Developmental Psychology Final

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What trends in older adulthood can be seen in recent decades?

older adults are living longer, more likely to be childless, and more likely to live alone

The three goals of human development according to Baltes are..

growth, maintenance, and regulation of loss

Nellie bangs her head against the wall repeatedly throughout the day. B. F. Skinner would say that the BEST way to solve this problem is to..

reward Nellie when she does not bang her head and punish the head-banging behavior

Joshua spends all of his free time doing homework and studying so that he will get good grades and his parents will be proud of his achievements. Joshua is most likely in the period of development called __ childhood.

middle

In an experiment, the researcher manipulates the __ variable and measures its effects on the __ variable.

independent; dependent

The onset of puberty and the onset of menopause are examples of what type of age?

biological

After completing a study, a researcher must inform all the participants of the complete purpose and the results of the study. This is mandated by what APA ethical concept?

debriefing

Laboratory observations can be less effective than naturalistic observations because laboratory observations require what type of environments?

require unnatural environments

Kelly responds to her infant son's needs in a consistent and timely way. When he is tired, she puts him down for a nap and when he is hungry, she feeds him. Erikson would say that Kelly is helping her son to develop a sense of..

trust

Thomas is 65 years old and has just retired from his job as an engineer. This is an example of what type of normative influence on development?

a normative age graded influence on development

Is the following statement true or false: "The fetal MRI is the first choice in screening for fetal abnormalities."

false

Early evidence suggested that males with XYY syndrome were __ than XY males.

Research since the mid-1970s has shown this to be true or false?

more aggressive; false

Rachel has always enjoyed reading. Now that she is a parent, she provides her daughter with many books to read, hoping the child also will learn to enjoy reading. How do behavior geneticists refer to this type of interaction between heredity and environment?

passive genotype environment interaction

The process of cell division in which there is a resulting copy of the original cell is known as..

mitosis

Is the following statement true or false: "Females are more likely than males to have an X-linked disease because they have two X chromosomes."

false

A phenotype can consist of __ as well as __ characteristics.

physical; psychological

Evolutionary psychology emphasizes the importance of __ in shaping behavior.

reproduction, adaptation, & survival of the fittest

Chris' 23rd chromosome pair contains two X chromosomes. This indicates that Chris is..

female

Does hyperlipidemia result from a genetic abnormality?

no

The number of Euro-American infants available for adoption in the United States has showed a substantial decrease in recent years. Reasons given for this include:

unmarried mothers are less likely to place their infants in adoptive homes, contraception has become readily available, and abortion has been legalized

Which of the following mothers has the greatest risk of giving birth to a baby who has been harmed by a teratogen?

Jasmine, a teenager, who has been pregnant for only 4 weeks

The fetal period begins __ months after conception and lasts until birth.

2

Which of the following disorders is LEAST likely to happen to a mother 16 to 34 years old?

down syndrome

Angelo is 7 years old and has been diagnosed with a learning disability. In addition, he often seems highly excitable and is impulsive. It is possible that Angelo's mother used __ while pregnant.

cocaine

Kayleigh has gestational diabetes. Kayleigh faces the following risks in her pregnancy:

cesarean section, preterm birth, and having a baby who weighs 10 pounds or more

Research suggests that mothers who drink small (under 150 milligrams) to moderate (around 300 milligrams) of caffeine a day increase their risk of..

having a spontaneous abortion

Teratogen comes from the Greek word tera, which means..

monster

Marta recently went to see her doctor and learned that her unborn child was not receiving enough oxygen or nutrients from her. She was informed that there was a problem with the..

umbilical cord

Koko has decided to continue smoking while pregnant. She is placing her baby at risk for what conditions?

sudden infant syndrome, respiratory problems, and nicotine withdrawal symptoms

The life support system for the embryo consists of the..

umbilical cord, placenta, and amnion

In the "sticky mittens" research project, it was found that..

the infants in the mitten group developed grasping skills earlier

Kai is 2 years old and weighs 30 pounds. She is __ (regarding her weight) for her age.

within the normal range

The visual acuity of an infant approximates that of an adult when the infant is how old?

1 year old

Maturation is to __ as dynamic system is to __.

passive; active

The peak of synaptic overproduction in the prefrontal cortex takes place at around __ of age.

1 year

By accident, Levi's sisters fell on him when they were running in the house. If he later has trouble with thinking, planning, and self-regulation, it is MOST LIKELY that his __ lobe was damaged.

frontal

Baby Jane, 3 days old, is shown four drawings. One is a bright blue square, one is a white oval, one is a drawing of a face, and the last is a black-and-white bull's-eye. In view of Fantz' work, which will she probably prefer to look at?

the face

The area in the cerebral cortex that is responsible for processing visual information is called the __ lobe.

occipital

The neural pathways for walking develop at..

birth (possibly in the womb)

Development of the brain, followed by the spinal cord, and then leg nerves describes the __ pattern of development.

cephalocauda

Research on the ability of infants to recognize language sounds indicates that until the age of __ months infants can recognize sounds in all languages.

