← Review 1450-1750 Export Options Alphabetize Word-Def Delimiter Tab Comma Custom Def-Word Delimiter New Line Semicolon Custom Data Copy and paste the text below. It is read-only. Select All Motives for European Exploration To find new more efficient water trade routes to Asia, to avoid using the Muslim middlemen, new lands for cultivation, to spread Christianity, and to gain political status. Technology of European Exploration Lateen sails, allowed for multi directional sailing, the astrolabe to determine latitude, Caravels which were faster than older ships, sternpost rudders for better navigation and magnetic compasses (both borrowed from the Chinese). As more voyages were made the more was learned about wind and currents for more accurate maps. European Explorers Bartholomeu Diaz, a Portuguese explorer, rounded the cape of Good Hope on the southern tip of Africa 1488, stopping at the Indian Ocean. Vasco da Gama, from Portugal, rounded the cape of good hope and continued up the African coast to India, a new route to bypass Muslim traders. Christopher Columbus searched for a western route to Asian markets and "discovered" the New World. Ferdinand Magellan was the first European to cross Pacific. European Exploration of the Pacific 1700s-1500s Europeans explored Pacific motivated by trade. Few colonies were established in the pacific; trade in Eastern Hemisphere was conducted through Spanish controlled Manila, which connected Spanish colonies and Asian markets. Contact with Europe brought diseases and Christian missionaries to the Pacific. Commercial Revolution The changing nature of trade in this time period. In the early 1500's nations competed to expand their empire overseas. Large colonial empires generated wealth for European nations, and led to new business practices, including joint-stock companies. Mercantilism New in economic theory adopted by many European nations with the goal of maintaining a favorable trade balance whereby a country exports more than it imports. European countries depended on raw materials and natural resources form colonies, which were markets for finished goods. Encouraged the competition to form more colonies. Adam Smith rejected the theory in his Wealth of Nations. Trading Post Empires Trading posts, built to establish commercial relations,resulted from the control of trade routes. Portugal built first trading posts; Vasco da Gama built one in Calicut. As exploration increased, so did the amount of trading posts. Portugal had trading posts on African coasts and in Asia. Following the Portuguese the English built trading posts in India, and dutch from South Africa to Southeast Asia. Joint-Stock Company A commercial venture that brought together many investors to minimize the risks and costs of investments, thus spurring exploration. Privately held, with government support. Shares were bought by individuals and the shared investment was used to buy ships/finance trade. Two of the most profitable were the Dutch East India Company, which had a monopoly over spice trade and the English East India company. Spanish Conquest of the Americas Spanish conquistadores explored the New World, in search of gold and riches, and converting the natives to Christianity. Hernan Cortes arrived in Mexico and within 2 years conquered the Aztecs. Francisco Pizarro conquered the Incan empire. Both owed victory to superior technology, horses and the formation of alliances with hostile tribes. Diseases from Europe decimated the native population. Spain then founded colonies in the New World. Dutch, English, and French followed hoping to found their own colonies. Spanish Conquest of Manila The Spanish faced little resistance from the unorganized government of the Philippines. Spain saw both commercial and religious opportunities. Missionaries and rulers sought converts through education. Control of the port of Manila provided a direct link to the Chinese market, as well as South America. Due to Spanish control of Silver mines in the New World, and Chinese demand for Silver, led historians to believe the founding of Manila was birth of world trade. Spanish ships picked up silver in Mexico and brought it to Manila. Columbian Exchange Global exchange between new and old worlds. Plants, food, animals, people, resources, and diseases were exchanged. Diseases from Europe (smallpox, influenza, measles) caused epidemics, decimating native populations, especially the Aztecs (>90% died). Exchange of food led to a global population increase, Maize and potatoes to Europe, Africa, Asia; goats , chickens, pigs wheat to Americas. People migrated, Europeans seeking opportunities, and many enslaved Africans were brought to the Americas. Spanish Colonial Empire in Americas The Spanish crown established centralized control over much of the Americas through bureaucratic offices. Two large areas in Mexico and Peru were overseen by viceroys who reported to the king. A social hierachy emerged based on birth, peninisulares (those born in spain) at the top, then creoles (born in the americas), metizos (European & native