Chapter 26: The West and the World

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14 terms

Third World

• Consists of countries found mainly in Africa, Asia, and Latin Europe.
• They were undeveloped, nonindustrialized countries since the 1700s and became developing countries in the late 1800s and early 1900s.
• They began to enter the world economy and grew steadily.
• A gap grew between these nations and the developed, industrialized nations in North America, Europe, and Japan.

opium trade

• The large trade system of opium between Great Britain and China that led to a series of wars over the trade in 1839.
• Britain grew opium in British-owned areas of India and traded with Chinese merchants, and the trade quickly grew.
• The Qing government of China set laws to ban the trade of opium, due to its negative effects on people and the economy, and the government expelled the British merchants.
• The British army from India controlled several Chinese cities and forced them to surrender and allow the trade to continue and flourish.
• More wars in 1856 and 1860 gave the British more privileges and opened China to more foreign trade and foreign influence.

khedive

• A title given to refer to a prince, usually of Egypt.
• First used as title for Muhammad Ali as ruler of Egypt, then passed down to his grandson Ismail in 1863 and his successors.
• Recognized as a title of power and gave leaders more authority in their country.

great migration

• A great movement of millions of Europeans during the 1800s and early 1900s.
• Millions of Europeans moved to other European-owned nations or areas, greatly adding to the Western expansion.
• Migrants moved to the United States, Asiatic Russia, Canada, Argentina, Brazil, Australia, and New Zealand.
• Most migrants were those who were threatened by the loss of land, cheap possessions from factories, or just low standards of living, and most tried to find places to maintain or improve their statuses.

swallows

• A term used by Italian migrants for themselves in the late 1880s and early 1900s.
• These Italians would migrate to Argentina to harvest wheat between April and December, and then return to Italy to harvest wheat in the spring.
• They repeated this process to gain more profit, but none would permanently settle in a country.
• Many Italians repeated this process for years.

great white walls

• Discriminatory laws set up in the 1880s within the United States and Australians.
• These laws were designed to keep Asians out and halt Asian migration.
• Many Asians migrated in search for opportunities in trade and towns.
• The laws led to the "whites only" policy in lands for permanent settlement, and the most benefits were received by Europeans or those of European ancestry.

new imperialism

• The new idea of building and expanding empires for power in the late 1800s and early 1900s.
• A popular idea between 1880 and 1914, where countries sought to enlarge political empires around the world.
• Countries rushed to claim as much people and territory as possible, leading to growing tensions, more war, and more racial discrimination.
• Most of the expanding occurred in Asia and Africa, where countries built world empires and grew in power.

Afrikaners

• A term used to refer to descendants of the Dutch in the Cape Colony in the 19th century.
• Also known as Boers, they proclaimed their independence after 1853.
• They defended and claimed land from the British, until they had claimed control of most of South Africa along with the British.
• They lost to the British in the South African War, where all of the territory was united into the Union of South Africa.
• They gained some political power back in the area afterwards.

Berlin conference

• A conference held in 1884 to discuss the expanding of empires into Africa.
• Belgium, Great Britain, France, Germany, and Austria Hungary.
• Created rules for the colonies created in Africa and set limits to where each country could expand.
• If a country could have a colony on the coast of Africa, they could claim land as far in as they could control.
• It was a response to the emergence of German and Belgian colonies and competition in Africa.

white man's burden

• An ideology accepted by most Americans and Europeans in the late 1800s and early 1900s.
• The white civilizations believed they had reached the point where they had unique benefits to bestow on all other less advanced people, like in the Philippines.
• They believed their governments would also protect natives from warfare and discrimination from other white, superior people.
• This idea led most white civilizations to control foreign lands instead of liberate lands, and led to the spread of ideas and religions, like Christianity.

Great Rebellion

• A large rebellion in 1857 and 1858 in response to the British East India Company conquering the last independent native Indian state.
• It was the last traditional response to attempt to drive out the white men to stop European rule.
• An insurrection by Muslim and Hindu mercenaries in the British army spread though India.
• The British army ended the insurrection and broke all rebellion to British rule in India.
• Afterwards, Britain ruled India directly.

shogun

• The hereditary military governor of Japan that held most of the actual power.
• The title was part of the feudal society that was in effect in 1853.
• Governed the country of mostly hard-working, productive peasants.
• Used the samurai to control the country and have power.
• The title was weakened when European fleets destroyed key forts and weakened the governments.
• New leaders abolished the feudal system in 1871 and copied governments in Europe.

samurai

• The warrior nobility of Japan in the old feudal system.
• Were used to control the country and were used under the order of the shogun.
• Between 1858 and 1863, they started a wave of antiforeign terrorism and antigovernment assassinations when foreign merchants and diplomats in Japan increased.
• After losing to European fleets, they restored political power to the emperor in the Meiji Restoration and began to reform the Japanese government.
• A key part of the Japanese army and government.

hundred days of reform

• A reform of the Chinese government in 1898 launched to meet foreign challenges.
• Various groups of radical reformers attempted to start reforms and change the political aims and structure of the Chinese government.
• Some revolutionary reformers sought to overthrow the dynasty and establish a republic, while some traditionalists wanted to convert back to ancient traditions and practices.
• The Qing Dynasty was weakened due to past failures of resisting foreign influence and past rebellions.
• The Boxer rebellion and revolutionary groups finally led to the fall of the Qing Dynasty in 1912, and an elected parliament was called for.

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