What trends in older adulthood can be seen in recent decades?
older adults are living longer, more likely to be childless, and more likely to live alone
The three goals of human development according to Baltes are..
growth, maintenance, and regulation of loss
Nellie bangs her head against the wall repeatedly throughout the day. B. F. Skinner would say that the BEST way to solve this problem is to..
reward Nellie when she does not bang her head and punish the head-banging behavior
Joshua spends all of his free time doing homework and studying so that he will get good grades and his parents will be proud of his achievements. Joshua is most likely in the period of development called __ childhood.
In an experiment, the researcher manipulates the __ variable and measures its effects on the __ variable.
After completing a study, a researcher must inform all the participants of the complete purpose and the results of the study. This is mandated by what APA ethical concept?
Laboratory observations can be less effective than naturalistic observations because laboratory observations require what type of environments?
require unnatural environments
Kelly responds to her infant son's needs in a consistent and timely way. When he is tired, she puts him down for a nap and when he is hungry, she feeds him. Erikson would say that Kelly is helping her son to develop a sense of..
Thomas is 65 years old and has just retired from his job as an engineer. This is an example of what type of normative influence on development?
a normative age graded influence on development
Is the following statement true or false: "The fetal MRI is the first choice in screening for fetal abnormalities."
Early evidence suggested that males with XYY syndrome were __ than XY males.
Research since the mid-1970s has shown this to be true or false?
more aggressive; false
Rachel has always enjoyed reading. Now that she is a parent, she provides her daughter with many books to read, hoping the child also will learn to enjoy reading. How do behavior geneticists refer to this type of interaction between heredity and environment?
passive genotype environment interaction
The process of cell division in which there is a resulting copy of the original cell is known as..
Is the following statement true or false: "Females are more likely than males to have an X-linked disease because they have two X chromosomes."
Evolutionary psychology emphasizes the importance of __ in shaping behavior.
reproduction, adaptation, & survival of the fittest
The number of Euro-American infants available for adoption in the United States has showed a substantial decrease in recent years. Reasons given for this include:
unmarried mothers are less likely to place their infants in adoptive homes, contraception has become readily available, and abortion has been legalized
Which of the following mothers has the greatest risk of giving birth to a baby who has been harmed by a teratogen?
Jasmine, a teenager, who has been pregnant for only 4 weeks
Which of the following disorders is LEAST likely to happen to a mother 16 to 34 years old?
Angelo is 7 years old and has been diagnosed with a learning disability. In addition, he often seems highly excitable and is impulsive. It is possible that Angelo's mother used __ while pregnant.
Kayleigh has gestational diabetes. Kayleigh faces the following risks in her pregnancy:
cesarean section, preterm birth, and having a baby who weighs 10 pounds or more
Research suggests that mothers who drink small (under 150 milligrams) to moderate (around 300 milligrams) of caffeine a day increase their risk of..
having a spontaneous abortion
Marta recently went to see her doctor and learned that her unborn child was not receiving enough oxygen or nutrients from her. She was informed that there was a problem with the..
Koko has decided to continue smoking while pregnant. She is placing her baby at risk for what conditions?
sudden infant syndrome, respiratory problems, and nicotine withdrawal symptoms
In the "sticky mittens" research project, it was found that..
the infants in the mitten group developed grasping skills earlier
Kai is 2 years old and weighs 30 pounds. She is __ (regarding her weight) for her age.
within the normal range
The peak of synaptic overproduction in the prefrontal cortex takes place at around __ of age.
By accident, Levi's sisters fell on him when they were running in the house. If he later has trouble with thinking, planning, and self-regulation, it is MOST LIKELY that his __ lobe was damaged.
Baby Jane, 3 days old, is shown four drawings. One is a bright blue square, one is a white oval, one is a drawing of a face, and the last is a black-and-white bull's-eye. In view of Fantz' work, which will she probably prefer to look at?
The area in the cerebral cortex that is responsible for processing visual information is called the __ lobe.
Development of the brain, followed by the spinal cord, and then leg nerves describes the __ pattern of development.
Research on the ability of infants to recognize language sounds indicates that until the age of __ months infants can recognize sounds in all languages.
Alejandro is 3 years old. He is now able to sort his blocks by their color. Alejandro has developed..
a new mental scheme
An example of the basic unit of sound in the English language is the sound the letter "m" makes. This sound is called a..
