TCU Nutrition Gorman Ch 6 Study Guide

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175 terms

01. What element is found in proteins but not in carbohydrates and fats?
a. Carbon
b. Oxygen
c. Calcium
d. Nitrogen

D

02. In comparison to the composition of carbohydrates and fats, which element found in proteins makes them unique?
a. Carbon
b. Oxygen
c. Nitrogen
d. Hydrogen

C

03. Which of the following is the primary factor that differentiates one amino acid from another?
a. The side group
b. The central carbon atom
c. The number of oxygen atoms
d. The number of nitrogen atoms

A

04. Which of the following elements is found in certain amino acids?
a. Iron
b. Sulfur
c. Calcium
d. Potassium

B

05. Terms used to classify amino acids in the diet include all of the following except
a. essential.
b. nonessential.
c. partially essential.
d. conditionally essential

C

06. How many different kinds of amino acids make up proteins?
a. 8
b. 10
c. 14
d. 20

D

07. All of the following are contained in an amino acid except
a. an acid group.
b. an amino group.
c. an aldehyde group.
d. a central carbon atom

C

08. Approximately how many different amino acids are used in the synthesis of body proteins?
a. 5
b. 10
c. 20
d. 35

c

09. What is the simplest amino acid?
a. Valine
b. Glycine
c. Alanine
d. Methionine

b

10. Which of the following is not an essential amino acid in human nutrition?
a. Proline
b. Threonine
c. Methionine
d. Tryptophan

a

11. Any of the following can be used by the body for the synthesis of a nonessential amino acid except
a. a fragment of fat.
b. an essential mineral.
c. an essential amino acid.
d. a fragment of carbohydrate.

b

12. What amino acid is classified as conditionally essential when dietary intake of phenylalanine is insufficient or the body cannot normally metabolize phenylalanine?
a. Cysteine
b. Tyrosine
c. Glutamine
d. Isoleucine

b

13. Which of the following is a feature of an essential amino acid?
a. It is not necessary in the diet
b. It must be supplied by the diet
c. It can be made from fat in the body
d. It can be made from glucose in the body

b

14. What type of reaction is required to bind two molecules of glycine together and release a molecule of water?
a. Hydrolysis
b. Deamination
c. Denaturation
d. Condensation

d

15. When two amino acids are chemically joined together, the resulting structure is called a
a. dipeptide.
b. diglyceride.
c. polypeptide.
d. disaccharide.

a

16. What is the composition of a tripeptide?
a. One amino acid with three carbons
b. Three amino acids bonded together
c. One amino acid with three acid groups
d. Three small protein chains bonded together

b

17. What is meant by the amino acid sequence of a protein?
a. Number of side chains in the protein
b. Folding arrangement of the peptide chain
c. Order of amino acids in the peptide chain
d. Order of only the essential amino acids in the protein

c

18. A dispensable amino acid is one that
a. is not needed by the body.
b. can be synthesized by the body.
c. can be used to synthesize an indispensable amino acid.
d. cannot be synthesized by the body because of a genetic defect.

b

19. In comparison to the well-defined structure of starch, which of the following is the most important factor that allows for the synthesis of thousands of different proteins?
a. Number of cell ribosomes
b. Number of different amino acids
c. Availability of amino acids containing sulfur
d. Availability of amino acids containing hydroxyl groups

b

20. Which of the following would be classified as a polypeptide?
a. 1 amino acid
b. 3 amino acids bonded together
c. 9 fatty acids bonded together
d. 20 amino acids bonded together

d

21. The following amino acids are linked together: glycine-lysine-valine. This compound is a
a. dipeptide.
b. tripeptide.
c. polypeptide.
d. oligopeptide.

b

22. The weak electrical attractions within polypeptide chains account for the protein's
a. primary structure.
b. secondary structure.
c. tertiary structure.
d. quaternary structure.

