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Prokaryotic

Cells with no nucleus

Eukaryotic

Cells with a nucleus

Producers

Organisms that can make their own food for energy

Consumers

Organisms that must get their food from another source

Phytoplankton

Organisms that are responsible for the oxygen in our atmosphere

Bacteria

The simplest kind of organism without a nucleus; have a cell wall and flagellum; reproduce by binary fission; their genetic material is found in the cytoplasm

Spirilla

The scientific name for a spiral-shaped bacteria

Baccilus

The scientific name for a rod-shaped bacteria

Cocci

The scientific name for a round-shaped bacteria

Microorganisms

The name given to single-celled organisms and other very small organisms

Archaea

Single-celled organisms that can survive in extreme environments

Methanogens

A type of archaea that get their name from methane; they live in mud swamps and in some animals

Thermophiles

Archaea that thrive in extreme heat or cold

Halophiles

Archaea that love to live in salty lakes and ponds; if it is not salty enough, they dry up and die

Decomposers

Organisms that get their energy by breaking down materials in dead or decaying organisms

Parasites

Organisms that harm their hosts

Vaccine

This prevents a bacterial infection

Antibiotic

This treats a bacterial infection

Symbiotic

Organisms that do not harm their hosts; mutualism

Mutualism

Organisms that do not harm their hosts; symbiotic

Kingdom

Scientists divide the organisms they identify into these groups

Virus

A non-living disease-causing particle; a small collection of genetic material enclosed in a protein shell

Host cell

A cell that a virus infects and uses to make copies of itself

Plankton

Organisms that drift through water instead of swimming through it

Protozoa

Animal-like protists that get their energy by eating other organisms, or decaying parts of other organisms

Attachment

The first of the five major steps that a bacteriophage virus goes through to reproduce: Bacteriophage attach to bacterium

Injection

The second of the five major steps that a bacteriophage virus goes through to reproduce: Virus injects DNA into host cell

Production

The third of the five major steps that a bacteriophage virus goes through to reproduce: Host makes copies of the viral DNA

Assembly

The fourth of the five major steps that a bacteriophage virus goes through to reproduce: Parts assemble into new viruses

Release

The fifth of the five major steps that a bacteriophage virus goes through to reproduce: The cell bursts open, releasing new viruses

Volvox

A green alga that lives in colonies and has a circular shape

Chloroplasts

Organelle that carries out photosynthesis

Autotrophic

Can make its own food

Heterotrophic

Must consume food

Eyespot

An organelle that helps certain protists find light to make food

Contractile vacuole

An organelle that helps certain cells remove excess water; without it, the cell would explode

Algae

Both multicellular and single-celled protists that contain chlorophyll and use sunlight as an energy source

Binary fission

Single-celled organisms reproduce by this process

Protist

A kingdom that includes all organisms with cells having nuclei and not belonging to the plant, animal, or fungi kingdoms; most of these are unicellular

Malaria

A type of disease that is caused by a type of protozoa

Pseudopodia

A false foot made out of an amoeba's cytoplasm; helps the amoeba to move

Cyst

Protection from unfavorable conditions

Micronucleus

Controls reproduction

Food vacuole

Digests food after taken into the cell

Cilia

Little hairs

Oral groove

Tiny hairs push the food into this structure

Gullet

Tiny hairs push food down into this structure

Amebic dysentry

A disease that is caused by an amoeba

Water

The generic environment protists live in

Phagocytosis

An amoeba goes through this process to get food; the pseudpodia extend and wrap around a food particle

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