a change in, or addition to, a constitution. Proposed by a two-thirds vote of both houses of congress or by a convention called congress at the request of two-thirds of state legislatures and ratified by approval of three-fourths of the states.
opponents to the ratification of the constitution who valued liberty above all else and believed in a small republic. they emphasized states' rights and worried about central government being too strong.
articles of confederation
the document establishing a "league of friendship" among the states in 1781. it proved too weak to be effective and was replaced by the constitution.
bill of attainder
a law that declares a person, without trial, to be guilty of a crime. the state legislatures and congress are forbidden to pass such acts, article 1, sections 9 and 10, of the constitution.
bill of rights
the first ten amendments of the u.s. constitution, containing a list of individual rights and liberties.
checks and balances
the power of the legislative, executive, and judicial branches of government to block some acts by the other two branches.
part of a theory espoused by James Madison that hypothesized that different interests must come together to form alliances in order for a republican government to work.
a meeting of delegates in 1878 to revise the articles of confederation, which produced a totally new constitution.
ex post facto law
a law which makes criminal an act that was legal when it was committed, increases the penalty of the crime after it has been committed, or that changes the rules of evidence to make conviction easier. forbidden by article I, sections 9 and 10, of the constitution.
a term employed by James Madison to refer to interests that exist in society. Madison said that each interest would seek its own advantage and that pulling and hauling among them would promote political stability.
federalist no. 10
James Madison's essay that said that liberty is safest in a large republic because many interests (factions) exist. such diversity prevents a tyranny of the majority.
a series of 85 essays written by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay, published in New York newspapers to convince new yorkers to adopt the newly proposed constitution.
supporters of the constitution during ratification debates.
the agreement that prevented the collapse of the constitutional convention because of friction between large and small states. states representation in the senate would be on a basis of equality (favors small states) and the house in proportion to each state's population (favors large states).
rights thought to be based on nature and providence rather than on preferences of people.
the power of the courts to declare an act of congress unconstitutional. limits the power of popular majority.
the power of the executive to veto some provisions in an appropriations bill while approving others. the president does not have this right.
a philosophical belief expressed in the declaration of independance that certain rights are ordained by god, discoverable in nature and history, and essential to human progress. the perception that these rights were violated by Great Britain contributed to the american revolution.
new jersey plan
a plan proposed by William Patterson as a substitute for the virginia plan in an effort to provide greater protection for the interests of small states. it recommended that the articles of confederation should be amended, not replaced, with a unicameral congress, in which each state woud have an equal vote.
the form of government intended by the framers that operates through a system of representation.
separation of powers
an element of the constitution in which political power is shared between the branches of government to allow self-interest to check self-interest.
a rebellion in 1787 by ex-revolutionary war soldiers who feared losing their property over indebtedness. the former soldiers were prevented courts in western Massachusetts from sitting. the inability of the government to deal effetively with the rebellion showed the weakness of the political system at the time and led to support for the revision of the articles.
a plan drafted by James Madison and submitted at the constitutional convention that proposed a new form of government with stronger national government structured around three branches.
writ of habeas corpus
a court order directing a police officer who has a person in custody to bring the prisoner before a judge to show sufficient cause for his or her detention. thr purpose is to prevent illegal arrests and imprisonment. under the constitution, the writ cannot be suspended, except during invasion or rebellion.
the division of power between a national government and regional governments
federal funds provided to states and localities
lobbying activities by state and local officials in DC to compete for federal funds.
requirements imposed against state and local governments
mcculloch v maryland (1819)
a supreme court decision that settled two issues. 1) congress can exercise powers not specifically mentioned in the constitution if the power can be implied by and enumerated one ("necessary and proper" clause). 2) the federal government is immune from taxation by the states (federal supremacy)
article I, section 8, of the constitution, which authorizes congress to pass all laws "necessary and proper" to carry out the enumerated powers.
the states (or the people) retain all powers not specifically delegated to the national government by the constitution
a system in which sovereignty is wholly in the hands of national government
a provision of the constitution that makes the laws and treaties of the federal government the "supreme law of the land" (federal supremacy clause)
grants given by the federal government to the state and local authorities for general purpose
grants given by the federal government to state and local authorities for specific purposes
a form of government in which sovereignty is wholly in the hands of the states and local governments
conditions of aid
a condition which a state government must fulfill for taking federal funds
a form of government in which sovereignty is shared, so that on some matters the national government is supreme and on others the states are supreme
a comprehensive set of political, economic, and social views or idea, concerned with the form and role of government
the sense that citizens have the capacity to understand and influence political events.
the belief that citizens have an obligation to participate in civic and political affairs
a split in the u.s. on people's beliefs about private and public morality and what standards ought to govern individual behavior and social arrangements
an element of the american view of the political system, in which americans believe that government officials should be accountable to the people
a political ideology that, although changing in meaning, adheres to the following principles: it does not favor government efforts to control the economy, it does not favor strong federal action to desegregate schools and increase hiring opportunities for minorities, and does not favor tolerance towards protests, legalizing marijuana, and protecting the rights of criminals
people with a disproportionate amount of a valued resource
differences between the political views of men and women
a political ideology that, although changing in meaning, adheres to the following principles: favors government involvement in economics, favors strong federal action to ensure civil rights, and favors tolerance towards protests, legalizing marijuana, and protecting the rights of criminals
a political ideology that is conservative on economic matters and liberal on social ones. the ideology's goal is small weak government.
identification with one political party
a coherent and consistent set of beliefs about who ought to rule, what principles rulers ought to obey, and what policies rulers ought to pursue
a political ideology that is liberal on economic issues and conservative on social issues. it believes the government should reduce economic inequality but regulate personal conduct.