b

23. Which of the following is a feature of hemoglobin?
a. It has no tertiary structure
b. It holds the mineral calcium
c. It is constructed of 4 polypeptide chains
d. It has no primary or secondary structure

c

24. An example of a protein with quaternary polypeptide structures is
a. insulin.
b. tryptophan.
c. hemoglobin.
d. disulfide bridges.

c

25. What is the process by which heat or acidity disrupts the normal shape of a protein chain?
a. Digestion
b. Condensation
c. Denaturation
d. Hydrogenation

c

26. The application of heat or acid to a protein that causes its shape to change is known as
a. stiffening.
b. condensation.
c. denaturation.
d. destabilization.

b

27. What process results in the hardening of an egg when it is exposed to heat?
a. Solidification
b. Denaturation
c. Condensation
d. Protein interaction

b

28. After a hamburger is eaten, in what organ is the hydrolysis of its proteins initiated?
a. Mouth
b. Stomach
c. Small intestine
d. Large intestine

b

29. What is the name of the inactive form of the protein-splitting enzyme in the stomach?
a. Peptidase
b. Propepsin
c. Pepsinogen
d. Propeptidase

c

30. In what organ is pepsin active?
a. Stomach
b. Pancreas
c. Small intestine
d. Large intestine

a

31. What digestive enzyme would be most affected in people who are unable to produce hydrochloric acid?
a. Pepsin
b. Transaminase
c. Pancreatic protease
d. Intestinal peptidase

a

32. Protein-hydrolyzing enzymes are commonly known as
a. proteases.
b. hydrolyzers.
c. prodigestins.
d. denaturases.

a

33. The function of a protease is to
a. hydrolyze proteins.
b. synthesize proteins.
c. hydrolyze ribosomes.
d. synthesize ribosomes.

a

34. What is the chief function of pepsin?
a. Emulsifies dietary proteins
b. Activates hydrochloric acid
c. Activates pancreatic proteases
d. Cleaves proteins into smaller polypeptides

d

35. What percentage of dietary protein is hydrolyzed in the mouth?
a. 0
b. 5-10
c. 15-20
d. 25-30

a

36. Pepsinogen is also known as a(n)
a. zymogen.
b. oligopeptide.
c. postenzyme.
d. cofactor for pancreatic enzymes.

a

37. After digestion of proteins, what products are absorbed into the circulation?
a. Free amino acids only
b. Free amino acids and oligopeptides
c. Free amino acids and dipeptides only
d. Free amino acids, and a few dipeptides and tripeptides

d

38. What is the usual fate of orally ingested enzyme supplements?
a. Digested by gastrointestinal proteases
b. Rapidly degraded by salivary secretions
c. Mostly absorbed in original form from stomach
d. Completely absorbed in original form from jejunum

a

39. What is an oligopeptide?
a. A sulfur-containing amino acid
b. A string of about 4-9 amino acids
c. A carbohydrate-containing protein
d. A protein containing only essential amino acids

b

40. Which of the following statements is not characteristic of enzymes?
a. They are all catalysts
b. They have a protein structure
c. They can be destroyed by heat
d. They are involved in synthesis reactions only

d

41. Which of the following describes the structure of pepsin?
a. Lipid
b. Protein
c. Nucleic acid
d. Carbohydrate

b

42. All of the following are fates of amino acids in the intestinal tract except
a. some may be used for energy by the intestinal cells.
b. some may be used for synthesis of gastric protease.
c. some may be used for synthesis of proteins by the intestinal cells.
d. they may be transported across the intestinal cell membrane to the capillaries.

