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What element defines "organic"?

Carbon

Which of the following is the best and safest source of phytochemicals?

whole foods

Amounts of which type of lipids must be listed on the food labels?

trans fat and cholesterol (b and c)

The Daily Values reflect the needs of an "average" person consuming between ____ calories a day.

2,000 and 2,500

The DRI Committee recommended a diet that contains _____% of its calories from carbohydrates.

45-65

The Nutrition Facts Panel on a food label lists the fallowing information for amounts per serving: 111 calories; 23 calories from fat. What percentage of the calories is provided by fat?

21%

Three ounces of beef stew offers about the same amount of iron as three ounces of water-packed tuna, but the beef contains over 300 calories while the tuna contains 100 calories. This is an example of:

nutrient density

Phytochemicals found in foods are important because:

they decrease the risk of developing certain diseases when they are eaten.

Which of the following foods is exempt from listing ingredients on the label?

None of the above

In nutrition, the word essential means:

a necessary nutrient that can be obtained only from the diet.

Carbs and protein each contain ___ calories per gram.

4

How many calories are in food that contain 20 grams of carbs, 8 grams of protein, and 5 grams of fat?

157

A food provides 8 grams of fat and 300 total calories. What is the percentage of calories as fat in this product?

24%

The nutrients fall into __ classes.

6

The most energy rich nutrient is:

fat

The energy yielding nutrients include:

protein and fat (a and b)

The body's circulating fluids are:

Blood and lymph (b and c)

When the pancreas detects a high concentration of blood's sugar, glucose, it releases:

insulin

The liver converts excess energy-containing nutrients into:

glycogen and fat (a and c)

The primary organ of digestion and absorption is the:

small intestine

The stomaches main function is the digestion of what nutrient?

Protein

You have consumed a meal very high in fat. As a result, hormonal messages will tell an organ to send_____ in amounts matched to the amount of fat present.

bile

The digestive juices in the digestive tract include:

pancreatic juice which neutralizes stomach acids reaching the small intestine.

The main purpose of the kidneys in the body is to:

remove everyday wastes and water from the body.

Which of the following makes almost all of the body's alcohol-processing machinery?

Liver

Digestion of most starch begins in the:

mouth

What is the last stage of liver deterioration with alcohol abuse?

cirrhosis

About 95% of the lipids in food and the human body are:

triglycerides

Triglycerides consist of:

three fatty acids and glycerol (a and c)

Approximately ____ grams a day of carbs are needed to ensure complete sparing of body protein in an average size person?

130

Which of the following is NOT a desirable blood lipid value?

high LDL

Approximately what % calories from fat would be provided by a bowl of soup containing 200 calories and 99 calories from fat?

50%

The lipoproteins LDL and HDL are important in heart disease risks because of the following properties and actions:

HDL plays an important role in scavenging cholestrol from the tissues for disposal/recycling.

Which of the following is found in protein but not in carbohydrate or fat?

nitrogen

How many amino acids are considered to be essential aa?

9

Which protein has a role in the structure of hair and nails?

keratin

What protein detects foreign invaders in the body for destruction?

antibodies

The AMDR recommends _____% of total claories as the minimal amount of protein.

10

The RDA recommendation for protein for healthy adults is ___ grams per kilogram of body weight.

0.8

Compared to meat eaters, vegetarians tend to have:

healthier body weights and lower blood pressure (b and c)

Poorly planned vegetarian diets typically tend to lack all of the following EXCEPT:

foliate

All of the following are fat soluble EXCEPT:

C

An uniformed vegetarian is at special risk for ___ deficiency

Vitamin B 12

Characteristics of water soluble vitamins include all of the following except:

they are stored extensively in tissues

The main function of vitamin K is:

to help synthesis proteins that can clot the blood

Vitamin toxicity is more of a concern with which type of vitamins?

fat-soluble vitamins because they are stored more readily in body tissues.

Which of the following makes up about 60% of the body's weight?

water

Which of the following is the principal positively charged ion in the body?

potassium

Over half the body's magnesium is stored in the:

bones

Which of the following is the most abundant mineral in the body?

calcium

One pound of fat is equal to ____ calories

3500

In early food deprivation, the nervous system cannot us ___ as fuel.

fat

If a person who uses fasting to lose weight, how will his or her body react?

the body will break down fat into ketone bodies to provide fuel

Resting blood pressure should ideally be____ or lower.

120 over 180

In general, studies of populations have suggested that low caner rates correlate with

high vegetable intake and high whole grain intake (a and b)

Lab studies suggest that diets high in ___ seem to promote cancer.

calories

The main difference between a person contracting an infectious disease or a degenerative disease is:

infectious diseases can be cured with medications but degenerative diseases cannot.

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