descent), mulattos (European & African descent), and natives and those of African descent. Christianity in the Americas Missionaries followed explorers to the New World. Christian missions, supported by the crown, were carried out by Franciscans, Dominicans, and Jesuits. Natives with their own religious traditions were resistance; missionaries sought to learn their language. Often blending of the 2 traditions occurred creating syncretic beliefs. In modern times the majority of South American are Roman Catholic. Missionaries were less successful in North America. Colonial North America The French, Dutch, and English claimed land in North America. Each country founded its own colonies, through private investors. Unlike in Central and South america the natives of North Americas had smaller societies, which were often displaced by Europeans.Conflict ensued between the Europeans and natives, and also between groups of settlers. Unlike Latin america, Europeans and Natives did not often mix. Seven Years' War A series of conflicts fought on a global stage from 1756 to 1763. The war reflects tense commercial rivalries that developed from European exploration and desire to establish trading posts in the Americas and Asia. Conflicts in India, the Caribbean, and North America ultimately established British hegemony. In North America the French and Indian war was the stage for direct British and French fighting. By the end of this time period Britain dominated global trade and used this to create a global empire. Encomienda System A feudal-like system established by the Spanish in the New world to ensure a cheap labor supply.An encomienda was the grant of natives to an encomendero, a Spanish land owner. In return the owner was responsible for safeguarding the native's health and safety and conversion to Catholicism. The natives were so overworked that the Spanish imported slaves from Africa to replace the diminishing supply of native labor. Christian missionaries fought unsuccessfully to end the system. Haciendas Large agricultural states in Latin America. Both commercial crops and livestock (pigs) were produced; the majority of crops were European in origin, such as wheat. Often self-sufficient rather than profit based. Peasants working on haciendas were known as peons. Repartimiento System (mita system in Peru) Originating in colonial Latin America, the system forced natives to work for several months a year, generally on Spanish-owned plantations, mines, or public works projects. Natives only worked for a limited amount of time and were compensated for their work. The system was harsh particularly in mines, and over time it was replaced with more profitable labor system in which workers were given an incentive to work (a fair wage and improved working conditions). Sugar in Colonial Latin America Sugar, a labor- intensive crop, was the most important crop in the Portuguese colony of Brazil and the sugar mill became the center of Brazilian colonial life. Field workers cultivated the sugarcane and mill workers oversaw the processing of molasses and refined sugar. Although the Spanish had had success in drafting the native population to meet their labor needs, the Portuguese were less successful in Brazil. The majority or workers in the sugar mills were slaves imported from Africa. Demand for the commodity from the European community increased following the Columbian exchange. Silver in Colonial Latin America Silver mining in Mexico and in Peru required a tremendous labor supply. The Spanish Coerced natives to work in mines, Profits from silver made Spain wealthy and powerful and played a significant role in global trade: silver crossed the Atlantic in Europe; European merchants traded silver for silk and porcelain in Asian markets. The founding of Manila in1571 facilitated the global exchange of silver. Some historian argue that silver was the world's first commodity. There was an increased demand for the commodity from China with the establishment of the Ming Dynasty. Indentured Labor A system in which people from Europe promised to work for a certain amount of time in exchange for their passage into the new world. The system developed as the result of the demand for cheap labor needs for the large colonial plantations in North America, which by the 1600s were focused on the production of cash crops such as tobacco and cotton Unlike the Spanish who had success in drafting the natives for labor needs, colonists in North America were unsuccessful in forcing natives to work on their plantations and thus need an alternative labor supply. Although this system lasted until the 20th century, plantation owners looking for and even cheaper supply of workers began to import African slaves. Songhay Empire An Islamic empire established din the (following the decline of the Mali Empire) and lasting until the 1600s. The capital city, Gao, was commercially successful and, following a campaign of expansion led by Sunni Ali, the empire reached its height and included the city of Timbuktu. Like the West African kingdoms before