b

43. Of the following sources of amino acids, which would be best absorbed in normal, healthy people?
a. Whole proteins
b. Predigested proteins
c. Proteins from raw foods
d. Mixture of free amino acids

a

44. Your cousin Wanda was born with a genetic defect affecting her digestion, namely, a lack of intestinal villus tripeptidases and dipeptidases. Which of the following digestive processes would not take place?
a. Protein → oligopeptides
b. Peptides → amino acids
c. Amino acids → peptides
d. Polypeptides → tripeptides

b

45. Approximately how many different proteins are present in the human body?
a. 500
b. 10,000
c. 30,000
d. 1 million

c

46. Which of the following describes a process in protein synthesis?
a. The code to make a protein is carried by a strand of messenger RNA
b. The final step in completing the protein is carried out in the mitochondria
c. The function of transfer RNA is to assist in absorption of amino acids into the cell
d. The DNA binds to ribosomes and directs uptake of specific amino acids to form the peptide chain

a

47. Which of the following is a characteristic of protein synthesis?
a. Mitochondria are bound to DNA to initiate peptide bond synthesis
b. Messenger RNA is constructed from a DNA template to carry instructions
c. Hormones carry messages from RNA to DNA to direct peptide bond synthesis
d. RNA transfers up to 6 amino acids simultaneously to the mitochondria for peptide elongation

b

48. The process whereby messenger RNA is made from a DNA template is
a. expression.
b. sequencing.
c. transcription.
d. ribosome assembly

c

49. What is a ribosome?
a. A template for protein synthesis
b. A hard knot of subcutaneous protein mass
c. A structure upon which proteins are assembled
d. An antibody synthesized by specialized immune cells

c

50. All of the following are features of protein in nutrition except
a. the study of the body's proteins in known as proteomics.
b. protein synthesis requires messenger RNA and transfer RNA.
c. most of the body's thousands of proteins have been studied and characterized.
d. the synthesis of a protein by following the genetic code is known as gene expression.

c

51. Your college dormitory roommate, James, told you that he's had anemia for quite some time and that it's from having abnormally-shaped hemoglobin. What type of anemia does James have?
a. Sickle-cell anemia
b. Macrocytic anemia
c. Iron-deficiency anemia
d. Low oxygen-carrying anemia

a

52. A common genetic variation which causes a change in the amino acid sequence in the structure of hemoglobin leads to the disease
a. diabetes.
b. marasmus.
c. kwashiorkor.
d. sickle-cell anemia.

d

53. Which of the following is characteristic of sickle-cell anemia?
a. The disorder can be serious but not fatal
b. The disorder leads to depression of energy expenditure
c. The abnormal structure of the hemoglobin alters the shape of the red blood cell
d. The hemoglobin amino acid sequence is abnormal in all four of the polypeptide chains

c

54. What is the structure of an enzyme?
a. Lipid
b. Protein
c. Nucleic acid
d. Carbohydrate

b

v55. What protein is intimately involved in the formation of scar tissue in wound healing?
a. Albumin
b. Thrombin
c. Collagen
d. Hydroxyproline

c

56. What type of protein would the body make in order to heal a wound?
a. Ferritin
b. Albumin
c. Collagen
d. Hemoglobin

c

57. Which of the following is a characteristic of hormones?
a. Inactivate bacteria
b. Act as messenger molecules
c. Coordinate visual response
d. Act as buffers in the bloodstream

57. Which of the following is a characteristic of hormones?
a. Inactivate bacteria
b. Act as messenger molecules
c. Coordinate visual response
d. Act as buffers in the bloodstream

b

58. Which of the following do(es) not function as a transport protein?
a. Collagen
b. Transferrin
c. Hemoglobin
d. Lipoproteins

a

59. What is the relationship between body proteins and water?
a. Proteins attract water
b. Water attracts proteins
c. Water degrades proteins
d. Proteins form polymers of water

a

60. All of the following describe associations between protein nutrition and the body's water balance except
a. inadequate protein intake may lead to edema.
b. insufficient protein synthesis by the liver may lead to edema.
c. excessive protein losses by the kidney may lead to dehydration.
d. excessive protein intake burdens the kidneys to excrete unused nitrogen.