6 months

Alejandro is 3 years old. He is now able to sort his blocks by their color. Alejandro has developed..

a new mental scheme

An example of the basic unit of sound in the English language is the sound the letter "m" makes. This sound is called a..

phoneme

Someone with a vocabulary of only 200 words can still recombine the words in different ways to say thousands of different things. This aspect of language is referred to as..

infinite generativity

Which of Jean Piaget's sensorimotor substages marks the beginning of human curiosity and novelty?

tertiary circular reactions

Jahsem is 3 months old. He is in which of Jean Piaget's substages of sensorimotor development?

first habits and primary circular reactions

Dr. Red Elk takes a stuffed toy and puts it just outside baby Julia's reach. Dr. Red Elk watches to see if Julia will search for the toy. Next, Dr. Red Elk puts a mirror in front of Julia and observes whether Julia approaches the mirror. This psychologist is likely administering the..

Bayley Scales of Infant Development

Andrew, age 8 months, suffered some brain damage at birth. His identical twin, Alex, had no brain damage. Research on habituation would predict that..

Andrew will not habituate as well as Alex

Two year old Anita has learned the word "dog" to identify the family pet Rover. Now, Anita says the word "dog" when she sees any animal. Anita has __ these animals into her existing scheme.

assimilated

The sensorimotor stage of development lasts from birth until about..

2 years old

Are the following statements about emotional regulation TRUE: Contexts can influence emotional regulation, new demands appear as the infant becomes older, and infants must adapt to new situations and regulate their emotions accordingly.

yes

Betty and Allen's child, Cara, is usually in a pleasant mood. She has a regular routine but can adapt to changes with ease. Cara would be classified as a(n)..

easy child

Erikson's second stage of development is known as..

autonomy versus shame and doubt

A mother hands her baby a rattle, saying, "Here you are." She then gently takes the rattle away, smiling and saying, "Thank you." She does this repeatedly, letting the baby keep the rattle for several seconds each time and encouraging the baby to offer the rattle. Eventually, the baby takes the rattle, holds it for a few seconds, and then holds it out to her mother and smiles. This is an example of..

scaffolding

Researchers have had mothers put a dot of rouge on the noses of babies and place the babies in front of mirrors to see their reaction. These researchers are studying the concept of..

sense of self

In spite of modern criticism of the first theories of attachment and its significance in healthy development, there is ample evidence that security of attachment is important to development. Is this statement true or false?

true

The three components of John Bowlby's internal working model of attachment include a simple, mental model of the caregiver, their relationship, and..

the self as deserving of nurturant care

Mary often plays the game peek-a-boo with her baby. Initially, Mary covers her baby and then removes the cover, registering "surprise" at the baby's reappearance. After a time, her baby does the covering and uncovering. This is an example of..

scaffolding

Research on the calming technique of swaddling has shown what?

an increasing number of pediatricians are recommending swaddling, swaddled infants arouse less than infants who are not swaddled, infants with brain injury who were swaddled cried less than infants who were massaged

According to Jerome Kagan, temperament is the result of..

inherited physiological characteristics; however, temperament can be modified to some degree by the environment

In a Tools of the Mind classroom, __ has a central role.

dramatic play

Several functions, such as inhibition and planning, that are important for flexible, future-oriented behavior and may also be connected to theory of mind development are known as..

executive function

Three year olds scribble all over the page, but 4 year olds can make more precise drawings that adults can understand. This is because 4 year olds have more highly developed..

fine motor skills

Animism and egocentrism represent limitations in the preoperational child's thinking in that they indicate an inability to..

distinguish among different perspectives

Brian is trying to button his shirt but he needs a little help to line up the buttons with the holes. Brian's mother patiently talks to Brian and gives him verbal support to accomplish the task. Vygotsky would say that Brian's mother has provided..

scaffolding

Mrs. Parker is the director of a preschool. Currently, the students play outside for about 1 hour a day. Which of the following changes should Mrs. Parker implement in order to give her students the best health?

increase the amount of time that children engage in vigorous play

In explaining the ability to conserve, Rochel Gelman focuses on __, whereas Jean Piaget focused on __.

attention; centration

Concern about the ability of children in the United States to read and write has led to some recommendations to help them develop these skills early in life. List at least three of these suggestions.

parents and teachers need to provide a support environment to develop literary skills, children should be immersed in interesting reading experiences, and instruction should be built on what children already know about language, reading, and writing

By the end of early childhood, boys have __, whereas girls have __ (regarding fat and muscles).

more muscle; more fat

The chief factor associated with poor nutrition in children in the United States today is..

low income

Four year old Becky has just hit her sister, again. What should Becky's mom do?

explain to Becky that "hitting hurts" because she is old enough to understand the consequences of her behavior

"A boy adopts a masculine role orientation because he increasingly worries that his father will hurt him." This statement reflects which theory of gender?

psychoanalytic theory of gender

Which country has the most favorable attitude toward corporal punishment?

