During development of the fetus, what organ(s) is/are the first to develop?
A) Heart and lungs
B) Liver and kidneys
C) Gastrointestinal tract
D) Central nervous system and brain
Which of the following is a characteristic of maternal nutrition and the development of abnormal metabolism?
A) Malnutrition during pregnancy leads to macrosomia and GI disturbances in the offspring
B) Insufficient nutrient intake during pregnancy promotes hypertrophy of the kidneys and hypotension in adulthood
C) Nutrition during pregnancy is the chief determinant of pancreatic beta cell growth and thus affects the risk for type 2 diabetes of the offspring
D) Malnutrition during pregnancy programs the fetus to modify the genetic composition of the placenta and thereby alter nutrient delivery through the umbilical cord
What is the name of the condition characterized by high blood pressure, edema, and protein in the urine of a pregnant woman?
B) Gestational diabetes
C) Teratogenic hypertension
D) Pregnancy-induced blood pressure crisis
Penny is a new mom and, on the advice of her doctor, has been eating an extra whole-wheat bagel with strawberry jelly every night in addition to her nutrient-dense diet. Why did Penny receive this advice?
A) Bagels are a way of getting more kcalories in the diet
B) Bagels provide the extra protein lactating mothers need for lactose production
C) Babies prefer the strawberry jelly in the mother's diet as it alters the taste of the breast milk
D) These bagels provide the extra carbohydrates lactating mothers need for lactose production
What is the benefit of postpartum amenorrhea?
A) It stimulates milk production
B) It conserves iron in the mother
C) It stimulates the let-down reflex
D) It stimulates the suckling reflex in the infant
Which of the following is characteristic of HIV infection in mothers who breastfeed?
A) The virus cannot be transmitted through the breast milk
B) Breastfeeding is always prohibited for an HIV-infected mother
C) The HIV virus reverts to a dormant stage triggered by postpartum amenorrhea
D) The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends exclusive breastfeeding by HIV-positive women for the first 6 months of infant life in developing countries
A child who drinks a lot of milk at the expense of other foods is at high risk of showing signs of
What should be the parent's response when a one-year-old child wants to clumsily spoon-feed himself?
A) Punish the child
B) Let the child eat with his fingers instead
C) Let the child try to feed himself so that he will learn
D) Gently take the spoon back and feed the child with it
Jenny is a 13-year-old Hare Krishna who follows a vegan diet due to religious beliefs. She has not been performing as well as her non-vegetarian study friend on math tests and has been very upset about it. The teacher reports to Jenny's mom that she does not appear focused during lessons and can't seem to concentrate on her school work. Which of the following may provide a likely explanation?
A) The diet doesn't provide enough energy for her to stay alert
B) The diet provides insufficient bioavailable iron and she many be anemic
C) The diet contains insufficient calcium and protein, which impairs intellectual performance
D) The high fiber content of a vegan diet that promotes stool formation increases the urge to evacuate, which interferes with her ability to concentrate
Which of the following is a characteristic of obesity in childhood?
A) The typical obese child does not learn food behaviors from his family
B) A nonobese child of nonobese parents has a less than 10% chance of becoming obese in adulthood
C) An obese adolescent with one obese parent has virtually a 100% chance of becoming obese in adulthood
D) The typical obese child today has approximately the same energy intake as did children 30 years ago
Which of the following is an effective strategy for dealing with obesity in a child?
A) Encourage the individual to eat quickly and then leave the table
B) Institute new eating habits such as teaching the individual to clean the food plate
C) Engage the individual in at least 1 hour per day of moderate to vigorous physical activity
D) Take control and strongly encourage the individual to lose weight by limiting food intake and exercising vigorously
Which of the following is NOT among features of snacking in children?
A) Snacking should be prevented
B) Sweet snacks are preferred to bland ones
C) Snacks should be as nutritious as regular meal foods
D) Children select healthier snacks when their parents are watching
What minimum fraction of the RDA for key nutrients for children 10-12 years of age should be provided by public school lunches?
John is 60 years old and has been experiencing numbness in his hands for the past 3 months. His doctor suspects that John is not producing enough hydrochloric acid and intrinsic factor and encourages him to eat more foods containing vitamin B12. What is wrong with this suggestion?
A) People missing intrinsic factor cannot digest foods containing vitamin B12 and will develop diarrhea
B) Intrinsic factor is not associated with vitamin B12 and eating more foods containing it would have no effect on John's health
C) It is improbable that a lack of hydrochloric acid production and intrinsic factor are associated with the numbness that John is experiencing
D) Because John has no intrinsic factor, he cannot efficiently utilize vitamin B12 from natural sources and would need a vitamin B12-fortified food or supplement
Which of the following statements describes one aspect of mineral nutrition of older adults?
A) Zinc intake is adequate for about 95% of this group
B) Iron absorption is reduced due to low stomach acidity
C) Calcium intakes of females are near the RDA for this group
D) Calcium allowances for this group have recently been increased by the Committee on Dietary Reference Intakes
Which of the following is a characteristic of alcohol use in the elderly?
A) Binge drinking is about 5 times more common in men than women
B) The prevalence of regular intake of alcohol is twice as great in women than men
C) Treatment for alcohol abuse in the elderly of both sexes is less effective than for young adults
D) Excessive use impairs memory and cognition in ways much different than for standard age-related dementia
What is the main reason for dieting in the elderly?
A) To economize when food prices increase
B) To improve appearance among their peers
C) To pursue a medical goal such as reducing blood glucose
D) To reduce risks for development of atrophic gastritis and pernicious anemia
What is a congregate meal?
A) A meal provided for the elderly in a place such as a community center
B) A meal prepared for the elderly that meets one-third of the Dietary Recommended Intakes
C) A meal prepared for disadvantaged people of all ages to encourage communal gathering of diverse population groups
D) A meal provided through the Nutrition Screening Initiative for the elderly and served primarily to church congregations