c

61. The conditions known as acidosis and alkalosis refer to a disruption of the body's
a. pH balance.
b. protein balance.
c. nitrogen balance.
d. endogenous metabolism.

a

62. Tissue swelling that results from water accumulating between cells is known as
a. edema.
b. acidosis.
c. alkalosis.
d. extravascularization.

a

63. Proteins, because they attract hydrogen ions, can act as
a. acids.
b. buffers.
c. enzymes.
d. antibodies.

b

64. What function does a buffer perform?
a. Helps emulsify fats
b. Helps maintain a constant pH
c. Facilitates chemical reactions
d. Helps protect against plaque buildup

b

65. Which of the following processes is regulated primarily by the buffering action of proteins?
a. pH balance
b. Fluid balance
c. Blood clotting
d. Synthesis of visual pigments

a

66. How do sodium and potassium travel into and out of cells?
a. Antidiuretic hormone transports potassium and prodiuretic hormone carries sodium
b. There are specific transport proteins in the blood that deliver the minerals to the cell cytoplasm
c. The balance of insulin and glucagon determines the movement of these minerals into and out of cells
d. There are transport proteins within the cell membrane that pick up and release the minerals across the membrane

d

67. What is opsin?
a. An antigen
b. An antibody
c. A light-sensitive protein
d. A blood transport protein

c

68. Which of the following proteins inactivates foreign bacteria and viruses?
a. Enzymes
b. Collagen
c. Hormones
d. Antibodies

d

69. The body's usual response to detection of antigens is to synthesize
a. mutations.
b. antibodies.
c. erythrocytes.
d. whey protein.

b

70. Which of the following describes the structure of an antibody?
a. Tripeptide
b. Small nucleic acid
c. Huge protein molecule
d. Large peptide molecule

c

71. Which of the following is involved in the clotting of blood?
a. Opsin
b. Fibrin
c. Collagen
d. Transferrin

b

72. How many grams of nitrogen are contained in a 2500-kcalorie diet that provides 15% of the energy as protein?
a. 2.5
b. 5
c. 10
d. 15

d

73. Which of the following may be used to determine protein utilization?
a. Calorimetry
b. Nitrogen balance
c. Amino acid pool
d. Supplementary value

b

74. When nitrogen taken into the body exceeds nitrogen losses, we say the person is in
a. a healthy state.
b. nitrogen equilibrium.
c. positive nitrogen balance.
d. negative nitrogen balance

c

75. Which of the following defines protein turnover?
a. The sum of protein in food and the body
b. The sum of protein synthesis and degradation
c. The amount of protein absorbed from the diet
d. The amount of protein used to synthesize glucose

b

76. What is the amino acid pool?
a. The total amino acid content derived from a 24-hour dietary intake
b. A measure of the circulating essential amino acid levels available for protein synthesis
c. The total amount of free amino acids in the circulation destined for deamination and excretion
d. A mix of essential and nonessential amino acids derived from protein breakdown and dietary protein intake

d

77. Which of the following describes the state of nitrogen balance for a normal, healthy 35-year-old person who weighs 60 kg and consumes a diet that provides 75 g of protein and adequate energy?
a. Equilibrium
b. Positive balance
c. Negative balance
d. Endogenous balance

a

78. The body's amino acid pool consists of
a. essential amino acids only.
b. endogenous amino acids only.
c. nonessential amino acids only.
d. both essential and nonessential amino acids.

