Jim, age 55, plays basketball with much younger adults and is concerned that his teammates might consider his age to be a detriment to their game outcome. His concern actually undermines his athletic performance. This best illustrates the impact of
Stockbrokers often believe that their own expertise will enable them to select stocks that will outperform the market average. This belief best illustrates
A test of your capacity to learn to be an automobile mechanic would be considered a(n) ________ test.
Binet and Simon designed a test of intellectual abilities in order to
identify children likely to have difficulty learning in regular school classes.
A chess-playing computer program that routinely calculates all possible outcomes of all possible game moves best illustrates problem solving by means of
The best evidence that there is a critical period for language acquisition is the fact that
people most easily master the grammar of a second language during childhood.
Everyone would agree that intelligence tests are "biased" in the sense that
test performance is influenced by cultural experiences.
Five-year-old Wilbur performs on an intelligence test at a level characteristic of an average 4-year-old. Wilbur's mental age is
Twenty-five-year-old Alexandra is limited in mental ability and can neither read nor write. However, after hearing lengthy, unfamiliar, and complex musical selections just once, she can reproduce them precisely on the piano. It is likely that Alexandra is
someone with savant syndrome.
Because she believes that boys are naughtier than girls, Mrs. Zumpano, a second-grade teacher, watches boys more closely than she watches girls for any signs of misbehavior. Mrs. Zumpano's surveillance strategy best illustrates
Spearman's g factor refers to
a general intelligence that underlies successful performance on a wide variety of tasks.
About eight months ago, 14-year-old Shelley went on a drastic weight-loss diet that caused her to drop from 110 to 80 pounds. Although she is now dangerously underweight and under-nourished, she continues to think she looks fat. Her frustrated father recently forced her to eat a peanut butter sandwich, but Shelley immediately went to the bathroom and threw it all up. Shelley most clearly suffers from
People who are constantly dieting place themselves at ________ risk for depression and ________ risk for binge eating.
Full and clear communication regarding Kelsey's effectiveness as a customer service manager is enhanced by the performance appraisals she periodically receives from fellow managers, subordinates, customers, and her supervisor. This best illustrates the value of
Compared with European teens, American teens have ________ rates of contraceptive use and ________ rates of pregnancy and abortion.
The most basic or lowest-level need in Maslow's hierarchy of human motives includes the need for
food and water.
Jeff, who is 14, engages in rigorous tennis drills or competitive play at least four hours every day because he wants to master the sport and play on one of the best university teams in the country. His goal and behavior best illustrate the concept of
The tendency to eat more food when eating with others illustrates a phenomenon called
Mr. Porter believes that aggression is an unlearned behavior characteristic of all children. He obviously believes that aggression is a(n)
When people's need to belong is fulfilled through close relationships, they are less likely to
do any of these things.
Psychologists have used four perspectives in their efforts to explain motivation. These include an emphasis on instincts, optimum arousal, a hierarchy of motives, and
Research on the environmental conditions that influence sexual orientation indicates that
the reported backgrounds of homosexuals and heterosexuals are similar.
Flow is characterized by a ________ awareness of self and a ________ awareness of the passing of time.
Carlos is so friendly and likable that his job supervisors and co-workers often appraise his work skills and performance more positively than is actually warranted. This best illustrates evaluators' vulnerability to
Studies in both North America and China find that married fathers tend to have ________ than bachelors or married men without children.
lower testosterone levels
Lee was momentarily terrified as a passing automobile nearly sideswiped his car. When one of his passengers joked that he almost had a two-color car, Lee laughed uncontrollably. Lee's emotional volatility best illustrates
the spillover effect.
To alleviate the stress he feels after failing a college course, Jeremy seeks social support from his friends and family. Jeremy's behavior best illustrates
Bernard is an ambitious, highly competitive corporate lawyer who recently had a heart attack. He tends to be impatient and a perfectionist, and he gets angry over little things. Research suggests that Bernard's susceptibility to heart attacks may be most closely linked to his
Attempting to alleviate stress directly by changing the stressor is known as
The feel-good, do-good phenomenon refers to the fact that when people feel happy they
are more willing to help others.
As you are waiting to be interviewed for a job, your heart rate, body temperature, and breathing rate begin to increase. These physiological changes are produced by activation of the ________ nervous system.
When shown a face with an evenly mixed expression of fear and anger, ________ children were much quicker than other children to see anger.
The fact that people from widely different cultures display and interpret facial expressions of emotion in a similar manner best illustrates the impact of
human genetic similarities.
Research on the nonverbal expression of emotion indicates that
introverts are better than extraverts at recognizing nonverbal expressions of emotion in others.
The James-Lange theory of emotion states that
to experience emotion is to be aware of our physiological responses to an emotion-arousing event.
Ever since Lupe was scolded and punished by her teacher for misbehaving, she has been fearful of being near the teacher. This illustrates that fear
can be learned.