Someone with a vocabulary of only 200 words can still recombine the words in different ways to say thousands of different things. This aspect of language is referred to as..
Which of Jean Piaget's sensorimotor substages marks the beginning of human curiosity and novelty?
tertiary circular reactions
Jahsem is 3 months old. He is in which of Jean Piaget's substages of sensorimotor development?
first habits and primary circular reactions
Dr. Red Elk takes a stuffed toy and puts it just outside baby Julia's reach. Dr. Red Elk watches to see if Julia will search for the toy. Next, Dr. Red Elk puts a mirror in front of Julia and observes whether Julia approaches the mirror. This psychologist is likely administering the..
Bayley Scales of Infant Development
Andrew, age 8 months, suffered some brain damage at birth. His identical twin, Alex, had no brain damage. Research on habituation would predict that..
Andrew will not habituate as well as Alex
Two year old Anita has learned the word "dog" to identify the family pet Rover. Now, Anita says the word "dog" when she sees any animal. Anita has __ these animals into her existing scheme.
Are the following statements about emotional regulation TRUE: Contexts can influence emotional regulation, new demands appear as the infant becomes older, and infants must adapt to new situations and regulate their emotions accordingly.
Betty and Allen's child, Cara, is usually in a pleasant mood. She has a regular routine but can adapt to changes with ease. Cara would be classified as a(n)..
A mother hands her baby a rattle, saying, "Here you are." She then gently takes the rattle away, smiling and saying, "Thank you." She does this repeatedly, letting the baby keep the rattle for several seconds each time and encouraging the baby to offer the rattle. Eventually, the baby takes the rattle, holds it for a few seconds, and then holds it out to her mother and smiles. This is an example of..
Researchers have had mothers put a dot of rouge on the noses of babies and place the babies in front of mirrors to see their reaction. These researchers are studying the concept of..
sense of self
In spite of modern criticism of the first theories of attachment and its significance in healthy development, there is ample evidence that security of attachment is important to development. Is this statement true or false?
The three components of John Bowlby's internal working model of attachment include a simple, mental model of the caregiver, their relationship, and..
the self as deserving of nurturant care
Mary often plays the game peek-a-boo with her baby. Initially, Mary covers her baby and then removes the cover, registering "surprise" at the baby's reappearance. After a time, her baby does the covering and uncovering. This is an example of..
Research on the calming technique of swaddling has shown what?
an increasing number of pediatricians are recommending swaddling, swaddled infants arouse less than infants who are not swaddled, infants with brain injury who were swaddled cried less than infants who were massaged
According to Jerome Kagan, temperament is the result of..
inherited physiological characteristics; however, temperament can be modified to some degree by the environment
Several functions, such as inhibition and planning, that are important for flexible, future-oriented behavior and may also be connected to theory of mind development are known as..
Three year olds scribble all over the page, but 4 year olds can make more precise drawings that adults can understand. This is because 4 year olds have more highly developed..
fine motor skills
Animism and egocentrism represent limitations in the preoperational child's thinking in that they indicate an inability to..
distinguish among different perspectives
Brian is trying to button his shirt but he needs a little help to line up the buttons with the holes. Brian's mother patiently talks to Brian and gives him verbal support to accomplish the task. Vygotsky would say that Brian's mother has provided..
Mrs. Parker is the director of a preschool. Currently, the students play outside for about 1 hour a day. Which of the following changes should Mrs. Parker implement in order to give her students the best health?
increase the amount of time that children engage in vigorous play
In explaining the ability to conserve, Rochel Gelman focuses on __, whereas Jean Piaget focused on __.
Concern about the ability of children in the United States to read and write has led to some recommendations to help them develop these skills early in life. List at least three of these suggestions.
parents and teachers need to provide a support environment to develop literary skills, children should be immersed in interesting reading experiences, and instruction should be built on what children already know about language, reading, and writing
By the end of early childhood, boys have __, whereas girls have __ (regarding fat and muscles).
more muscle; more fat
The chief factor associated with poor nutrition in children in the United States today is..
