voice and data communication, Internet access,
Increasingly, __________ and ________________, as well as _______________, are taking place over braodband wireless platforms, such as cell phones, mobile handheld devices, and PCs in wireless networks.
a telephone wire, coaxial cable, or radio signal in the case of cell phone and wireless local area networks (Wi-Fi networks).
The connection medium for linking network components are:
(NOS) network operating system
routes and manages communications on the network and coordinates network resources.
a computer on a network that performs important network functions for client computers, such as serving up Web pages, storing data, and storing the network operating system.
Microsoft Windows Server, Linux, and Novell Open Enterprise Server
Server software that are the most widely used network operating systems.
client/server computing, the use of packet switching, and the development of widely used communications standards.
Contemporary digital networks and the Internet are based on three key technologies:
In _________-_________ networks, messages are first broken down into small fixed bundles of data called packets.
The packets are transmitted over various communication channels using ___________, each packet traveling independently.
diverse hardware and software components need to work together to transmit information.
In a typical telecommunications network:
TCP(Transmission Control Protocol)/IP(Internet Protocol)
________ was developed during the early 1970s to support U.S. Department of Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) efforts to help scientists transmit data among different types of computers over long distances.
Establishes a connection between the computers, sequences the transfer of packets, and acknowledges the packets sent.
refers to the Internet Protocol (IP), which is responsible for the delivery of packets and includes the disassembling and reassembling of packets during transmission.
enables client application programs to access the other layers and defines the protocols that applications use to exchange data.
responsible for providing the Application layer with communication and packet services.
Network Interface layer
At the bottom of the reference model, the Network Interface layer is responsible for placing packets on and receiving them from the network medium, which could be any networking technology.
Two computers using ____________ are able to communicate even if they are based on different hardware and software platforms.