Alternative to international trade that emphasizes small businesses and worker owned and democratically run cooperatives and requires employers to pay workers fair wages, permit union organizing and comply wit minimum environmental and safety standards.
A process of change in the use of a house, from single-family owner occupancy to abandonment.
Seed of a cereal grass.
The number of people in an area exceeds the capacity of the environment to support life at a decent standard of living.
An area organized into a political unit and ruled by an established government with control over its internal and foreign affairs.
Rice planted on dryland in a nursery and then moved to a deliberately flooded field to promote growth.
To remove chaff by allowing it to be blown away by the wind
An area that people believe exists as part of their cultural identity.
A patch of land cleared for planting through slashing and burning.
The gross value of the product minus the costs of raw materials and energy.
A form of Latin used in daily conversation by ancient Romans, as opposed to the standard dialect, which was used for official documents.
A pattern of settlements in a country, when x is a variable, that the x larges settlement is 1/x the population of the larges settlement.
Identity with a group of people descended from a common ancestor
In reference to migration, laws that place maximum limits on the number of people who can immigrate to a country each year.
A state that includes several discontinuous pieces of territory
Form of mass production in which each worker is assigned one specific task to perform repeatedly
Commercial agriculture characterized by the integration of different steps in the food-processing industry, usually through ownership by large corporations.
A process of improvement in the material conditions of people through diffusion of knowledge and technology.
A two-dimensional, or flat, representation of Earth's surface or a portion of it.
Branch of medical science concerned withe the incidence, distribution, and control of diseases that affect large numbers of people.
Permanent movement within a particular country.
Factories built by U.S. companies in Mexico near the U.S. border, to take advantage of much lower labor costs in Mexico.
Process of redrawing legislative boundaries for teh purpose of benefiting the party in power.
Land created by the Dutch by draining water from an area.
The theory that the physical environment may set limits on human actions, but people have the ability to adjust to the physical environment and choose a course of action from many alternatives.
The difference between the level of immigration and the level of emigration.
Loyalty and devotion to a particular state.
State that contains more than one ethnicity
A form of speech that adopts a simplified grammar and limited vocabulary of a lingua franca, used for communications among speakers of two different languages.
Identity with a group of people that share distinct physical and mental traits as a product of common heredity and cultural traditions.
Control of territory already preoccupied and organized by an indigenous society.
A language that is written as well as spoken.
A language mutually understood and commonly used in trade by people who have different native languages.
A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are arranged around a series of sectors, or wedges, radiating out from the CBD.
Any activity that fulfills a human want or need and returns money to those who provide it.
Concept that ethnicities have the right to govern themselves.
A process of converting an urban neighborhood from a predominantly low-income renter-occupied area to a predominantly middle-class owner-occupied area.
Permanent movement within one region of a country.
Permanent movement from one country to another.
Permanent movement from one region of a country to another.
An environmental or cultural feature of the landscape that hinders migration.
Housing owned by the government; in the U.S. it is rented to residents with low incomes, and the rents are set at 30 percent of the families' incomes.
An internal organization of a state that places most power in the hands of central government officials.
Commercial gardening and fruit farming, so named because truck was Middle English word meaning bartering or the exchange of commodities.
A group in society prevented from participating in the material benefits of a more developed society because of a variety of social and economic characteristics.
A group of neighboring countries that promote trade with each other and erect barriers to limit trade with other blocs.
Balance of Power
Condition of roughly equal strength between opposing countries or alliances of countries.
A religion that does not have a central authority but shares ideas and cooperates informally.
A location where transfer is possible from one mode of transportation to another
Central Place Theory
A theory that explains the distribution of services, based on the fat that settlements serve as centers of market areas for services; larger settlements are fewer and farther apart than smaller settlements and provide services for a larger number of people who are willing to travel farther.
A machine that reaps, threshes, and cleans grain while moving over a field.
Multiple Nuclei Model
A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are arranged around a collection of node of activities.
Concentric Zone Model
A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are spatially arranged in a series of rings.
The process of change in a society's population from a condition of high crude birth and death rates and low rate of natural increase to a condition of low crude birth and death rates, low rate of natural increase, and a higher total population.
The diminishing in importance and eventual disappearance of a phenomenon with increasing distance from its origin.
The number of years needed to double a population assuming a constant rate of natural increase.
The process of consolidating small landholdings into a smaller number of larger farms in England during the eighteenth century.
Human Development Index
Indicator of level of development for each country, constructed by the UN, combining income, literacy, education, and life expectancy.
A zone separating two states in which neither state exercises political control.
Gender Empowerment Measure
Compares the ability of women and men to participate in the economic and political decision making.
Gender-Related Development Index
Compares the level of development of women with that of both sexes.
An area organized around a node or focal point.
An area in which everyone shares in one or more distinctive characteristics.
