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The ___ epoch has been called the 'Ice Age"

Pleistocene

During glacial periods, the climate in Africa became

more arid, rainfall increased

What was unprecedented about the dispersal of Middle Pleistocene hominins?

Europe became more permanently and densely occupied for the first time

compared to Homo erectus, the cranium of the earliest premodern homo sapiens exhibit

a chin, more narrow cranial base than homo erectus

dating to about 850,000 years ago, human fossils from Gran Dolina are placed within homo

antecessor because all of the remains were fragmentary they decided to put them into a separate species.

Evidence of premodern Homo sapiens crania that show possible evidence of cannibalism in the form of cut marks is represented at ...

Bodo Ethiopia

Dated to approximately 500,000-400,000 years ago, the site of______________ has yielded a sample of 4,000 fossil fragments representing about twenty-eight premodern Homo sapiens individuals, more than 80% of all Middle Pleistocene hominin remains in the world.

Sima de los Huesos in northern Spain

What tool technology of premodern Homo sapiens is characteristic of the Middle Pleistocene

prepared core method or levallois technique

Some assumptions about the hunting capabilities of premodern humans have been challenged by an interesting archaeological find at Schöningen. What did they find?

spears at 400,000 years ago, there was a possibility of large game hunting, longer spears used in teams to kill larger game.

Middle Eastern sites that show evidence of Neandertal fossils include ...

Shanidar in Iraq, and Krapina in Croatia.

Upper Pleistocene premodern hominins that have their evolutionary roots in Western Europe include which group(s)?

neandertals and denisovans

Neandertal fossil remains have been found to reach as far back as ________ years ago.

130,000 years ago

How does Neandertal brain size compare to that of modern humans?

1520cm3, which is larger than a modern humans brain 1400cm3

Neandertal crania are characterized by which features?

occipital bun, vertical forehead

Neandertal skeletal remains indicate that they extended their range to the east, far into Central Asia, but as yet no remains have been found in...

china

The Neandertal site in Croatia that has produced hominin remains showing the full suite of classic Neandertal morphology is called...

krapina

Shanidar cave is extraordinary in that an individual in the burial possessed which remarkable features

crushed eye socket, withered arm, broken legs. it suggests healing altruism and helping

Mousterian culture suggests what about the populations that practiced it?

Mousterian is a middle paleolithic stone tool industry associated with neandertals and some modern homo sapiens.

The genetic evidence from Neandertal remains that is used in studying most Neandertal fossils is in the form of ...

mtDNA that is extracted and amplified through polymerse chain reaction

What does the sum of the genetic, fossil, and archaeological evidence suggest regarding the relationship between Neandertals and modern Homo sapiens?

Neandertal genes are found in modern homo sapiens only in non Africans. Interbreeding only occurred after homo sapiens had migrated out of Africa.

21. According to the most recent evidence, the first modern Homo sapiens evolved in Africa around _______ years ago.

200,000

complete replacement hypothesis.

within the last 200,000 years ago modern homo sapiens emerged in Africa from speciation from homo heidelbergesis and migrated to the rest of the world replacing other premodern populations

partial replacement hypothesis

"mostly out of Africa hypothesis" no speciation occurred, the diverse archaic populations were assimilated into modern populations migrating out of Africa

Regional Continuity Hypothesis

"multi regional hypothesis" diverse populations in Africa Europe Asia and Australia, etc maintained their own evolutionary trajectory without significant replacement. Moderns evolved in parallel all over the old world. Implies that moderns directly evolved from homo erectus, neandertals and heidelbergensis.

The hypothesis that all modern humans descended from an African lineage is based on what kind of evidence?

Genetic evidence and fossil evidence. mt-DNA, mitochondrial eve.

Which continent shows evidence of human occupation beginning about 50,000ya?

Australia

Anatomically modern Homo sapiens fossils from Africa have been dated to about _____ years ago.

200,000

Current evidence indicates that the earliest anatomically modern Homo sapiens fossils are from which broad geographical location?

Southern Ethiopia

Thus far, the earliest specimens of modern Homo sapiens are from which site?

Omo Kibish in Ethiopia. Omo1 is the earliest modern human found so far

Which site in Western Europe may offer evidence for genetic continuity between Neandertals and modern humans?

abrigo do lagar velho in Portugal

_______ is a site in southern France dated to 28,000 years ago. Fossil material from this site became the archetype for Upper Paleolithic Europeans.

cromagnon

What morphological characteristics are notable in the Homo floresiensis specimens?

they are 3 feet tall and have a cranial capacity of 380cc

The Upper Paleolithic culture period is divided into categories based on stone tool technologies. What are the names of these tool traditions?

Chatelperronian, Aurignacian, Gravettian, Solotrean, and Magdalenian

What is the benefit of an atlatl?

an atlatl is a wooden or bone hooked rod that acted to extend the hunters arm. It enhanced force and distance of a stone projectile tipped dart or short spear

What are the primary examples of Upper Paleolithic art?

Portable art includes Venus Figures and Animal figures, as well as Cave art

Lascaux and Altamira are known for what features?

cave art

Describe the remains found in African sites that indicate accomplishments in Upper Paleolithic art and technology.

projectile weaponry, spear thrower (Atlatl), dart, bow and arrow, red orcher powder, ostrich eggshell containers

at what point did the bow and arrow appear and where

64,000 ya South Africa

What is the evidence of chronological overlap in Near East sites by Neandertals and modern humans?

Early Modern homo sapiens remains show certain premodern features.

What is the Holocene?

the geological epoch during which we now live, follows the Pleistocene, began about 11,000 ya

The dry land connection between Asia and America is associated with which proposed models for the entrance of people to the New World?

Bering land bridge, North Atlantic ice edge corridor

Which theory (or theories) for the settlement of the New World relies on a mode of passage using canoes, rafts, or forms of water transport?

Pacific Coastal Route

What presents the primary challenge to the theory that the Bering Land Bridge represented the first route for the first humans in the New World?

The ice free corridor did not open until 11,000 years ago and there is evidence for much earlier occupation in the south

Which model(s) for the initial settlement of the New World is not dependent on the cycle of glacial and inter-glacial periods?

Pacific Coastal Route

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