Four year old Becky has just hit her sister, again. What should Becky's mom do?
explain to Becky that "hitting hurts" because she is old enough to understand the consequences of her behavior
"A boy adopts a masculine role orientation because he increasingly worries that his father will hurt him." This statement reflects which theory of gender?
psychoanalytic theory of gender
What does a child get from peers that he or she typically cannot get from siblings?
an idea of how the child compares with other children the same age
What are some of the myths about how does maternal employment outside of the home affect children?
children are not properly socialized for the adult roles they will occupy, children are not able to develop a secure attachment to their parents, and children tend to perform poorly academically
Following divorce, custodial mothers experience the loss of about __ of their predivorce income.
25% to 50%
The following behaviors would describe child maltreatment..
physical abuse, child neglect, and sexual abuse
Four year old Melody is throwing a temper tantrum because her mother told her that she could not stay up late with her older sister to watch television. Melody's mother said, "I can see that you are angry, but your bedtime is 8:00." Compared to her peers, Melody is more likely to better at what when she does not get her way?
be better at self-soothing when she does not get her way
The ability to think about something in novel and unusual ways and to come up with unique solutions to problems is called..
Recent research suggests that __ is the most effective treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
a combination of medication and behavior management
Which of the following BEST exemplifies "critical thinking"?
being able to evaluate the practical usefulness of a scientific study
Is the following statements about IQ and intelligence true or false: "IQ scores have been slowly decreasing around the world."
What is the current thinking among increasing numbers of experts in the field of reading?
direct instruction in phonics is a key aspect of learning to read
Jacob is a third grader and has a disability that has caused him to be separated from his peers during the school day. Just recently Jacob has been moved to the regular third grade classroom. What is this change called?
Is the following statements about children and cardiovascular disease is true or false: "High blood pressure goes undiagnosed in 75% of the children with the disease."
Advances in the prefrontal cortex of the brain are linked to children's..
improved attention, reasoning, and cognitive control
Which of the following is an example of improving a child's self-esteem through achievement?
teaching a child a new skill
When asked why she participated with other students in a protest against treatment of women on her campus, Kai says that all humans have the fundamental right to be treated fairly, and that she is morally against the continuing discrimination against women. What is Kai's likely moral level according to Lawrence Kohlberg?
Elena has been rejected by most of her peers, whereas Diana is neglected by them. Which of the following would be expected about these two children?
Elena will probably be more disruptive in school and at home than Diana
Which of the following characteristics is ascribed to males according to our common stereotypes?
Boys are much more likely than girls to be behaviorally disruptive in the classroom. This is because..
boys show less self regulation
Which statement about a friend is most likely to be made by a child in middle to late childhood?
"We share secrets."
All of the following are effective ways to improve relationships among ethnically diverse students EXCEPT:
turning the classroom into a segregated learning experience
Almost ___ of African American and Latino students attend schools in which 90% or more of the students are from minority groups.
Results from a recent study suggested that about __ percent of adolescents would be characterized as being in the "lowest fitness category."
Identify the correct three risk factors for becoming a regular smoker of cigarettes in adolescence.
having a friend who smokes, having weak academic orientation, experiencing low parental support
Shiloh is in her first year of middle school. Research shows that she probably what relevant to satisfaction when compared to her elementary school experiences?
is less satisfied with middle school than with elementary school
Jerome is going through puberty quite early. Research indicates that Jerome is likely to have what type of self image?
have a positive self image
In a recent national survey in the United States, __ of adolescents reported that they had abused cough medications to intentionally get high.
Is the following statement about gay and lesbian adolescents true or false: "For the majority of adolescents with same sex attraction, they find the opposite gender sexually repulsive."
The types of crowds of which adolescents are members include..
jocks, populars, normals, and druggies or toughs nobodies
Harrison has thought for a long time about his future plans. He considered going to a technical college, but he also considered the value of getting a liberal arts degree from a four year college. The decision caused Harrison a lot of anxiety. Finally, he decided to attend the technical college. He is still wondering if his choice was the correct one. According to James Marcia, Harrison is now in a state of..
Martha's daughter has come to her for advice about what to do with her future. Her mother explains that any decisions made now are not permanent and that her daughter will continue to reevaluate her decisions for the rest of her life. Her daughter is relieved to hear that she does not need to decide "everything" now, but she is not comfortable knowing that these important decisions will continue to come up in the future. Martha is trying to help her daughter understand that true identity development occurs in a __ cycle..
