Biology - Reproduction & Development

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Biology testing review on reproduction and development.

What are the testes?

Male sex gland - produces testosterone in which a large number of sperm are produced

What is testosterone?

Male sex hormone

What are the seminiferous tubules?

Tubes inside the testes where the sperm cells are formed

What is the epididymis?

Coiled tube inside the testes where sperm is stored

What is the scrotum?

External sack that covers each teste; outside the body to keep the sperm at a better temperature

What are the vas deferens?

Tubes that connect the epididymis to the urethra and create a pathway for sperm to travel to the outside of the body

What are the seminal vesicles, prostate gland and cowper's gland?

Supply fluid rich in sugar and hormones that allow the sperm to swim; fluid is semen

What is the urethra?

Tube that runs the length of the penis; a passageway for both urine and semen

What is the penis?

Filled with blood in sinuses to allow for an extension; reproduction function transports sperm into female

What is an erection?

Extension of the penis that allows the sperm to reach inside the female

What is an ejaculation?

Release of semen containing semen

What does FSH stand for; what does it do?

Follicle Stimulating Hormone - production of sperm

What does LH stand for; where is it produced?

Testosterone - produced in the pituitary gland (brain)

What is the uterus?

Site of fetal development; cool and protects and nourishes the baby

What is the endometrium?

Lining in the uterus which sheds during menstruation - egg not fertilized

What is the cervix?

Opening between the uterus and the birth canal

What is the vagina?

Entry way for the penis to deposit sperm

What are the two female hormones?

Estrogen and Progesterone

What is the ovary?

Female sex gland that contains the egg (gametes)

What are follicles?

Clusters of cells that surround the egg that is located in the ovary

What are the fallopian tubes or oviduct?

Tubes that connect the ovary to the uterus during ovulation; the unfertilized egg drops from the ovary into the oviduct

How long is the menstrual cycle?

Twenty eight day cycle - one lunar month

How many stages are there in the menstrual cycle?

Four

What is the first stage; explain?

Follicle stage (day one to thirteen) - High estrogen in the ovary; the endometrium thickens; high FSH (pituitary) causes the egg to mature

What is the second stage; explain?

Ovulation (day fourteen) - High LH (pituitary) causes the egg to be released

What is the third stage; explain?

Corpus Luteum (day fifteen to twenty one) - High LH (pituitary) levels causes the ovary to produce progesterone and high progesterone maintains the endometrium for pregnancy

What is the fourth stage; explain?

Menstruation (day twenty two to twenty eight) - Drop in estrogen and progesterone causes a breakdown of the endometrium and the unfertilized egg + the extra endometrium is released in a flow of blood; FSH increases at the end of the flow

Which glands are located in the brain?

Pituitary and Hypothalamus

Which hormones are involved in feedback in males?

Testosterone

Which hormones are involved in feedback in females?

Progesterone and Estrogen

How does the male negative feedback system control the production of sperm?

If you have a high reproductive system and produce a lot of sperm (high testosterone) sends information to the pituitary so it will stop producing testosterone at the moment and it will slow down for now

How does the female negative feedback system control the uterine lining?

Estrogen levels rise and levels get high; sends a message back to the pituitary and hypothalamus - which stops producing estrogen and sends a message to the brain telling it to stop and slow down for now

Which hormone in the female negative feedback system stimulates the repair of the uterus after menstruation?

Estrogen

What event breaks the negative feedback cycle in a female?

Pregnancy

What are the five most common sexually transmitted diseases?

AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome), Gonorrhea, Chlamydia, Syphilis and Genital Herpes

Describe AIDS and its effects?

Kills more people than any other STD's - suppresses the immune system

Describe Gonorrhea and its effects?

Treatable with antibiotics - new strains are possible and may not show symptoms but also may cause severe pain - baby can catch

Describe Chlamydia and its effects?

Caused by bacteria - treatable with antibiotics - similar to Gonorrhea have to get tested to see if you have it - baby can catch - causes blindness to the infant

Describe Syphilis and its effects?

Bacteria infection - destroys nerve tissue - causes blindness - caused madness (to go crazy) - baby can catch - sores on genitals

Describe Genital Herpes and its effects?

Caused by a virus - sores on genitals - can become blind or brain damage - baby can catch

What are Placentas; and what do they do?

Internal development in humans; secretes hormones; site of exchange for hormones and wastes through oxygen and the process of diffusion, osmosis or active transport.

What is a zygote?

A diploid cell resulting from the fusion of two haploid gametes; a fertilized ovum

In what part of the female reproductive system does fertilization usually take place?

Ovaries

To where does a zygote travel from the oviduct?

Uterus

How many sperm cells can fertilize an egg?

Only one

Which hormone is at the highest level during the first four days of the menstrual cycle?

FSH because the follicle stage helps mature the egg

What happens as estrogen levels increase; why?

The uterus lining thickens because it provides protection for the baby to survive

When does estrogen begin to surge and when does it reach its peak concentration?

Surges at day ten and reaches its peak on day thirteen

What happens to the lining of the uterus when estrogen levels rise?

Thickens the uterus in preparation for fertilization

Which phase is the shortest phase in the cycle; and what hormonal activity begins this phase?

Follicular stage; when the egg meets the sperm

What hormone is released by the corpus luteum immediately after ovulation?

Progesterone

During what phase are the chances of an egg being fertilized greatest?

Ovulation

If the egg is not fertilized, a particular hormone falls below a certain level and the signals start menstruation; what hormone?

Estrogen

What gland secretes FSH?

Pituitary gland

What gland secretes estrogen?

Female - Ovaries and Male - Testes

What happens to the uterus lining during 1-12 days as estrogen is rising?

The uterus lining is thickening

While progesterone stays the same level what happens to the uterus?

Thickens

If the woman does not get pregnant then the corpus luteum breaks down and the level of progesterone starts declining; once progesterone decreases what happens to the lining of the uterus?

Sheds and comes out (menstruation)

Explain why the female needs a thick uterus lining if fertilization does occur?

To protect the baby

At what time during a woman's menstrual cycle is it easiest to become pregnant?

Day 14

In a female what happens in the flow phase (days one to fourteen)?

Development of egg and ovulation

In a female what happens in the luteal phase (days fifteen to twenty eight)?

Development of lining of the uterus

What does the fluid that provides energy for the sperm cells come from?

Seminal vesicles and the Prostate gland

When FSH reaches the testes, what does it cause the production of?

Sperm cells

In the female what does FSH stimulate?

Production of eggs

By what week are all the body system of the fetus present?

First month

What are the changes that occur monthly in the female reproduction system called?

Menstrual cycle

What is the release of a mature egg from the ovary called?

Ovulation

When a female is born, does her body contain all or none of the eggs she will have in her lifetime?

All of the eggs

When a mature egg leaves the ovary, where does it enter?

Oviduct

For most females about what age does the menstrual cycle continue to?

Fifty

In the female reproductive system the menstrual cycle triggered by the release of what?

Hormones

What is the purpose of reproduction?

To create offspring to carry out our offspring; carry on through generations

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