d

79. What is the nitrogen balance of a person who consumed a 3500-kcalorie diet containing 10% protein and excreted a total of 12 grams of nitrogen?
a. 0 g
b. -3 g
c. -1 g
d. +2 g

d

80. Which of the following would describe the state of nitrogen balance of a person who ingested 16 g of food nitrogen and lost 19 g of nitrogen?
a. Equilibrium
b. Positive balance
c. Negative balance
d. Exogenous balance

c

81. What is the usual state of nitrogen balance for healthy infants, children, and pregnant women?
a. Equilibrium
b. Metabolic
c. Positive
d. Negative

c

82. What amino acid is used to synthesize the neurotransmitter serotonin and the vitamin niacin?
a. Glycine
b. Tyrosine
c. Methionine
d. Tryptophan

d

83. What is meant by protein turnover?
a. Nitrogen equilibrium
b. The antibody-antigen complex
c. The synthesis and degradation of body proteins
d. The secondary structure of proteins that initiates folding

c

84. What is the fate of excess dietary protein?
a. After absorption, the liver will store the extra amino acids
b. After absorption, the extra amino acids will be rapidly degraded
c. Digestion will be decreased by 30 to 60%, resulting in less absorption
d. After absorption, extra proteins will be synthesized and stored for use when protein intake returns to normal

b

85. When amino acids are deaminated, the immediate products are ammonia and often a
a. uric acid.
b. keto acid.
c. folic acid.
d. gluco acid.

b

86. Protein sparing in the body is best achieved when a person ingests
a. proteins of plant origin only.
b. proteins of animal origin only.
c. adequate levels of carbohydrate and fat.
d. mixed protein sources on alternate days.

c

87. A person who is starving is losing
a. fat only.
b. glycogen only.
c. glycogen and fat only.
d. glycogen, protein, and fat.

d

88. Which of the following illustrates a deamination reaction?
a. Removal of the amino group from an amino acid
b. Separation of an amino acid from a peptide chain
c. Addition of an amino group to form a new amino acid
d. Addition of an amino acid to form a larger peptide chain

a

89. Which of the following is the most likely side effect of a high-protein, low-carbohydrate diet?
a. Diarrhea
b. Increased thirst
c. Nitrogen toxicity
d. Increased water retention in the body

b

90. Which of the following compounds does not contain nitrogen?
a. Urea
b. Enzymes
c. Ammonia
d. Cholesterol

d

91. Which of the following is a consequence of excess protein intake?
a. Decreased excretion of calcium
b. Decreased size of the liver and kidneys
c. Increased production and excretion of urea
d. Increased protein storage by the liver and kidneys

c

92. Which of the following are precursors of urea synthesis?
a. All amino acids
b. Animal proteins only
c. Essential amino acids only
d. Nonessential amino acids only

a

93. What is the process whereby an amino group is combined with a keto acid to form an amino acid?
a. Deamination
b. Ureagenesis
c. Transamination
d. Ammoniogenesis

c

94. In the metabolism of amino acids for energy, what is the fate of the amino group?
a. Excreted as urea
b. Burned for energy
c. Stored in the liver
d. Converted to glucose

a

95. The body's need for water increases on a diet high in
a. protein.
b. carbohydrate.
c. saturated fat.
d. unsaturated fat.

a

96. What is the most likely reason for a person to have abnormally high blood ammonia levels?
a. Liver dysfunction
b. Kidney dysfunction
c. Protein intake twice the RDA
d. Protein intake one-tenth the RDA

a

97. Jason is 35 years old and was recently diagnosed with 2 failing kidneys. He was advised to decrease the amount protein he consumes. If Jason cheats by eating an 8-ounce steak for dinner tonight, shortly thereafter there would most likely be an increase in the urea levels of his
a. urine.
b. blood.
c. stools.
d. sweat.

b

98. What is the most likely reason for having an abnormally high blood urea level?
a. Liver dysfunction
b. Kidney dysfunction
c. Protein intake twice the RDA
d. Protein intake one-tenth the RDA

b

99. A prominent result of transamination reactions is the synthesis of
a. essential amino acids.
b. nonessential amino acids.
c. neurotransmitters and hormones.
d. both nonessential and essential amino acids.

b

100. Your father, who has a high blood ammonia concentration, most likely has a poorly functioning
a. liver.
b. spleen.
c. kidney.
d. intestinal tract.