United States

The main class of female sex hormones is..

estrogens

What does a child get from peers that he or she typically cannot get from siblings?

an idea of how the child compares with other children the same age

What are some of the myths about how does maternal employment outside of the home affect children?

children are not properly socialized for the adult roles they will occupy, children are not able to develop a secure attachment to their parents, and children tend to perform poorly academically

Following divorce, custodial mothers experience the loss of about __ of their predivorce income.

25% to 50%

Which parenting style leads to social incompetence in children?

neglectful

The following behaviors would describe child maltreatment..

physical abuse, child neglect, and sexual abuse

Four year old Melody is throwing a temper tantrum because her mother told her that she could not stay up late with her older sister to watch television. Melody's mother said, "I can see that you are angry, but your bedtime is 8:00." Compared to her peers, Melody is more likely to better at what when she does not get her way?

be better at self-soothing when she does not get her way

The ability to think about something in novel and unusual ways and to come up with unique solutions to problems is called..

creativity

Recent research suggests that __ is the most effective treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

a combination of medication and behavior management

Which of the following BEST exemplifies "critical thinking"?

being able to evaluate the practical usefulness of a scientific study

Is the following statements about IQ and intelligence true or false: "IQ scores have been slowly decreasing around the world."

false

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a type of..

learning disability

What is the current thinking among increasing numbers of experts in the field of reading?

direct instruction in phonics is a key aspect of learning to read

Jacob is a third grader and has a disability that has caused him to be separated from his peers during the school day. Just recently Jacob has been moved to the regular third grade classroom. What is this change called?

inclusion

Is the following statements about children and cardiovascular disease is true or false: "High blood pressure goes undiagnosed in 75% of the children with the disease."

true

Howard Gardner has developed __ types of intelligence.

8

Advances in the prefrontal cortex of the brain are linked to children's..

improved attention, reasoning, and cognitive control

Children who are bullied have increased feelings of..

loneliness

Which of the following is an example of improving a child's self-esteem through achievement?

teaching a child a new skill

When asked why she participated with other students in a protest against treatment of women on her campus, Kai says that all humans have the fundamental right to be treated fairly, and that she is morally against the continuing discrimination against women. What is Kai's likely moral level according to Lawrence Kohlberg?

postconventional

Elena has been rejected by most of her peers, whereas Diana is neglected by them. Which of the following would be expected about these two children?

Elena will probably be more disruptive in school and at home than Diana

Which of the following characteristics is ascribed to males according to our common stereotypes?

aggressive

Boys are much more likely than girls to be behaviorally disruptive in the classroom. This is because..

boys show less self regulation

Which statement about a friend is most likely to be made by a child in middle to late childhood?

"We share secrets."

All of the following are effective ways to improve relationships among ethnically diverse students EXCEPT:

turning the classroom into a segregated learning experience

Social conventional reasoning is to __ as moral reasoning is to __.

arbitrary; obligatory

Almost ___ of African American and Latino students attend schools in which 90% or more of the students are from minority groups.

1/3

Results from a recent study suggested that about __ percent of adolescents would be characterized as being in the "lowest fitness category."

35

For the majority of teens, adolescence is marked by what?

self confidence

Identify the correct three risk factors for becoming a regular smoker of cigarettes in adolescence.

having a friend who smokes, having weak academic orientation, experiencing low parental support

Shiloh is in her first year of middle school. Research shows that she probably what relevant to satisfaction when compared to her elementary school experiences?

is less satisfied with middle school than with elementary school

Jerome is going through puberty quite early. Research indicates that Jerome is likely to have what type of self image?

have a positive self image

In a recent national survey in the United States, __ of adolescents reported that they had abused cough medications to intentionally get high.

9%

Recent research about hormones and behavior have found the relationship to be..

complex

Who among the following will be most dissatisfied with body image?

a female in early adolescence

Which theorist believed that adolescence is a time of "storm and stress"?

G. Stanley Hall

Is the following statement about gay and lesbian adolescents true or false: "For the majority of adolescents with same sex attraction, they find the opposite gender sexually repulsive."

false

The types of crowds of which adolescents are members include..

jocks, populars, normals, and druggies or toughs nobodies

FBI statistics indicate that __ percent of all youth are involved in juvenile court cases.