a political ideology that is conservative on both economic and personal conduct
a political ideology that is liberal on both economic and personal conduct
the values associated with the majot religious denominations in america: protestant, catholic, and jewish. in general, catholic are somewhat more liberal on economic issues than white protestant ones, while jewish families are more liberal on both economic and social issues
the person currently in office
a type of primary in which the voter can decide upon entering the voting booth in which party's primary to participate
political action committee
a committee set up by a special-interest group representing a corporation, labor union, or other special interest
the first election in a campaign that determines a party's nominee for an office.
public finance law
a federal law providing funds to candidates seeking the presidency. in primaries, only matching funds are available after eligibility requirements are fulfilled. in general elections, the federal government gives candidates of major parties the option of complete financing.
an election result in which a congressional district votes for the presidential candidate of one party and the congressional candidate of the other party.
voting for a candidates who are all of the same party
an electoral system in which the winner is that person who gets the most votes, even if they do not constitute the majority of the votes
a political party organization that recruits its members by the use tangible incentives and is characterized by a high degree of leadership control over members' activities
a group that seeks to elect candidates to public office by supplying them with a label by which they are known to the electorate
a political party organization based on gregarious or game-loving instincts. it survives on the basis of a friendship network
an inducement that attracts people out of gregarious or game-loving instincts. is one reason why people become involved in a state or local party organization
elected officials and party leaders represented at the national convention of the democratic party. such representation was provided for by the recent party reform to ensure that an electable presidential candidate is selected
an electoral system with two dominant parties that compete in state or national elections
and element of the electoral system used in the u.s. which requires that only one member of the house can be elected from each congressional district.
a type of primary in which the voter must be a registered member of a political party to vote in that party's primary
a base of committed partisans supporting an electoral candidate who also attracts swing votes
attitudinal view of representation
the theory of congressional voting behavior which assumes that the members vote on the basis of their own beliefs
a legislative assembly composed of two separate houses
an association of members of congress created to advocate a political ideology, a constituency, or an interest
christmas tree bill
a bill that has lots of riders
committee of the whole
a device used in the house to expedite the passage of legislation. the quorum is reduced from 218 to 100, and the speaker appoints a member of the majority party as chair. time allotted for debating the bill is split equally between its proponents and opponents. the committee cannot pass legislation.
limitation imposed by the rules committee of the house on the amount of debate time allotted to a bill and on the introduction of amendments from the floor
rule 22 of the senate, providing for the end of debate on a bill three-fifths of the members agree. the purpose is typically to terminate a filibuster and to force a vote on a bill
a special type of joint committee appointed to resolve differences in the house and senate versions of a piece of legislation
a meeting place of representatives of local constituencies who can initiate, modify, approve, or reject laws. it also shares supervision of government agencies with the executive
congressional research service
created in 1914to respond to congressional requests for information. it keeps track of every major bill and produces summaries for members
a vote in congress in which conservative democrats join with republicans
the statistical correspondence of the demographic characteristics of representatives with those of their constituents
a prolonged speech or series of speeches made to delay action on legislation in the senate.
the ability of members of congress to mail letters to their constituents free of charge by substituting their facsimile signature for postage
drawing congressional district lines to make it easy for a candidate of one party to win that district
the legislative leader elected by the party members holding the majority of the seats in the house
Congressional districts drawn so that the majority of voters are minorities to make it easier for minority citizens to elect minority representatives
the creation of congressional districts in a state which are of unequal size. the supreme court in 1964 eliminated this practice by requiring that all districts in a state contain about the same number of people.
a congressional district in which the winner of the general election gets less that 55% of the vote
the head of the minority party in each house of congress chosen by the caucus of the minority party
consent from the rules committee of the house which permits amendments from the floor
organizational view of representation
the theory of congressional voting behavior which assumes the members vote to please fellow members
an assembly of party representatives which chooses a government and discusses major national issues.
the extent to which members of a party vote together in the house and senate.
a bill introduced by a member of congress that gives tangible benefits to constituents in hopes of winning votes in return
president pro tempore
a position created in the constitution to serve as presiding officer of the senate in the absence of the vice president
a calling of roll to see whether the number of representatives in attendance meets the minimum number required to conduct official business
representational view of representation
the theory of congressional voting behavior that assumes that members vote based on what they think their constituents want
consent from the rules committee of the house which permits certain amendments to a piece of legislation but not others
a nongermane amendment on an important bill
a method of voting used in both houses in which members answer yea or nay when their names are called
in the the house, the committee that decides which bills come up for a vote, in what order, and under what restrictions on length of debate and on the right to offer amendments
congressional committee appointed for a limited time period and purpose
the tradition observed in the senate in which that body refuses to confirm an appointment when the candidate is personally obnoxious to either senator from the candidate's state
a constitutional amendment ratified in 1931 requiring the popular election of u.s. senators
an increase in the number of votes candidates receive from their first election to their second election
speaker of the house
the constitutionally mandated presiding officer of the house. the speaker is chosen in the caucus of the majority party and is empowered to recognize members to speak.
the permanent committees of each house with the power to report bills
the correspondence between representatives' opinions and those of their constituents
a member of the party leadership in each house who helps the party leader stay informed about what the party members are thinking, rounds up members when important votes are to be taken, and attempts to keep a nose count on hose the voting controversial issue is likely to go
ad hoc structure
a method in which the president organizes his personal staff that employs task forces, committees, and informal groups of friends dealing directly with him
budget reform act 1974
a congressional effort to control presidential impoundments, it requires, among other things, that the president spend all the appropriated funds unless he first tells congress which funds he wishes not to spend and congress,within 45 days, agrees to delete those items.