Clinton's Big Ditch
* The Erie canal
* Construction led by Governor DeWitt Clinton
* Went from Lake Erie to Buffalo to Hudson River
* Cost of shipping, transit time and prices fell dramatically
o Helped encourage the Factory movement
* Washington Irving's Knickerbocker's History of New York, Rip Van Winkle, The Legend of Sleepy Hollow
* James Fennimore Cooper's The Spy, The Last of the Mohicans
* William Cullen Bryant's "Thanatopsis"
* Established Holyoake Seminary (later College)
o Critics scoffed, "They'll be educatin' cows next."
* Some were uprooted famers, many were liberal political refugees.
* Moved to the Midwest (mainly Wisconsin)
* Most Germans weren't poor like the Irish, but had some material goods
* Politicians target Germans as a group
* For education (Kindergarten
* Brought beer to America
The Changing Family
* Women began to work
* Families grew smaller
* Less arranged marriages
* Contraceptives were primitive
* Less beatings, but still punished
Second Great Awakening
* A reaction against Liberalism in Religion
* Camp meetings of over 20,000 people
* Many of the "saved" soon slid back into sin
* Women became important in religion
* The greatest of the revival preachers of the 2nd Great Awakening
* Created the "anxious bench", where sinners could sit and be stared at by the religious
* Denounced Alcohol and slavery
* Became president of Oberlin College in Ohio (which became a center of revivalist activity and abolitionism)
* A community started by twenty intellectuals committed to the philosophy of transcendentalism
* In Massachusetts, comprising two hundred acres of grudging soil; started in 1841
* Prospered well until 1846 when they lost a large new communal building before is completion
* Black abolitionist; living monument to African American freedom
* Wrote "Appeal to the Colored Citizens of the Word"; advocated a bloody end to white supremacy
Declaration of Sentiments
* Document read at Seneca Falls, New York during a Women's Rights Convention
* In spirit of the Declaration of Independence claimed " all men and women are created equal"
* One resolution demanded a ballot for females
* Launched modern women's rights movement
* New England Teacher-author
* Physically frail and had lung trouble, she possessed infinite compassion and willpower
* Traveled 60,000 miles in 8 years and wrote reports on insanity and asylums from observations
* Her petition of 1843 to Massachusetts legislature, described cells so foul turned stomachs and hearts of legislatures
* Resulted in improved conditions and gain in concept that the demented were not willfully perverse but mentally ill
Edgar Allan Poe
* Spent youth in Virginia; was an eccentric genius
* Orphaned at an early age, cursed with ill health, and married to a child-wife of 13 who fell fatly ill of Tuberculosis, he suffered hunger cold poverty and debt
* Drank a lot and failed at suicide
* He excelled at short story horror; shared alcoholic nightmare with readers
* Said to invent modern detective novel
Fredrick Jackson Turner
* Supported Jackson, hero of the west who would protect the will of the people against the moneyed interests
* argued that the democratic tradition of the United States survive because of the rise of the west, and not its roots in the conservative, aristocratic East
* wrote "The Significance of the Frontier in American History"
* gifted Rhode Island painter who painted competitively in Britain, most known for his portraits
* painted several idealized and dehumanized portraits of Washington
Henry David Thoreau
* a poet, mystic, transcendentalist, and nonconformist
* disliked governmewnts that supported slavery, so he didn't pay the poll tax in Massachusetts and was subsequently jailed for a night
* wrote Walden: of Life in the Wilderness and On the Duty of Civil Disobedience
* his writings encouraged Mahatma Gandhi and inspired Martin Luther King, Jr.
Henry Wadsworth Longfellow
* Popular American poet (even in Europe) whose most admired poems were based on American traditions (thought he had European influences too)
* adopted by the masses dispite the fact that he wrote for the genteel classes
* taught modern languages a Harvard
* an orphaned, ill-educated New Yorker who was on a whaler for 18 months
* his masterpiece Moby Dick wasn't popular because it was too depressing for the time period
* continued writing unprofitably and made a scanty living by being a customs inspector
* died in relative obscurity and poverty and was only properly recognized posthumously
Hudson River School of Art
* An art school that excelled in the style of romantic mirrorings of local landscapes
* portrate painters were the ones who did these kind of paintings instead of what they had previously painted
James Fenimore Cooper
* One of the America's first writers to use American scenes and themes
* First American novelist (Washington Irving was the first general writer) to gain world fame and make new world themes respectable
* After his first novel failed be gained success with his second in 1821, entitled The Spy which was about the American Revolution
* His most famous works were the Leatherstocking Tales which depicts the adventures of the resourceful sharp-shooting Natty Bumppo, who meet with the Indians in adventures like The Last of the Mohicans.