Cooper and Grotevant believe that proper identity development occurs when parents encourage both __ and __ in adolescents..
both individuality and connectedness
In most cultures, the rite of passage is designed to..
help adolescents make the transition from their immediate family into adulthood
Aaron is a junior in high school. Some of Aaron's close friends have recently started engaging in vandalism and writing graffiti. What is Aaron likely to do?
He is less likely to also engage in these behaviors than when he was 2 years younger
Which of the following statements about early onset antisocial behavior is TRUE?
all of these are true
Carlos feels sad and disappointed that he was jilted by his girlfriend. Who is he likely to turn to for reassurance?
his best friend
If you do not try to lose or gain weight, your body tends to maintain a fairly stable weight. What is that weight called?
set point weight
Lettie is 30 years old and curious about how satisfied she will be with her life when she is elderly. The best predicator of this is her current..
Is the following statements about working while in college true or false: "Jobs almost never contribute to a college education"?
In 2003, the results of a longitudinal study of young adults in the United States documented that half of the sample were financially independent of their family of origin at age..
The average age of peak performance for most physical skills has changed or has remained approximately the same over the last century?
remained approximately the same
James, an American, will most likely consider himself an adult when he __, whereas Nelson, an African, will most likely consider himself an adult when he __.
obtains financial independence; gets married
When you look at the creative achievements of famous inventors, writers, and scientists, it is clear that creativity takes a developmental course that varies depending on what?
the person's type of work and individual situation
When Franklin composes musical concertos, he becomes totally absorbed and experiences extreme happiness. This is called..
Barbara wants to engage in aerobic exercise that will burn fat and change her metabolism. Which of the following is the BEST activity for her to engage in?
According to Ron Levant, which of the following is NOT a way in which men can reconstruct their masculinity?
adopt more feminine traits
Results from a recent study linking adults' current attachment styles have shown that an adult avoidant attachment romantic style tends to be associated with..
unwanted, but consensual sexual experiences for both men and women
Sandra and Tom divorced after an 18 year marriage when Tom left Sandra for his colleague. Since the divorce 2 years ago, Sandra has been promoted in her job, has an active social life with her friends, and has taken up golf. When her friends suggest that she meet a man, however, Sandra tells them that she has no interest in men and that she is really quite content with her life. Sandra is a..
Latrell is very intelligent but only of average physical attractiveness. The matching hypothesis states that he will choose a partner who..
is of average physical attraction and intelligence
Secure attachment to parents during childhood correlates with..
secure attachment to romantic partners in adulthood
Which of the following factors have researchers found function as self repair processes in healthy relationships?
forgiveness and commitment
Tony's condition has been diagnosed as sexual dysfunction. His doctor will MOST likely treat him with..
Manuel has just reached middle age as defined by the text. This means he is at least __ years old.
Is the following statements about menopause true or false: "Virtually all women are postmenopausal by age 55."
Lillian is 50 years old. Her doctor has noticed a sharp decrease in her estrogen levels, and Lillian is complaining about nausea and fatigue. What will her doctor probably tell her?
she is going through menopause
What is the MOST common change in sleep patterns of adults during middle age?
they spend less time in deep sleep
Which statement BEST characterizes the nature of religion's influence on Americans' lives?
the majority of Americans engage in some sort of spiritual practice
In a survey conducted by AARP, the primary reason middle aged and older men cited for wanting a divorce was..
no obvious problems; they just fell out of love
The seventh stage of Erikson's life span theory is the characteristic of middle age. What name did Erikson give this stage?
generativity versus stagnation
Which of the following was NOT a finding in Helson's Mills College Study?
women without children who pursued low-level work changed more than family-oriented women
Stage theories of development emphasize __, whereas individual variation approaches focus on __.
Theorists of personality development would agree upon what relevant to the stability of personality?
personality, overall, becomes more stable as we age
Middle adulthood is referred to as the sandwich generation because..
middle aged adults may have to care for their own adolescent children as well as their elderly parents
Why is the social clock an important consideration when understanding development?
it may differ for different generations and indicate different age ranges for completing developmental tasks
Gisella has just returned from the doctor and was told she has cloudy areas in the lenses of her eyes. Gisella has..