a

101. Your mother, who has a high blood urea content, most likely has a poorly functioning
a. liver.
b. spleen.
c. kidney.
d. intestinal tract.

c

102. A reference protein equals or exceeds the essential amino acid requirements of all of the following population groups except
a. infants.
b. preschool aged children.
c. adolescents.
d. elderly.

a

103. What is the percent digestibility of most plant proteins?
a. 25-45
b. 50-65
c. 70-90
d. 95-99

c

104. What is the percent digestibility of most animal proteins?
a. 50-65
b. 70-75
c. 80-85
d. 90-99

d

105. Which of the following food proteins has the best assortment of essential amino acids for the human body?
a. Egg
b. Rice
c. Corn
d. Gelatin

a

106. Which of the following is related to the quality of a food protein?
a. Essential amino acid balance
b. Nonessential amino acid balance
c. Total amino acids per gram of food
d. Quantity of nonessential amino acids that can be converted to glucose

a

107. What primary factor governs the quality of a food protein?
a. Fat content
b. Essential amino acid content
c. Complex carbohydrate content
d. Nonessential amino acid content

b

108. In the study of protein nutrition, what term describes the amount of amino acids absorbed from a given amount of protein consumed?
a. Digestibility
b. Completeness
c. Complementary Index
d. Comparative Equivalence

a

109. Which of the following is not considered to be a source of high-quality protein in human nutrition?
a. Soy
b. Egg
c. Corn
d. Fish

c

110. Which of the following animal-derived proteins is classified as a poor-quality protein?
a. Fish
b. Cheese
c. Gelatin
d. Turkey

c

111. What is a "limiting" amino acid in a protein?
a. A nonessential amino acid present in high amounts, which inhibits protein synthesis
b. An amino acid of the wrong structure to be utilized for protein synthesis efficiently
c. An essential amino acid present in insufficient quantity for body protein synthesis to take place
d. An amino acid that limits the absorption of other essential amino acids by competing with them for transport sites within the GI tract

c

112. If the diet is lacking an essential amino acid, what will be the course of action?
a. Body cells will synthesize it
b. Protein synthesis will be limited
c. Health will not be affected as long as other nutrients are adequate
d. Proteins will be made but they will lack that particular amino acid

b

113. Which of the following could not be a limiting amino acid in the diet?
a. Lysine
b. Glycine
c. Threonine
d. Tryptophan

b

114. Alberta is a 20 year old who has been a vegetarian for 3 years. She comes to you for advice after reading some material online by the Meat Promoters of America organization. One of their statements is: ". . . vegetarians are at risk for protein deficiency because they cannot consume all of the essential amino acids necessary for healthy individuals." How should Alberta be advised?
a. She should consume dairy and egg products at every meal to protect herself against protein deficiency
b. She should avoid the "limiting" amino acids because they are limiting her ability to maintain proper protein status
c. Because the statement is basically true, she should consider eating small quantities of meat every day in order to avoid protein deficiency
d. Although many foods don't provide all the essential amino acids individually, she could consume complementary proteins throughout the day, which would provide all the essential amino acids she needs

d

115. Which of the following is characteristic of protein nutrition in vegetarians?
a. Vegetarians in general must practice complementary protein nutrition
b. Most vegetarians should consume gelatin to ensure adequate tryptophan intake
c. Healthy vegetarians typically consume protein sources of very high digestibility
d. Most vegetarians eating a variety of foods need not balance essential amino acid intake at each meal

d

116. What is the Daily Value for protein based on a 2000-kcalorie intake?
a. 25 g
b. 50 g
c. 75 g
d. 100 g

b

117. What is complementary protein nutrition?
a. A dietary program that involves eating vegetable and animal proteins on alternating days
b. A strategy that combines plant proteins in the same day to improve the balance of essential amino acids
c. A technique developed specifically for the elderly that involves optimizing the ratio of protein intake to energy intake
d. A body process that involves synthesis of crucial proteins from amino acids made available by the breakdown of storage proteins

b

118. In general, the protein quality in grains would be most improved by the addition of a plant protein rich in
a. lysine.
b. tryptophan.
c. phenylalanine.
d. glutamic acid.