The two-factor theory of emotion places more emphasis on the importance of ________ than does the James-Lange theory.
The three successive phases of the general adaptation syndrome are
alarm reaction, resistance, and exhaustion.
Rannilt was euphoric after learning that she had been accepted by the medical school of her choice. After a few weeks, however, she is only mildly excited when she thinks about her admission to medical school. This change in her feelings can best be explained in terms of
the adaptation-level phenomenon.
Mary enjoys socializing with friends and talking with them on her cellphone. Eileen prefers quiet times by herself when she can reflect on her own thoughts. The characteristics of Mary and Eileen indicate that each has a distinctive
No matter how long and hard Lerae studies, she always feels she hasn't studied as much as she should have. A Freudian psychologist would suggest that Lerae shows signs of a
According to Freud, boys are most likely to experience the Oedipus complex during the ________ stage.
A refusal to believe direct and highly credible evidence that your spouse is suffering a terminal illness best illustrates
Which neo-Freudian theorist emphasized the influence of the collective unconscious in personality development?
Abraham Maslow suggested that those who fulfill their potential have satisfied the need for
Carl Rogers would have suggested that many of the defense mechanisms described by Freud are used to minimize the perceived discrepancy between
the actual self and the ideal self.
A person who is careless and disorganized most clearly ranks low on the Big Five trait dimension of
The social-cognitive perspective emphasizes the interactive influences of our traits and our
According to Bandura, reciprocal determinism involves multidirectional influences among
behaviors, internal personal factors, and environmental events.
A person who experiences defensive self-esteem is ________ to demonstrate self-serving bias and is ________ to feel angry when criticized.
Fritz Heider concluded that people tend to attribute others' behavior either to their
dispositions or their situations.
Which theory best explains why our actions can lead us to modify our attitudes?
cognitive dissonance theory
The foot-in-the-door phenomenon refers to the tendency to
comply with a large request if one has previously complied with a small request.
Solomon Asch reported that individuals conformed to a group's judgment of the lengths of lines
even when the group judgment was clearly incorrect.
According to Milgram, the most fundamental lesson to be learned from his study of obedience is that
even ordinary people, who are not usually hostile, can become agents of destruction.
The presence of others does not always lead to social facilitation because
arousal inhibits the correct performance of difficult tasks.
When New York University women were dressed in Ku Klux Klan-style hoods, they demonstrated significantly more aggression. This finding is best explained in terms of
The frustration-aggression principle suggests that anger results when
an attempt to achieve some goal is blocked.
Montel, a White university student, is on academic probation for poor grades. Ever since he received notice of his probation, Montel has become increasingly hostile toward racial minority students and staff on campus. His increasing hostility can best be explained in terms of
the scapegoat theory.
If poverty causes high rates of crime, the high crime rates can be used to justify discrimination against those who live in poverty. This best illustrates
the blame-the-victim dynamic.
After three months of riding the 8:30 bus to work, Cindy has actually started to feel affection for the gruff and scowling old bus driver. Cindy's reaction best illustrates
the mere exposure effect.
Following the 9/11 terrorist attack on New York, people across the country donated their time and money to assist the devastated community. This behavior best illustrates
To help people avoid social traps, psychologists should promote an increased awareness of
the social-responsibility norm.
Sherif's study of conflict in a Boy Scout camp indicated that conflict between two groups of boys could be reduced most effectively by
exposing the groups to tasks that required their joint cooperation.
Psychiatrists and psychologists label behavior as disordered when it is
deviant, distressful, and dysfunctional.
The medical model of psychologically disordered behavior is most likely to be criticized for neglecting the importance of
social circumstances and psychological factors.
Rishi, a college student, complains that he feels apprehensive and fearful most of the time but doesn't know why. Without warning, his heart begins to pound, his hands get icy, and he breaks out in a cold sweat. Rishi most likely suffers from
generalized anxiety disorder.
The billionaire aviator Howard Hughes insisted that his assistants carry out elaborate hand-washing rituals and wear white gloves when handling any document he would later touch. His behavior best illustrated the symptoms of
The social withdrawal and haunting nightmares of battle-scarred war veterans best illustrate symptoms of
Exhibiting two or more distinct and alternating personalities is a symptom of a(n)
A psychological disorder in which the symptoms take a bodily form without apparent physical cause is a
For the last month, Gabrielle has felt lethargic and has been unable to get out of bed in the morning. She has withdrawn from friends and family because she feels worthless and unlovable. Gabrielle is most likely suffering from
major depressive disorder.
George Frideric Handel composed his Messiah during three weeks of intense, creative energy. Many believe Handel suffered a mild form of
Mr. Hunt believes that he is the president of the United States and that he will soon become the "King of the Universe." Mr. Hunt is most clearly suffering from
Positive symptoms of schizophrenia are the ________ of inappropriate behaviors, and negative symptoms are the ________ of appropriate behaviors.