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If research indicated that phobias result from a chemical imbalance in the central nervous system, this would most clearly give added credibility to

the medical model.

After Anika learned that her history professor had suffered an anxiety disorder, she concluded that the professor's tendency to talk loudly was simply a way of disguising feelings of personal insecurity. This best illustrates the

biasing power of diagnostic labels.

n a study by David Rosenhan, researchers were admitted as patients into various mental hospitals after they falsely claimed to be "hearing voices." This study best illustrated the negative effects of

diagnostic labels.

When children are told that certain classmates have learning disabilities, they may behave in ways that inhibit the success of those students in the classroom. This best illustrates the dangers of

self-fulfilling prophecies.

Some psychological disorders occur primarily in one culture. However, ________ occurs worldwide.

schizophrenia

Dr. Garcia emphasizes that psychological disorders result from the interactive influences of individual genes, mood-related perceptions, and cultural definitions of normality and disorder. The doctor's emphasis best illustrates

a biopsychosocial approach.

Among women, the stresses and demoralization of poverty are especially likely to precipitate

depression.

Psychological disorders characterized by emotional extremes are called

mood disorders.

Relieving guilt through self-punishment is one of the motives for

non-suicidal self-injury.

People who suffer chronic depression are at high risk for experiencing

social rejection.

Professor Pott emphasizes that normal depression serves an adaptive function by slowing people down and preventing them from engaging in life-threatening behaviors. The professor's emphasis best illustrates the ________ perspective.

evolutionary

A disorder in which an individual is overexcited, hyperactive, and wildly optimistic is known as

mania.

Elmer, the owner of an auto service station, suddenly began smashing the front fenders and hoods of two customers' cars. When asked why, he excitedly explained that he was transforming the cars into "real racing machines." When an employee tried to restrain him, he shouted that everybody was fired and quickly began breaking the car windows. Elmer is exhibiting symptoms of

mania

For the last month, Gabrielle has felt lethargic and has been unable to get out of bed in the morning. She has withdrawn from friends and family because she feels worthless and unlovable. Gabrielle is most likely suffering from

major depressive disorder.

Severely depressed individuals are especially likely to show reduced brain activity in the

left frontal lobe.

Mania is most likely to be characterized by feelings of

elation

Internal, stable, and global explanations of one's own failures are indicative of

pessimism

Which perspective suggests that explaining our own failures in terms that are global, stable, and internal contributes to depression?

social-cognitive

A disorder in which an individual is overexcited, hyperactive, and wildly optimistic is known as

mania.

Compared with those whose occupations require precision and logic, those whose occupations rely on emotional expression and vivid imagery are more likely to experience

bipolar disorder.

Suicide rates are ________ among the rich than the poor, and they are ________ among young men than old men.

higher; lower

Gender differences in depression are least noticeable among

preadolescent children.

Cognitive changes that accompany depression include a(n)

increased expectation of negative outcomes.

The symptoms of ________ are likely to appear at an earlier age than the symptoms of ________.

antisocial personality disorder; schizophrenia

Many clinicians diagnose disorders by answering questions from five levels, or axes, of the

DSM-IV-TR.

Mental health workers are most likely to consider socially unusual behavior as disordered if it is

personally distressful.

Mental health workers label behavior as disordered when it is

deviant, distressful, and dysfunctional.

Judicial systems are responsible for making decisions regarding

insanity

Inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity are major symptoms of

ADHD

A psychotherapist is most likely to use the DSM-IV-TR in order to ________ various psychological disorders.

identify

The number one reason people seek mental health services is

depression

Rates of non-suicidal self-injury in the United States are highest among

adolescent females.

One way for people to break the vicious cycle of depression is to

participate more often in activities they consider pleasant and rewarding.

During the manic phase of bipolar disorder, individuals are most likely to

be overactive.

A major depressive disorder is most likely to be characterized by

feelings of personal worthlessness.

Suicide rates in the United States are ________ among Whites than Blacks and ________ among men than women.

higher; higher

Failures are most likely to lead to depression if they are explained in terms that are

internal, stable, and global.

The risk of suicide is greatest when people

begin to rebound from their depression.

Some psychological disorders occur primarily in one culture. However, ________ occurs worldwide.

schizophrenia

The discovery that psychologically disordered behavior could result from syphilis infections facilitated the credibility and acceptance of

the medical model

When children are told that certain classmates have learning disabilities, they may behave in ways that inhibit the success of those students in the classroom. This best illustrates the dangers of

self-fulfilling prophecies.

Many clinicians diagnose disorders by answering questions from five axes of the

DSM-IV-TR.

Many clinicians diagnose disorders by answering questions from five levels, or axes, of the

DSM-IV-TR.

A psychotherapist is most likely to use the DSM-IV-TR in order to ________ various psychological disorders.

identify

To call psychological disorders "sicknesses" is especially likely to encourage research supporting the

medical model.

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