personal freedoms, e.g., speech, assembly, religion.
protections against discrimination.
Clear and present danger doctrine
judicial interpretation of Amendment 1 that government may not ban speech unless such speech poses an imminent threat to society.
De facto segregation
segregation "by fact," i.e., segregation that results from such factors as housing patterns rather than law.
De jure segregation
segregation by law, i.e., segregation that is required by government.
being prosecuted twice for the same offense. Banned by Amendment 5.
Due process clause:
prohibits the national government (5th Amendment) and states (14th Amendment) from denying life, liberty, or property without due process of law.
Equal protection clause
14th Amendment clause that prohibits states from denying equal protection under the law, and has been used to combat discrimination.
the right of government to take private property for the public good. Fair compensation must be paid to the owner of such property.
provision of Amendment 1 that prohibits Congress from establishing an official state religion. This is the basis for separation of church and state.
Supreme Court guideline that excludes the use of illegally obtained evidence in a criminal trial.
Free exercise clause
provision of Amendment 1 stating that Congress may not prohibit the free exercise of religion.
Southern laws that excluded blacks from exercising suffrage by restricting the right to vote only to those whose grandfathers had voted before 1865.
determines whether or not to bring criminal charges against a suspect.
applying the Bill of Rights to the states. A "total incorporation" view is that the states must obey all provisions of the Bill of Rights because of the due process clause of the 14th Amendment. A "selective incorporation" view is that the Bill of Rights is to be applied to the states in a more gradual manner on a case by case basis, also via the due process clause of the 14th Amendment.
grand jury order that a suspect must stand trial for a criminal offense.
Jim Crow laws
Southern laws that required racial segregation in places of public accommodation.
written untruths that damage a reputation.
Southern method of excluding blacks from exercising suffrage by requiring that voters prove their ability to read and write.
warnings that must be read to suspects prior to questioning. Suspects must be advised that they have the rights of silence and counsel.
arrangement in which a suspect pleads guilty to a lesser offense in order to avoid a trial. The manner in which most cases are disposed of.
powers that allow states to pass laws protecting the health, welfare, safety, and morals of their residents.
Southern method of excluding blacks from exercising suffrage by requiring payment of a tax prior to voting.
When a court stops expression before it is made, e.g., prohibiting a demonstration by a radical group because the assembly is likely to become violent. Presumed to be unconstitutional
drawing of legislative boundaries to give electoral advantages to a particular racial group. "Majority-minority" districts include large numbers of racial minorities in order to ensure minority representation in legislatures.
advocacy of the overthrow of the government.
Separate but equal
Supreme Court doctrine established in the case of Plessy v. Ferguson. Allowed state-required racial segregation in places of public accommodation as long as the facilities were equal.
state laws that protect journalists from having to reveal their sources.
spoken untruths that damage a reputation.
Supreme Court guideline for determining if government can make racial distinctions. According to this guideline, such distinctions are highly suspect and are allowed only if they are narrowly tailored to serve a compelling government interest.
primary election in which Southern states allowed only whites to vote.