Older women are more likely to have __ but less likely to have __ than are older men.
visual problems; hearing problems
The number of years that will probably be lived by the average person born in a particular year is the..
Some research studies find links between antioxidant vitamins and health. One recent study revealed that low blood concentration of __ in older adults was linked with an earlier incidence of death.
Antioxidant vitamins are purported to be important for older adults because they..
keep cell damage from becoming widespread in the body
Which of the following statements about vitamin E has been supported by recent research?
older people should not take vitamin E supplements
Kate resides in a nursing home where she takes a class that teaches her how to say no when she doesn't want to participate in an activity if she does not want to do so. Based on research, we would expect that, after learning this skill, Kate would..
have a reduced level of the stress hormone cortisol
An ironic fact about health care given to elderly patients is that elderly patients..
take a relatively passive role in their own treatment
Donna is a happy, content 85 year old woman. She has things to do, meets plenty of other people, and is in fairly good health. Which of the following is most likely to be TRUE?
Donna is practicing her religious faith
Is the following statements about older adults and education true or false: "Today's older adults were more likely than their parents to have received a college education."
Some experts now use the terms __ instead of __ to describe cognitive aging patterns.
fluid mechanics and crystallized pragmatics; cognitive mechanics and cognitive pragmatics
What drug has been FDA approved for the treatment of moderate to severe Alzheimer disease?
Shama, who is now 80 years old, will show a steady decline in what cognitive resources?
working memory and perceptual speed
Ronnie is worried that he may be developing Alzheimer disease. The earliest detection method he can use to conclusively find out is..
functional magnetic resonance imaging
Adeline, age 90, still drives her car to the senior center every Friday. Last week she tells you that someone you know from her church died. When you ask her for the person's name, she says, "She sits near the front and always has a hat on." Clearly Adeline has better __ memory than __ memory.
Adult daughters are three times more likely than adult sons to provide older adults with assistance in what?
activities of daily living
Mavis, age 72, volunteers 4 hours each week in the hospital gift shop and reads a story to second-grade children for 45 minutes every Monday morning. Research shows that compared to her peers who do not engage in any volunteer work, Mavis is more likely to be..
more satisfied with her life
Mr. Widaman Gibbs is interviewed on his 100th birthday, and a reporter asks, "How do you want to be remembered?" Mr. Widaman-Gibbs reflects for a moment and responds, "I want to be remembered by the traditions I have left behind in my family; my legacy is not who I was but instead who my children and grandchildren are." Erik Erikson would classify this response as indicating Mr. Larson's sense of..
Gina is doing what she can to help her older aunt take care of herself and stay in her own home. Gina often takes meals to her aunt and helps her clean, go shopping, and make visits to the doctor. Gina is providing __ for her aunt.
How do many African Americans cope with the challenges of growing older in a racist and ageist society?
they rely on family networks and often the church
Ron is a retired college professor. Ron's arthritis is getting worse, but he wants to remain active and use the skills he has developed. Which of the following would Ron do if his actions were consistent with the model of selective optimization with compensation?
focus on continuing one aspect of his former job, such as teaching, at a reduced rate and discontinue the rest
Now that Nastya is in late adulthood, the socioemotional selectivity theory predicts that she will..
spend most of her time with familiar friends
Germain has signed an advance directive. This means that..
his physician can disconnect him from life sustaining equipment
According to Elisabeth Kübler Ross, when a dying person finally accepts the fact of impending death and becomes depressed about it, which of the following would be most appropriate?
allow the person to experience and work through the depression
What is the main difference between the feelings of terminally ill younger adults and those of terminally ill older adults?
younger adults feel cheated
Which of the following is an advantage of a dying individual knowing that he or she is dying?
the person has time to reflect on his or her life and make decisions about dying
For a terminally ill person, what can be the most useful benefit of denying one's imminent death?
denial can help to insulate the dying person from coping with intense feelings of anger
Why do women have an easier time with the loss of their spouse than do men?
women have better social networks
__ or __ refers to the right of an individual to determine whether extraordinary means should be used to keep them alive.
living will or advanced directive
Esther attended her aunt's funeral which was held in a barn. In the weeks after the funeral, Esther and other women go to her aunt's house to participate in quilting activities and other projects to help give the grieving family community support. Esther is living in which type of community?