The spread of a feature or trend through bodily movement of people from one place to another.
The rapid, widespread diffusion of a feature or trend throughout a population.
THe spread of a feature or trend among people from one area to another in a snowballing process.
The spread of a feature or trend from one key person or node of authority or power to other persons or places.
A religion in which a central authority exercises a high degree of control.
The landscape that results from many generations of human occupancy.
A form of subsistence agriculture in which people shift activity from one field to another; each field is used for a relatively few years and left fallow for a relatively long period of time.
People who are forced to migrate from their home country and cannot return for fear of persecution because of their race, religion, nationality, membership in a social group, or political opinion.
A process by which banks draw lines on a map and refuse to lend money to purchase or improve property within the boundaries.
Legislation and regulations to limit suburban sprawl and preserve farmland.
A person who works fields rented from a landowner and pays the rent and repays loans by turning over to the landowner a share of the crops.
The ratio of the number of farmers to the total amount of land.
The total number of people divided by the total land area.
The number of people per unit of area of arable land, which is land suitable for agriculture.
von Thunen Model
A model that helped explain the importance of proximity to market in the choice of crops on commercial farms.
A decision by a corporation to turn over much of the responsibility for production to independent suppliers.
Industries that sell their products primarily to consumers in teh community.
Industries that sell their products or services primarily to consumers outside the settlement.
Process by which a state breaks down through conflicts among its elasticities.
Primate City Rule
A pattern of settlements in a country, such that the largest settlement has more than twice as many people as the second ranking settlement.
An increase in the percentage and in the number of people living in urban settlements.
The time when human beings first domesticated plants and animals and no longer relied entirely on hunting and gathering.
The deliberate effort to modify a portion of Earth's surface through the cultivation of crops and the raising of livestock for sustenance or economic gain.
Legally adding land area to a city in the U.S.
Belief that objects, such as plants and stones, or natural events, like thunderstorms and earthquakes, have a discrete spirit and conscious life.
A small geographic area that could not successfully be organized into one or more stable states because it was inhabited by many elasticities with complex, long-standing antagonisms toward each other.
An east-west line designated under the Land Ordinance of 1785 to facilitate the surveying and numbering of townships in the U.S.
Large-scale emigration of talented people.
Invisible line that marks the extent of a state's territory.
An industry in which the final product weighs less or comprises a grater volume than the inputs.
An industry in which the final product weights less or comprises a lower volume than the inputs.
The science of making maps.
The class or distinct hereditary order into which a Hindu is assigned according to religious law.
A complete enumeration of a population.
An area delineated by the U.S. Bureau of the Census for which statistics are published; in urbanized areas, census tracts correspond roughly to neighborhoods.
A market center for the exchange of services by people attracted from the surrounding area.
An attitude that tends to unify people and enhance support for a state.
Migration of people to a specific location because relatives or members of the same nationality previously migrated there.
A sovereign state comprising a city and its immediate hinterland.
Attempt by one country to establish settlements and to impose its political, economic, and cultural principle in another territory.
Agriculture undertaken primary to generate products for sale off the the farm.
A state in which the distance from the center to any boundary does not vary significantly.
The spread of something over a given area.
Relationships among people and objects across the barrier of space.
Businesses that provide services primarily to individual consumers, including retail services and education, health, and leisure services.
Manufacturing based in homes rather than in a factory, commonly found before the Industrial Revolution
Council of Government
A cooperative agency consisting of representatives of local governments in a metropolitan area in the U.S.
Net migration from urban to rural areas in more developed countries.
Creole or creolized language
A language that results from the mixing of a colonizer's language with the indigenous language of the people being dominated.
Grain or fruit gathered from a field as a harvest during a particular season.
The practice of rotating use of different fields from crop to crop each year, to avoid exhasustin teh soil.
Crude Birth Rate
The total number of live births in a year for every 1,000 people alive in the society.
Crude Death Rate
The total number of deaths in a year for every 1,000 people alive in the society.
Geographic approach that emphazies human-environment relationships.
The body of customary beliefs, social, forms adn material traits that together constitute a group of people's distinct tradition.
Teh scientific study of population characteristics.
A dividon of a branch that unites a number of local congregations in a single legal and administrative body.
The frequency with which something exists within a given unit of area.
The change in density in an urban area from the center to the periphery.
The number of people under the age of 15 and over age 64, compared to the number of people active in the labor force.
Degradation of land, especially in semiarid areas, primarily because of human actions like excessive crop planting, animal grazing,and tree cutting.
A regional variety of a language distinguished by vocabulary spelling, and pronunciation.
Dispersed Rural Settlement
A rural settlement pattern characterized by isolated farms rather than clustered villages.
The arrangement of something across Earth's surface.
Harvesting twice a year from the same field.
