The basic components of emotion are:
expressive behaviors, physiological arousal, and conscious experience.
Cassandra's mother told her, "You know you are in love when your heart beats fast and you experience that unique trembling feeling inside." This remark best illustrates the ________ theory of emotion.
According to the James-Lange theory, we experience emotion ________ we notice our physiological arousal. According to the Cannon-Bard theory we experience emotion ________ we become physiologically aroused.
after; at the same time as
Research has shown that neck-level spinal cord injuries reduce the intensity of certain emotional experiences. This finding supports the:
The two-factor theory of emotion places more emphasis on the importance of ________ than does the James-Lange theory.
Noticing that his heart was pounding and that his palms were sweaty while he was taking a difficult test, Harley concluded that he was "anxious." Noticing that his heart was pounding and that his palms were sweaty when an attractive lady asked him to dance, Harley concluded that he was "falling in love." The differing emotions experienced by Harley can best be explained by the:
A therapist tells a patient who is afraid of elevators that his rapid breathing while on an elevator is not due to fear but is a natural consequence of too little oxygen in a small, enclosed space. With this new interpretation of his arousal, the patient no longer dreads elevators. The reduction in the patient's fear is best understood in terms of the:
The autonomic nervous system regulates the ________ that accompanies different emotions.
When confronted by an armed robber, your emotional arousal is likely to be accompanied by:
slowing of digestion.
Activation of the sympathetic nervous system:
increases respiration and decreases salivation.
When her son fails to arrive home as expected, Elena fears he has been in an accident. Both her heart and respiration rate remain elevated until she sees him come safely through the door. Her body soon returns to normal due to the action of her ________ nervous system.
Thaddeus will play a violin solo at his school tomorrow. His musical performance is likely to be ________ if his physiological arousal during the performance is ________.
A psychologist would have the greatest difficulty differentiating between anger and fear by monitoring the ________ associated with each.
Boyd, a suspect in a criminal investigation, has agreed to take a lie detector test. The machine used in this test is most likely to measure his:
Lee was momentarily terrified as a passing automobile nearly sideswiped his car. When one of his passengers joked that he almost had a two-color car, Lee laughed uncontrollably. Lee's emotional volatility best illustrates the:
The spillover effect is best explained in terms of the:
After being physically aroused by his daily three-mile run, Martin finds that he experiences stronger resentment if his wife asks for an unexpected favor and more intense romantic feelings if she kisses him. Martin's experience can best be explained by the:
Evidence that people can develop an emotional preference for stimuli to which they have been unknowingly exposed has convinced Robert Zajonc that:
sometimes emotions precede cognition.
Our most rapid and automatic emotional responses may result from the routing of sensory input through the thalamus directly to the:
Rapid fear reactions to sensory input in the absence of conscious thought are possible because certain neural pathways bypass the:
In their dispute over the role of cognition in emotion, both Zajonc and Lazarus agree that:
some emotional reactions involve no conscious thinking.
People are especially good at quickly detecting facial expressions of:
When shown a face with an evenly mixed expression of fear and anger, ________ children were much quicker than other children to see anger.
In terms of ability to recognize others' facial expressions of emotion:
introverts do better than extraverts and women do better than men.
Men and women students watched film clips that were sad, happy, or frightening. Measures taken during their viewing of films showed that the genders differed the most in their:
facial expressions of emotion.
People from different cultures are most likely to differ with respect to:
how they interpret hand gestures such as the "thumbs up" signal.
In which country are people most likely to convey obvious facial expressions of their inner feelings?
The fact that facial expressions of emotion tend to intensify the experience of emotion serves to support the:
Imitating another person's facial expression of emotion is most likely to facilitate:
an empathic response.
After 9/11, Americans who responded with anger more than fear also displayed:
The term catharsis refers to emotional:
A psychotherapist suggests that Theresa can effectively reduce the anger she feels toward her ex-boyfriend by tearing pictures of him into little pieces. This therapeutic technique is based on the:
Rosaria is upset with her husband for not putting his dirty clothes in the laundry basket. Anger experts would most likely recommend that she deal with her frustration by saying to him:
"It annoys me that you leave your dirty clothes for me to pick up."
The loss of an arm in an automobile accident is likely to ________ a person's long-term feelings of life satisfaction. Winning a million-dollar casino jackpot is likely to ________ a person's long-term feelings of life satisfaction.
have little effect on; have little effect on
During the last four decades, the buying power of Americans has ________ and their self-reported personal happiness has ________.
increased; remained almost unchanged
Surveys of subjective well-being in 82 countries indicate that the two countries with the highest levels of self-reported happiness are:
Puerto Rico and Mexico.
Subjective well-being among university and college students is ________ with the extent to which love is valued and ________ with the extent to which money is valued.
positively correlated; negatively correlated
The adaptationlevel phenomenon refers to the:
tendency for standards of judgment to be heavily influenced by previous experiences.
Rannilt was euphoric after learning that she had been accepted by the medical school of her choice. After a few weeks, however, she is only mildly excited when she thinks about her admission to medical school. This change in her feelings can best be explained in terms of the:
Which of the following best explains why both million-dollar lottery winners and paraplegics report similar levels of happiness?
the adaptation-level phenomenon
During World War II, promotion rates in the U.S. Air Corps were so rapid for the group as a whole that many individual soldiers in this military branch were unhappy about the speed at which they were promoted. Their unhappiness is best explained in terms of the:
relative deprivation principle.