John Greenleaf Whittier
* Quaker poet against slavery
* His poems cried out against inhumanity, injustice, and intolerance
* Undeterred by insults and stoning from mobs, he continued to arouse Americans and influence them with his humanitarian poems
* Women writer, feminist
* Edited transcendentalist journal The Dial
* Was part of the struggle to bring unity and republicanism to Itally
* Died in a shipwreck off New York's Fire Island when returning to the US
* Grew up in Salem Massachusetts in an atmosphere heavy with the memories of Puritan forebears
* He wrote The Scarlet Letter (Not going to summarize, if you're not in honors English go look it up yourself)
* He also wrote The Marble Faun where a group of young American artists witness a mysterious murder in Rome. The book explores the concepts of the omnipresence of evil and the dead hand of the past weighing upon the present.
* Believed that the temptation of alcohol should be removed by law
* As an employer of labor he often witnessed the debauching effect of alcohol and lost money due to it
* Sponsored the Maine Law of 1851 which prohibited the manufacture and sale of alcohol
* This influenced numerous other states to pass various prohibiting laws but many were repealed or declared unconstitutional
* Known as the "Father of Prohibition"
Oliver Wendell Holmes
* Famous anatomy teacher at Harvard Medical School, poet, essayist, novelist, lecturer, and wit
* Fascinating man- nonconformist
* His poem "The Last Leaf" honored the last "white Indian" of the Boston Tea Party but the title "The Last Leaf" ended up being his title when he was the last among his group of contemporaries when he died at 85
* Founded by John Humphrey Noyes- wanted a perfect Christian community on earth.
* Practiced free love "complex marriage", birth control, and the eugenic selection of parents to produce superior offspring.
* It flourished for thirty years because its artisans made superior steel traps.
Ralph Waldo Emerson
* Was a transcendentalist, born in Boston. Trained as a Unitarian minister, gave up his pulpit early. He was a never failing lyceum lecturer and for 20 years took a western tour every winter.
* Most thrilling public address is the Phi Beta Kappa address, "The American Scholar," made at Harvard College.
o This was an intellectual declaration of independence, urging American writers to leave European traditions and look within their own nation.
* He stressed self reliance, self improvement, self confidence, and freedom.
* He was an outspoken critic of slavery, and supported the union cause of civil war.
The Knickerbockers Group
* From New York helped literary improvement by giving Americans a boast of literature to match its magnificent landscapes.
* 3 members:
o Made by Washington Erving- 1st to win international recognition as a literary figure in America. He made the Knickerbockers' History of N.Y.
o James Fenimore Cooper- 1st American novelist. Achieved old world's respect, became a novelist after accepting a challenge from his wife to write a novel.
o Third member, William Cullen Bryant- wrote "Thanatopsis" at age 16, one of the first high-quality poems made in US.
* One of the leading architects of the American abolitionist movement from 1830-1844
* He played a role as a writer, editor, speaker, and organizer
* He co-authored the compendium: "American Slavery As It Is: Testimony of a Thousand Witnesses" published in 1839
* an American author, essayist, biographer and historian of the early 19th century.
* best known for his short stories: "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow" and "Rip Van Winkle"
* 1st American writer to earn acclaim in Europe
* Irving encouraged American authors such as Nathaniel Hawthorne, Herman Melville, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, and Edgar Allan Poe
* was an American historian and statesman who was prominent in promoting secondary education both in his home state and at the national level
* During his tenure as U.S. Secretary of the Navy, he established the United States Naval Academy at Annapolis in 1845
* known for his magisterial series, History of the United States, from the Discovery of the American Continent.
William Lloyd Garrison
* Most outspoken advocator for abolition
* A nonresistant pacifist, poor organizer, and called for Northern secession
* Wrote the militantly anti-slavery newspaper The Liberator
* Co-founded the American Anti-Slavery Society
* A former slave, fled at age 21, self-taught and became an abolition orator
* Wrote an autobiography describing his mulatto parentage, struggle for education, and escape
* Served as the U.S. minister to Haiti late in life
* An evangelist due to Finney and an abolitionist
* Self-educated, simple, direct, lanky, and sponsored to go to Lane Theological Seminary
* He and his "Lane Rebels went around across the Old Northwest preaching
* Wrote American Slavery as It Is, a propaganda pamphlet
Gabriel Prosser Slave Revolt
* In 1800 Gabriel, a slave, lead an armed insurrection
* It was foiled by informers and the leaders were hanged
* A black abolitionist that in 1829 published Appeal to the Colored Citizens of the World
* It advocated for the bloody end to white supremacy