to Marcia, adolescents who have explored alternatives and have made a commitment are in a state of identity:
Maria is a family therapist. She encourages her clients to recognize and respect other's points of view and be open to different ideas. Maria is fostering a sense of:
Beverly spends as much time with her grandchildren as she can. She wants them to remember the fun times they have shared when she passes. According to Erikson, Beverly is striving to achieve:
Gender role is the:
set of expectations that prescribe how females and males should act, think, and feel
What general class of sex hormones primarily influences the development of female physical sex characteristics and helps regulate the menstrual cycle?
Dr. Estrada attributes gender differences to the possibility that women's lower-status positions in society have encouraged them to become more cooperative and less dominant than men. Her view most closely matches Eagly's:
social role theory.
With regard to gender stereotyping, recent research shows that parents:
continue to interact differently with sons and daughters, often fostering behaviors that reinforce traditional gender roles.
According to gender schema theory, gender typing occurs when a child:
forms a concept of what is appropriate for males and females.
Females are most likely to be stereotyped as expressing more warmth and sensitivity, whereas males are most likely to be stereotyped as expressing more:
aggression and independence.
Report talk involves sharing information, while rapport talk involves:
making a personal connection.
Older women from ethnic minority groups warrant special attention because they often face triple jeopardy in:
ageism, sexism, and racism.
Which of the following is positively correlated with increased sexual behavior in adolescents?
viewing sexually explicit TV shows
Sheri's infant daughter mimics facial expressions and hand gestures. This is an example of:
a reciprocal interaction.
Lori and Spencer have a loving and supportive marriage. What is a likely indirect result of their satisfied relationship?
sensitive, responsive parenting
Corporal punishment by parents is associated with all of the following EXCEPT:
higher levels of long-term compliance.
Secure attachment to parents during adolescence is positively linked to which of the following?
being in an exclusive relationship
When children from divorced homes show problems, the problems are due to which of the following?
all of these
Who will cope better with a parents' divorce?
Children with easy temperaments rather than those with difficult temperaments.
In order to help children deal effectively with divorce, it is important for parents to:
maintain as much of what is familiar to the child as possible.
What does a child get from peers that he/she typically cannot get from siblings?
comparison to others the same age
According to Jean Piaget and Harry Stack Sullivan, what is the primary mode through which children learn from their peers?
Mia plays alone at recess. The school counselor teaches Mia how to introduce herself and how to join in with peers. The school counselor is trying to increase Mia's:
Jake responds calmly when his friend teases him about his haircut. Jake is showing competence in:
Which peer status group includes children who are not disliked by peers but who don't have best friends or regular group of friends?
__________ children often have more psychosocial difficulties later in life than __________ children.
In his social skills training group, Travis is asked to role-play and discuss possible reactions to hypothetical negative encounters with peers. What is Travis's peer status?
Which of the following statements is true of bullying?
Many bullies are not rejected by the peer group.
Fifteen year-old Ash doesn't have a close friend. What is a likely outcome of this circumstance?
loneliness and reduced sense of self-worth
Sheryl and Lynda are close friends. Which of the following statements MOST likely characterizes their relationship?
They often get together just to talk.
When asked who he is, Lee responds that he is a member of the Chaiox family, belongs to the chess club, and is on the soccer team. What type of perspective does this represent?
Personal choice, intrinsic motivation, self-esteem, and self-maximization are values that reflect __________ cultures.
Brooke is 15 years old and spends a lot of time on the Internet. She uses chat rooms and has a MySpace account. Brooke's parents should do which of the following?
closely monitor Brooke's online activities
Socioeconomic status refers to grouping according to the characteristics of:
occupation, education, and personal economics.