a

119. In general, the protein quality of legumes would be most improved by the addition of a plant protein rich in
a. lysine.
b. tyrosine.
c. methionine.
d. glutamic acid.

c

120. Relative to animal proteins, which of the following amino acids is present in lesser amounts in proteins of legumes?
a. Alanine
b. Isoleucine
c. Tryptophan
d. Glutamic acid

c

121. Approximately what percentage of children worldwide have protein-energy malnutrition?
a. 1
b. 5
c. 25
d. 50

c

122. Acute protein-energy malnutrition in children is characterized by
a. hyperactivity.
b. shrunken liver.
c. low weight for height.
d. short height for weight.

c

123. Chronic protein-energy malnutrition in children is characterized by
a. hyperactivity.
b. shrunken liver.
c. short height for age.
d. low weight for height.

c

124. All of the following are characteristics of protein-energy malnutrition except
a. it is found in hospitalized adults.
b. it is found in elderly living alone.
c. it almost always exhibits overt signs.
d. it is common in people with anorexia nervosa.

c

125. Marasmus occurs most commonly in children of ages
a. 1-5 months.
b. 6-18 months.
c. 1½-3 years.
d. 4-10 years.

b

126. You are reading a case study from a researcher at World University. The researcher has traveled to the largest city in India and is reporting on an illness present in a 15-month-old boy. The researcher described the child as extremely thin and bony, with wrinkled skin and enlarged fatty liver. For the past year, this child has subsisted almost entirely on diluted cereal drink. Your first thought is that all of these observations are characteristic of marasmus except for the
a. wrinkled skin.
b. food intake pattern.
c. enlarged fatty liver.
d. extremely thin, bony appearance.

c

127. Which of the following would you not expect to see in a person with kwashiorkor?
a. Edema
b. Dysentery
c. Increased infection rate
d. Increased physical activity

d

128. Which of the following is associated with the presence of tissue edema in kwashiorkor?
a. Inadequate intake of water
b. Excessive intake of dietary protein
c. Low concentration of blood protein
d. High concentration of blood protein

c

129. Which of the following is not a characteristic of marasmus?
a. Results in a low resistance to disease
b. Affects brain development only minimally
c. Occurs most commonly in children aged 6 to 18 months
d. Results in little or no fat under the skin to insulate against cold

b

130. Which of the following is a feature of malnutrition?
a. Dysentery is common and leads to diarrhea and nutrient depletion
b. Intestinal villi grow slightly larger to provide additional absorptive surfaces for nutrients
c. Digestive enzyme production increases in order to extract as much of the ingested nutrients as possible
d. Infections are uncommon due to insufficient availability of nutrients in the body to support growth of bacteria and viruses

a

131. At the end of your class presentation on "Protein-Energy Malnutrition," a student asks you to clarify how the rapid onset of protein-energy malnutrition occurs in kwashiorkor. How should you respond?
a. It is the result of an inborn error of metabolism
b. It is usually synchronized with the drought season in each respective country
c. It is typically seen in patients who are 2-5 years old due to the sudden change in diet arising from their dislike for breast milk as they grow older
d. It is typically seen in patients who are 1-3 years old due to the sudden change in diet arising from their being weaned from breast milk after the birth of a sibling

d

132. What term describes the illness a child develops when the next child is born?
a. Marasmus
b. Kwashiorkor
c. Psychomalnutrition
d. Postbirth malnutrition

b

133. Which of the following conditions is associated with edema?
a. Excessive use of certain drugs, which causes high excretion of water and amino acids
b. Above-normal concentration of blood proteins, which causes fluid to leak from the blood vessels
c. Diminished concentration of blood proteins and hormones, which causes fluid to leak from the blood vessels

c

134. Kwashiorkor typically develops in children of ages
a. birth-6 months.
b. 6-12 months.
c. 18-24 months.
d. 2½-5 years.