Dialect spoken by some African Americans.
The portion of Earth's surface occupied by permanent human settlement.
A large node of office and retail activities on the edge of an urban area.
A state with long, narrow shape.
Migration from a location.
A nineteenth- and early twentieth-century approach to the study of geography that argued that the general laws sought by human geographers could be found in the physical sciences. Geography was therefor the study of how the physical environment caused human activities.
Distinctive causes of death in each stage of the demographic transition.
Process in which a more powerful ethnic group forcibly removes a less powerful one in order to create and ethnically homogeneous region.
A language that was once used by people in daily activities but is no longer used.
An internal organization of a state that allocates most powers to units of local government.
Culture traditionally practiced by a small, homogeneous, rural group living in relative isolation from other groups.
Permanent movement compelled usually by cultural factors.
A term used by the French for English words that have entered the French language.
Literal interpretation and strict adherence to basic principles of a religion.
A computer system that stores, organizes analyzes, and displays geographic data.
During the Middle Ages, a neighborhood in a city set up by law to be inhabited only by Jews.
Actions or processes that involve the entire world and result in making something worldwide in scope.
A system that determines the precise position of something on Earth through a series of satellites, tracking stations, and receivers.
A model that holds that the potential use of a service at a particular location is directly related to the number of people in a location and inversely related to the distance people must travel to reach the service.
Rapid diffusion of new agricultural technology, especially new high-yield seeds and fertilizers.
A ring of land maintained as parks, agriculture of other types of open space to limit the sprawl of an urban area.
Greenwich Mean Time
The time in that time zone encompassing the prime meridian.
Gross Domestic Product
The value of the total output of goods and services produced in a country in a given time period.
Workers who migrate to the more developed countries of Northern and Western Europe, usually from Southern and Eastern Europe or North Africa, in search of higher-paying jobs.
A repetitive act preformed by a particular individual.
The region from which innovative ideas originate.
The growing of fruits, vegetables, and flowers.
The outer covering of a seed.
The system of writing used in China and other East Asian countries in which each symbol represents an idea or a concept rather than a specific sound, as is the case with letters in English.
Migration to a new location.
A series of improvement in industrial technology that transformed the process of manufacturing goods.
Infant Mortality Rate
The total number of deaths in a year among infants under 1 year old for every 1,000 live births in a society.
Intensive Subsistence Agriculture
A form of subsistence agriculture in which farmers must expend a relatively large amount of effort to produce the maximum feasible yield from a parcel of land.
Permanent movement within a particular country.
International Date Line
An arc that for the most part follows 180 degrees longitude, although it deviates in several places to avoid dividing land area.
A boundary that separates regions in which different language usages predominate.
A language that is unrelated to any other languages and therefore not attached to any language family.
An industry for which labor costs make up a high percentage of total expenses.
Land Ordinance of 1785
A law that divided much of the U.S. into a system of townships to facilitate the sale of land to settlers.
A state that does not have a direct outlet to the sea.
A system of communication through the use of speech, a collection of sounds understood by a group of people to have the same meaning.
A collection of languages related through a common ancestor that existed several thousand years ago.
A collection of languages related to each other through a common ancestor long before recorded history.
A collection of languages within a branch that share a common origin in the relatively recent past and display relatively few differences in grammar and vocab.
The numbering system used to indicate the location of parallels drawn on a globe and measuring distance north and south of the equator.
Less Developed Countries
A country that is at a relatively early stage in the process of economic development.
The average number of years an individual can be expected to live, given current social, economic, and medical conditions.
The percentage of a country's people who can read and write.
The numbering system used to indicate the location of meridians drawn on a globe and measuring distance east and west of the prime meridian.
The area surrounding a central place, from which people are attracted to use the place's goods and services.
Medical technology invented in Europe and North America that is diffused to the poorer countries of Latin America, Asia, and Africa.
An internal representation of a portion of Earth's surface based on what an individual knows about a place, containing personal impressions of what is in a place and where places are located.
An arc drawn on a map between the North and South poles.
Metropolitan Statistical Area
In the U.S., a central city of at least 50,000 population, the country within which the city is located, and adjacent countries meeting one of several tests indicating a functional connection to the central city.
Micropolitan Statistical Area
An urbanized area of between 10,000 and 50,000 inhabitants, the country in which it is found, and adjacent counties tied to the city.
A state that encompasses a very small land area.
Form of relocation diffusion involving a permanent move to a new location.
Change in the migration pattern in a society that results from industrialization, population growth, and other social and economic changes that also produce the demographic transition.
The area surrounding a city from which milk is supplied.
An individual who helps to diffuse a universalizing religion.
All types of movement from one location to another.
The doctrine or belief of the existence of only one god.
More Developed Country
A country that has progressed relatively far along a continuum of development.