it, Songhay had control of trans-Saharan trade routes, which allowed for the exchange of salt and metals for gold and salt. Timbuktu was an important trading city and and cultural center. The emperors, all Muslim, encouraged the building of mosques and schools to teach Islam. In the late 1500s the Moraccan army, armed with guns, attacked and seized the unarmed Songhay Empire. Timbuktu Located near the Niger River, one of the wealthiest cities in West Africa. Trans-Saharan trade brought wealth to the kingdoms of West Africa and led to the development of important commercial and cultural centers. By the mid 1300s, part of the Mali Empire; with the conversion of the emperor to Islam, became a leading cultural center in Africa. Under the Songhay, reached its peak, attracting merchants, traders, and Islamic scholars. To encourage learning, mosques, schools, and libraries were built throughout the city. The collapse of the Songhay Empire and the Establishment of European trading posts along the coast of West Africa lead to the decline of the city. Kingdom of Kongo Located in central Africa along the Congo River rose in the 1300s and by 1400s was a strong centralized state. Portuguese arrived in 1482, were Kongo's first contact with Europeans and had far-reaching consequences. A commercial relationship emerged between the 2 as did diplomatic relations. King of Kongo converted to Christianity and urged subjects to follow. Portuguese sought gold, ivory, and slaves from the Kongo, they conducted slave raids and convinced Africans to do the same. The King urged them to stop but their need for cheap labor spurred them on. Arned conflict arouse aned the Kongolese were easily defeated. Slavery in Africa Slavery was practiced across the continent of Africa and was a well-established commercial venture centuries before the arrival of the Europeans. Slaves most often were prisoners of war. Owning slaves was viewed as a symbol of wealth and power. Muslim merchants traded African slaves across Europe, the Middle East, and India. Atlantic Slave Trade By the 1500s European demand for cheap labor for plantations and mines in the New world led to a large trade in African slaves. Called triangular trade because it linked Europe, Africa, and the Americas; the majority of slaves came from west/central Africa. An estimated 11 million Africans were enslaved and made the middle passage across the atlantic to the Americas. Slaves were sent to the Caribbean for sugar plantations, Latin america for mines, and North America for cotton/tobacco. Slave trade not abolished by various European countries until the 19th century. Impact of Atlantic Slave Trade in Africa African who participated in the slave trade enslaved Africans in interior regions and sold the to European who had difficulty traveling there. The export of millions (mostly men) impacted family life and in some areas created a female majority in the population. The population did not decrease overall as the influx of new food products helped to stabilize ans possibly increase it. There was intertribal warfare and dissolutions of powerful kingdoms. African Diaspora With the forced migration of millions of Africans to the New World, African culture spread throughout the Americas.African traditions blended with, those in the Americas,including the areas of storytelling and singing. Various languages spoken by the Africans were often combined with European languages to create new languages or dialects. Abolition of Slavery The end of slavery took many years beginning with the end of the slave trade. Abolitionist societies in America and Europe appealed to governments and individuals to stop it; religious groups like the quakers were vary active. Freed slaves often spoke or wrote about the horrors of being a slave. Societics became more closly linke dwith manufacturing and paying factory workers was cheaper than purchasing slaves.bAt the turn of the 19th century many countries began to ban the sale of slaves, gradually leading to the end of slavery. The US emancipate slaves as a result of civil war. Martin Luther A German monk often credited with sparking the start of the Protestant Reformation in Europe. In 1517 he wrote the 95 Theses, a list of arguments directed at Roman Catholic Church's sale of indulgences. Believed faith in God was the way to heaven, no one on earth could pardon sins, and the Bible was the only religious truth. He was excommunicated and his ideas spread through northern Europe, largely by way of printing press.The founder of protestant religion Lutheranism. Protestant Reformation After publishing his 95 Theses, Martin Luther gained a following leading to a movement to reform th Roman Catholic Church.The movement was widespread in Germany; many churches reformed their services to reflect Protestant doctrine. Spread to England and Switzerland. In England King Henry VII established the Anglican Church. In Switzerland John Calvin founded a Protestant community. In response to the spreading of Protestantism Catholic authorities began the Counter- Reformation.