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With the Science STAR test and the second Cum test coming up, I thought this would be a good idea.

mass

the amount of "stuff" in an object

matter

everything that has mass and takes up space

phases of matter

the different forms matter can take (SLGP)

chemical change

a change that transforms one kind of matter into another kind which may have different properties

time

seond, minute, hour, day, and year are all units of...

distance

the amount of space between two points

objective

this kind of evidence describes exactly what happens

repeatable

if the same experiment is done by some other person in the exact same way, they should get the same results.

volume

space occupied by an object

temperature

the degree of hotness or coldness of an object

energy

the ability to do work

weight

the force of gravity acting on an object

density

mass per unit volume

g/mL

(small) unit of density (using mL)

fluid

anything that flows (liquid or gas)

buoyancy

the measure of upward force of a fluid on an object which is submerged in a fluid

pressure

the force exerted on a surface divided by the total surface area over which the force is exerted (acts in ALL directions)

sublimation

the change of state from solid directly to a gas

convection

mode of transfer of heat in fluids by the movement of particles

radiation

mode of transfer of heat w/out the presence of any particles

evaporation

change of state from liquid to gas at a temperature below the boiling point

latent heat

the heat absorbed or evolved during change of state

condensation

change of state from gas to a liquid

valence electrons

number of electrons in the outermost orbit of the atom

period

horizontal rows in the periodic table

group

vertical rows in the periodic table

amu

the unit used to measure the mass of subatomic particles (abbreviation)

ionic bond

a bond formed by the donation of electrons

covalent bond

a bond formed by the sharing of electrons

polar covalent bond

a covalent bond where 1 atom attracts the electron pair more than the other one

ion

charged atom

reactants

substances that start a reaction

products

substances that are formed as a result of a chemical reaction

solubility

a measure of how well a solute can dissolve in a solvent at a given temperature

exothermic reaction

a reaction that releases heat

endothermic reaction

a reaction that absorbs heat

solute

a substance that is present in a solution in a smaller amout and is dissolved by the solvent

suspension

a mixture in which particles can be seen and easily separated by settling or filtration

saturated solution

a solution in which so much solute is dissolved that when more is added, it settles on the bottom

monomer

small molecule that makes up the links in a polymer chain

polymerization

the addition of small molecules to make a larger molecule

precipitate

insoluble solid that forms from a solution during a chemical reaction

solvent

the part of a solution present in the largest amount and that dissolves other substances

concentrated solution

a mixture that has a lot of solute dissolved in it

concentration

the amount of 1 material in a certain volume of another material

indicator

a compound that changes color in the presence of an acid or a base

corrosive

the way in which acids react with some metals so as to eat away the metal

neutralization

a reaction of an acid and a base, yielding a solution that is not as acidic or basic as the starting solutions were

allotropes

different forms of carbon

organic compounds

comes from living things

unsaturated hydrocarbons

have double or triple bonds

net force

the sum of all the forces on an object

compression

a force that brings the molecules nearer to each other

tension

a pulling force that acts on a rope or a string (well, that kind of thing)

normal force

force equal and opposite to the weight of an object

vector quantity

has both magnitude and direction

1.4 g/m

LA wax candle has a volume of 1000 mL and a mass of 1.4 kg. What is the density of the candle? (include units)

4 g/cm3

4 g/cm3A solid brass block measures 2 cm x 2 cm x 3 cm and has a mass of 48. Find the density (include units)

Jupiter

The biggest planet

3

For each and every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction. (number of Newton's law)

1

an object at rest will remain at rest until a force is applied/an object in motion will continue in the same motion until a force is applied (number of Newton's law)

a=f/m

formula of acceleration

2

a=f/m (number of Newton's law)

15 kg

You push a grocery cart with a force of 30 N and it accelerates at 2 m/s2. What is its mass? (include units)

40 N

As you coast down the hill on your bike, you accelerate at 0.5 m/s2. If the total mass of your body and the bicycle is 80 kg, with what force is gravity pulling you down the hill?

terrestrial planets

mercury, venus, earth, mars...what are they?

gas planets

jupiter, saturn, uranus, neptune

gravity and inertia

what two forces keep objects in orbit? (in alphabetical order)

comet

an object in space made mostly of ice and dust, has a tail that always goes away from the sun due to solar wind

meteor

a chunk of burning rock traveling through Earth's atmosphere

Titan

saturn's largest moon

corona

outermost atmosphere of the sun

chromosphere

inner atmosphere of the sun

photosphere

visible surface of the sun

core

the part of the sun where nuclear fusion occurs

radiation zone

the part of the sun right after the core

convection zone

the part of the sun right outside the radiation zone

main sequence

the kind of star that is in the main part of its life cycle

red giants

a star after main sequence star that has expanded and is cool but very bright

white dwarf

star after red giant that is very hot but dim

black dwarf

a white dwarf star that was stopped glowing

nebula

a huge cloud of dust and gas from which stars form

protostar

the first stage in the life cycle of a star

spectroscopy

a method of studying an object by examining the visible light and other electromagnetic waves it creates

Milky Way Galaxy

the spiral galaxy to which our solar system belongs

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