2%

Juvenile delinquency is negatively correlated with..

income

Harrison has thought for a long time about his future plans. He considered going to a technical college, but he also considered the value of getting a liberal arts degree from a four year college. The decision caused Harrison a lot of anxiety. Finally, he decided to attend the technical college. He is still wondering if his choice was the correct one. According to James Marcia, Harrison is now in a state of..

identity moratorium

Martha's daughter has come to her for advice about what to do with her future. Her mother explains that any decisions made now are not permanent and that her daughter will continue to reevaluate her decisions for the rest of her life. Her daughter is relieved to hear that she does not need to decide "everything" now, but she is not comfortable knowing that these important decisions will continue to come up in the future. Martha is trying to help her daughter understand that true identity development occurs in a __ cycle..

MAMA

Cooper and Grotevant believe that proper identity development occurs when parents encourage both __ and __ in adolescents..

both individuality and connectedness

In most cultures, the rite of passage is designed to..

help adolescents make the transition from their immediate family into adulthood

Aaron is a junior in high school. Some of Aaron's close friends have recently started engaging in vandalism and writing graffiti. What is Aaron likely to do?

He is less likely to also engage in these behaviors than when he was 2 years younger

Which of the following statements about early onset antisocial behavior is TRUE?

all of these are true

Carlos feels sad and disappointed that he was jilted by his girlfriend. Who is he likely to turn to for reassurance?

his best friend

If you do not try to lose or gain weight, your body tends to maintain a fairly stable weight. What is that weight called?

set point weight

Lettie is 30 years old and curious about how satisfied she will be with her life when she is elderly. The best predicator of this is her current..

physical health

Is the following statements about working while in college true or false: "Jobs almost never contribute to a college education"?

false

In 2003, the results of a longitudinal study of young adults in the United States documented that half of the sample were financially independent of their family of origin at age..

25

The average age of peak performance for most physical skills has changed or has remained approximately the same over the last century?

remained approximately the same

James, an American, will most likely consider himself an adult when he __, whereas Nelson, an African, will most likely consider himself an adult when he __.

obtains financial independence; gets married

When you look at the creative achievements of famous inventors, writers, and scientists, it is clear that creativity takes a developmental course that varies depending on what?

the person's type of work and individual situation

One in __ individuals who drink will become alcoholics.

nine

When Franklin composes musical concertos, he becomes totally absorbed and experiences extreme happiness. This is called..

flow

Barbara wants to engage in aerobic exercise that will burn fat and change her metabolism. Which of the following is the BEST activity for her to engage in?

jogging

According to Ron Levant, which of the following is NOT a way in which men can reconstruct their masculinity?

adopt more feminine traits

According to Erik Erikson, if individuals do not develop intimacy, they face..

isolation

Since the 1980s, the rate of divorce in the United States has..

gradually been decreasing

Which of the following factors is NOT associated with an increase in divorce?

marrying late in life

Results from a recent study linking adults' current attachment styles have shown that an adult avoidant attachment romantic style tends to be associated with..

unwanted, but consensual sexual experiences for both men and women

Sandra and Tom divorced after an 18 year marriage when Tom left Sandra for his colleague. Since the divorce 2 years ago, Sandra has been promoted in her job, has an active social life with her friends, and has taken up golf. When her friends suggest that she meet a man, however, Sandra tells them that she has no interest in men and that she is really quite content with her life. Sandra is a..

competent loner

Latrell is very intelligent but only of average physical attractiveness. The matching hypothesis states that he will choose a partner who..

is of average physical attraction and intelligence

Secure attachment to parents during childhood correlates with..

secure attachment to romantic partners in adulthood

Which of the following factors have researchers found function as self repair processes in healthy relationships?

forgiveness and commitment

Approximately __ percent of women in the United States marry at some point in their lives.

85%

The metabolic syndrome is characterized by hypertension, obesity, and..

insulin resistance

Cholesterol comes in two forms __ and HDL.

LDL

Tony's condition has been diagnosed as sexual dysfunction. His doctor will MOST likely treat him with..

viagra

Manuel has just reached middle age as defined by the text. This means he is at least __ years old.

40

Is the following statements about menopause true or false: "Virtually all women are postmenopausal by age 55."

false

Lillian is 50 years old. Her doctor has noticed a sharp decrease in her estrogen levels, and Lillian is complaining about nausea and fatigue. What will her doctor probably tell her?

she is going through menopause

What is the MOST common change in sleep patterns of adults during middle age?

they spend less time in deep sleep

What are the common symptoms has been associated with menopause?

nausea, fatigue, & hot flashes

Which statement BEST characterizes the nature of religion's influence on Americans' lives?

the majority of Americans engage in some sort of spiritual practice

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