Haley's parents bought her a used bicycle for her birthday. She was thrilled until she learned that her best friend received a brand new bicycle on her birthday. Haley's declining satisfaction illustrates the:
relative deprivation principle.
Logan is an unsuccessful businessman who feels little satisfaction with life. In order to increase his subjective well-being, Logan should:
imagine what his life might be like if he were suffering from a fatal disease.
Which of the following factors has been found to be clearly related to feelings of general happiness or life satisfaction?
having a meaningful religious faith
A general sense of happiness or life satisfaction is most unrelated to whether people:
are well educated.
The text defines stress as:
the process by which we appraise and cope with environmental threats and challenges.
Luigi minimized the stress of testing positive for HIV by viewing this circumstance as an opportunity for a renewed religious commitment and spiritual growth. His reaction best illustrates the importance of:
In the 1920s, Walter Cannon discovered that stress produced an outpouring of ________ into the bloodstream.
epinephrine and norepinephrine
The three successive phases of the general adaptation syndrome are:
alarm reaction, resistance, and exhaustion.
Cameron, a 50-year-old electrician, opens his pay envelope and, to his surprise, finds a pink slip inside indicating that he has been fired from his job. Which phase of the general adaptation syndrome is Cameron most likely experiencing?
The threat to one's immune system is greatest during the ________ phase of the GAS.
Research on stressful life events indicates that:
those who have been recently widowed or divorced are more vulnerable to disease.
Who is the best example of a Type A personality?
Philip, a competitive, hot-tempered corporation president
Who is the best example of a Type B personality?
Wang Lung, a relaxed, easy-going dentist
In their classic nine-year study, Friedman and Rosenman reported that, compared to Type A men, Type B men were:
less susceptible to heart attacks.
For Type A individuals, exposure to stress is especially likely to inhibit organs such as the ________ from removing cholesterol and fat from the blood.
Bernard is an ambitious, highly competitive corporation lawyer who recently had a heart attack. He tends to be impatient and a perfectionist, and he gets angry over little things. Research suggests that Bernard's susceptibility to heart attacks may be most closely linked to his:
Andrea's physician has suggested that a program of relaxation training would provide the best treatment for her high blood pressure. The physician probably considers Andrea's hypertension to be a(n) ________ illness.
B lymphocytes inhibit ________, whereas T lymphocytes inhibit ________.
bacterial infections; viral infections
AIDS is caused by a ________ infection spread primarily through ________.
viral; the exchange of bodily fluids
Researchers are least likely to suggest that stress influences the progression of ________ in humans.
Despite the very stressful events in his life, Mark has been able to maintain good health. This is because of his persistent optimism, and the emotional support of his family. An integrated understanding of Mark's well-being is most clearly provided by:
a biopsychosocial approach.
To alleviate the stress he feels after failing a college course, Jeremy seeks social support from his friends and family. Jeremy's behavior best illustrates:
Rats that received electric shocks were unlikely to develop ulcers if the:
rats could control the termination of the shocks.
A loss of perceived control tends to result in:
the suppression of immune responses.
During the first few weeks of law school, students were observed to have stronger immune systems if they:
Alex experiences little stress because he expects things to work out the way he wants them to. This best illustrates the value of:
an optimistic explanatory style.
Undergraduate women who had been sexually abused as children were especially likely to report health problems if they had:
kept the abuse a secret.
After stockbrokers who lived alone had adopted a pet cat or dog, they were able to face stress with less ________ than their counterparts without pets.
blood pressure increase
Mildly depressed female students assigned to a program of ________ reported a greater decrease in depression than those assigned to a program of ________.
aerobic exercise; relaxation exercises
Aerobic exercise is associated with:
increased levels of serotonin and increased levels of the endorphins
The results of early research on biofeedback were surprising because they indicated that people could learn to control bodily functions regulated by the:
autonomic nervous system.
Which of the following is an example of biofeedback?
Milos learns to relax by being provided with information on changes in his heart rate.
A psychologist would most likely use biofeedback to provide clients with information about their:
The most important benefit of biofeedback is its capacity to:
facilitate the relaxation response.
Aviad, a 50-year-old banking executive and Type A personality, recently suffered a serious heart attack. To prevent a recurrence, Aviad would probably benefit most from:
Homeopathy and herbal remedies are forms of:
Which form of treatment has claimed to correct imbalances of energy flow at identifiable points close to the skin?
One study of migraine headache patients found that the majority of those who received "sham acupuncture" enjoyed relief. The patients' pain relief is most likely attributable to:
the placebo effect.
The relaxation response associated with meditation is most likely to:
decrease oxygen consumption and decrease blood pressure.
During meditative relaxation, a part of the ________ lobe that tracks where we are in space is ________ active than usual.
Volunteers who participated in an eight-week course of meditation training exhibited increased levels of the ______ activity associated with positive emotions.
Israelis living in nonreligious collective settlements were observed to have ________ than those living in religiously orthodox collective settlements.
higher rates of death