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progressive movement

a series of movements in the late 1800's and early 1900's whose members believed that government was best able to correct the ills of society

muckraker

name given to journalists and writers of the Progressive Era who wrote about dishonesty in business, corruption in government and politics, and the horrors of being poor

chain gang

a group of prisoners in a county work camp; replaced the convict lease system

labor union

an organization of workers formed to improve their wages, benefits, and working conditions

strike

a work stoppage in protest over some grievance

sweatshop

factories with especially harsh working conditions

prohibition

the banning of alcohol

Eighteenth Amendment

an amendment to the U.S. Constitution that prohibited the manufacture, sale, and transportations of alcoholic beverages

Populist party

a political party formed in the late 1800s by labor organizations and the Farmers' Alliance

Australian ballot

a reform supported by the Populist party in which a ballot is printed by the government, distributed at voting places, and collected in sealed boxes so that the votes would be kept secret

Rural Free Delivery bill

legislation intrduced by Georgia Representative Tom Watson that required the U.S. Postmaster general to find a way to deliver mail to rural homes free of charge

poll

a voting place

Smith-Lever Act

legislation sponsored by GA Senator Hoke Smith that created the Agricultural Extension Service

Agricultural Extension Service

A government agency that gave matching federal funds to states that spent money to teach young people better farming methods

Smith-Hughes Act

legislation sponsored by GA Senator Hoke Smith that helped establish vocational programs in public schools across the nation and that helped states plan and carry out vocational training

county unit system

a procedure for political primaries that gave the more populous counties more unit votes; established by the Neill Primary Act

plurality

the margin of victory for the winner over his or her nearest rival

civil rights

the rights that a person has simply because he or she is a citizen

Jim Crow Laws

laws passed in the South to establish "separate-but-equal" facilities for whites and for blacks

injunction

a court order stating that something must or must not be done

Atlanta Compromise speech

a speech given by Booker T. Washington in 1895 at the Cotton States and international Exposition that proposed that blacks and whites should agree to benefit from each other

lynching

an illegal hanging, usually by a mob

grandfather clause

a clause inserted in the GA constitution in 1908 that stated only those men whose fathers or grandfathers had been eligible to vote in 1867 were eligible to vote; the clause disfranchised most of GA's African Americans

poll tax

a tax paid to be able to vote

gerrymander

to draw up an election district in such a way that it benefits a certain group

martial law

the use of military forces to main order because civilian forces will not or cannot maintain order

National Association for the Advancement of Colored People

"NAACP" an organization formed in 1909 by white liberals and members of the Niagara Movement to work for the rights of African Americans

National Urban League

an interracial organization formed in 1910 to help solve social problems facing African Americans who lived in the cities

scrip

paper money that is not legal currency

World War I

a war that began in Europe in 1914 between the Central Powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary) and the Allied Powers (France, Great Britain, Russia, and eventually the United States);the war ended in 1918

neutral

to not take sides in a disagreement

propaganada

information that is spread for the purpose of promoting some cause

armistice

an agreement to stop fighting

suffragette

a woman who fought for women's right to vote in the early 1900's

Nineteenth Amendment

An amendment to the U.S. constitution that gave women the right to vote

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