c

135. In kwashiorkor, the loss of hair color is indirectly related to
a. inadequate intake of tyrosine.
b. elevated levels of blood homocysteine.
c. excessive exposure to the sun's UV rays.
d. being nursed by a poorly-nourished mother.

a

136. In kwashiorkor, what mineral is often present in an unbound form that promotes bacterial growth?
a. Iron
b. Iodine
c. Arsenic
d. Calcium

a

137. What is the most likely explanation for the fatty liver that develops from protein deficiency?
a. Increased uptake of circulating fats
b. Increased absorption of dietary fats
c. Inability of adipose tissue to remove circulating fats
d. Inability of the liver to synthesize lipoproteins for fat export

d

138. Which of the following is a feature of kwashiorkor?
a. It makes the child appear grossly dehydrated
b. It usually occurs prior to the onset of marasmus
c. It is usually found in communities where marasmus is present
d. It is typically precipitated in the undernourished child who has an infection

d

139. What is the usual initial therapy for the treatment of kwashiorkor?
a. Fat replacement
b. Energy replacement
c. Protein replacement
d. Fluid balance restoration

d

140. Excessive amounts of homocysteine in the blood are thought to increase the risk for
a. cancer.
b. diabetes.
c. heart disease.
d. protein-energy malnutrition.

c

141. Supplements of which of the following amino acids are reported to lower blood pressure and reduce homocysteine levels?
a. Arginine
b. Cysteine
c. Tryptophan
d. Phenylalanine

a

142. All of the following are known to raise homocysteine levels except
a. alcohol intake.
b. cigarette smoking.
c. coffee consumption.
d. excess arginine intake.

d

143. What type of diet is advised to rehabilitate a severely malnourished child?
a. Low protein
b. High protein
c. Liberal quantities of lactose-free powdered milk until growth rate is restored
d. High energy until normal body mass index is achieved, then moderate energy thereafter

a

144. Which of the following is a feature of homocysteine?
a. It is found only in animal foods
b. It is a risk factor for osteoporosis
c. It is increased in the blood of coffee drinkers
d. It is increased in the blood of vitamin C-deficient people

c

145. Which of the following describes a relationship between protein/amino acids and heart disease?
a. Substituting soy protein for animal protein raises blood cholesterol levels
b. High blood levels of the amino acid arginine are a risk factor for atherosclerosis
c. High levels of homocysteine in food promote elevation of blood low-density lipoproteins
d. Elevated blood homocysteine levels are associated with smoking cigarettes and drinking alcohol

d

146. What ratio (mg:g) of calcium to protein intake is believed to promote optimal bone health?
a. 2:1
b. 9:1
c. 20:1
d. 45:1

c

147. Which of the following describes an association between protein intake and kidney function?
a. Low-protein diets increase the risk for kidney stone formation
b. Restricting protein intake may slow the progression of kidney disease
c. High protein intakes over the long term represent a risk factor for kidney disease
d. Liberal protein intakes result in high urea production, which increases the long-term efficiency of the kidneys

b

148. In relation to the range of protein intake as a percentage of energy intake, what would be the highest safe level of protein intake for a 60-kg adult ingesting 2500 kcalories?
a. 48 g
b. 96 g
c. 120 g
d. 219 g

d

149. Which of the following describes a relationship between protein intake and calcium metabolism?
a. Calcium excretion falls with increasing intake of animal-derived proteins
b. Calcium excretion rises with increasing intake of animal-derived proteins
c. Calcium absorption declines with higher intakes of plant-derived proteins
d. Calcium absorption increases with higher intakes of animal-derived proteins

b

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