Developmental Psychology Final

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__ is to cognitive mechanics, as __ is to cognitive pragmatics.

hardware; software

__ or __ refers to the right of an individual to determine whether extraordinary means should be used to keep them alive.

living will or advanced directive

"A boy adopts a masculine role orientation because he increasingly worries that his father will hurt him." This statement reflects which theory of gender?

psychoanalytic theory of gender

Aaron is a junior in high school. Some of Aaron's close friends have recently started engaging in vandalism and writing graffiti. What is Aaron likely to do?

He is less likely to also engage in these behaviors than when he was 2 years younger

The ability to think about something in novel and unusual ways and to come up with unique solutions to problems is called..

creativity

According to Elisabeth Kübler Ross, the first stage of dying is..

denial and isolation

According to Elisabeth Kübler Ross, when a dying person finally accepts the fact of impending death and becomes depressed about it, which of the following would be most appropriate?

allow the person to experience and work through the depression

According to Erik Erikson, if individuals do not develop intimacy, they face..

isolation

According to Erikson, what is the central core of development across the adult years?

identity

According to Jerome Kagan, temperament is the result of..

inherited physiological characteristics; however, temperament can be modified to some degree by the environment

According to Ron Levant, which of the following is NOT a way in which men can reconstruct their masculinity?

adopt more feminine traits

According to the text, late adulthood brings the greatest changes to __ families.

traditional

Adeline, age 90, still drives her car to the senior center every Friday. Last week she tells you that someone you know from her church died. When you ask her for the person's name, she says, "She sits near the front and always has a hat on." Clearly Adeline has better __ memory than __ memory.

implicit; explicit

Adult daughters are three times more likely than adult sons to provide older adults with assistance in what?

activities of daily living

Advances in the prefrontal cortex of the brain are linked to children's..

improved attention, reasoning, and cognitive control

After completing a study, a researcher must inform all the participants of the complete purpose and the results of the study. This is mandated by what APA ethical concept?

debriefing

Alejandro is 3 years old. He is now able to sort his blocks by their color. Alejandro has developed..

a new mental scheme

All of the following are effective ways to improve relationships among ethnically diverse students EXCEPT:

turning the classroom into a segregated learning experience

Almost ___ of African American and Latino students attend schools in which 90% or more of the students are from minority groups.

1/3

Andrew, age 8 months, suffered some brain damage at birth. His identical twin, Alex, had no brain damage. Research on habituation would predict that..

Andrew will not habituate as well as Alex

Angelo is 7 years old and has been diagnosed with a learning disability. In addition, he often seems highly excitable and is impulsive. It is possible that Angelo's mother used __ while pregnant.

cocaine

Animism and egocentrism represent limitations in the preoperational child's thinking in that they indicate an inability to..

distinguish among different perspectives

Antioxidant vitamins are purported to be important for older adults because they..

keep cell damage from becoming widespread in the body

Approximately __ percent of women in the United States marry at some point in their lives.

85%

Are the following statements about emotional regulation TRUE: Contexts can influence emotional regulation, new demands appear as the infant becomes older, and infants must adapt to new situations and regulate their emotions accordingly.

yes

The area in the cerebral cortex that is responsible for processing visual information is called the __ lobe.

occipital

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a type of..

learning disability

The average age of peak performance for most physical skills has changed or has remained approximately the same over the last century?

remained approximately the same

Baby Jane, 3 days old, is shown four drawings. One is a bright blue square, one is a white oval, one is a drawing of a face, and the last is a black-and-white bull's-eye. In view of Fantz' work, which will she probably prefer to look at?

the face

Barbara wants to engage in aerobic exercise that will burn fat and change her metabolism. Which of the following is the BEST activity for her to engage in?

jogging

Betty and Allen's child, Cara, is usually in a pleasant mood. She has a regular routine but can adapt to changes with ease. Cara would be classified as a(n)..

easy child

Boys are much more likely than girls to be behaviorally disruptive in the classroom. This is because..

boys show less self regulation

Brian is trying to button his shirt but he needs a little help to line up the buttons with the holes. Brian's mother patiently talks to Brian and gives him verbal support to accomplish the task. Vygotsky would say that Brian's mother has provided..

scaffolding

By accident, Levi's sisters fell on him when they were running in the house. If he later has trouble with thinking, planning, and self-regulation, it is MOST LIKELY that his __ lobe was damaged.

frontal

By the end of early childhood, boys have __, whereas girls have __ (regarding fat and muscles).

more muscle; more fat

Carlos feels sad and disappointed that he was jilted by his girlfriend. Who is he likely to turn to for reassurance?

his best friend

The chief factor associated with poor nutrition in children in the United States today is..

low income

Children who are bullied have increased feelings of..

loneliness

Cholesterol comes in two forms __ and HDL.

LDL

Chris' 23rd chromosome pair contains two X chromosomes. This indicates that Chris is..

female

Concern about the ability of children in the United States to read and write has led to some recommendations to help them develop these skills early in life. List at least three of these suggestions.

parents and teachers need to provide a support environment to develop literary skills, children should be immersed in interesting reading experiences, and instruction should be built on what children already know about language, reading, and writing

Cooper and Grotevant believe that proper identity development occurs when parents encourage both __ and __ in adolescents..

both individuality and connectedness

Development of the brain, followed by the spinal cord, and then leg nerves describes the __ pattern of development.

cephalocauda

Does hyperlipidemia result from a genetic abnormality?

no

Donna is a happy, content 85 year old woman. She has things to do, meets plenty of other people, and is in fairly good health. Which of the following is most likely to be TRUE?

Donna is practicing her religious faith

Dr. Red Elk takes a stuffed toy and puts it just outside baby Julia's reach. Dr. Red Elk watches to see if Julia will search for the toy. Next, Dr. Red Elk puts a mirror in front of Julia and observes whether Julia approaches the mirror. This psychologist is likely administering the..

Bayley Scales of Infant Development

Early evidence suggested that males with XYY syndrome were __ than XY males.

Research since the mid-1970s has shown this to be true or false?

more aggressive; false

Elena has been rejected by most of her peers, whereas Diana is neglected by them. Which of the following would be expected about these two children?

Elena will probably be more disruptive in school and at home than Diana

Erikson's second stage of development is known as..

autonomy versus shame and doubt

Esther attended her aunt's funeral which was held in a barn. In the weeks after the funeral, Esther and other women go to her aunt's house to participate in quilting activities and other projects to help give the grieving family community support. Esther is living in which type of community?

Amish

Evolutionary psychology emphasizes the importance of __ in shaping behavior.

reproduction, adaptation, & survival of the fittest

An example of the basic unit of sound in the English language is the sound the letter "m" makes. This sound is called a..

phoneme

Exercise can reduce the risk of all of the following conditions EXCEPT..

type 1 diabetes

FBI statistics indicate that __ percent of all youth are involved in juvenile court cases.

2%

The fetal period begins __ months after conception and lasts until birth.

2

The following behaviors would describe child maltreatment..

physical abuse, child neglect, and sexual abuse

Following divorce, custodial mothers experience the loss of about __ of their predivorce income.

25% to 50%

For a terminally ill person, what can be the most useful benefit of denying one's imminent death?

denial can help to insulate the dying person from coping with intense feelings of anger

For the majority of teens, adolescence is marked by what?

self confidence

Four year old Becky has just hit her sister, again. What should Becky's mom do?

explain to Becky that "hitting hurts" because she is old enough to understand the consequences of her behavior

Four year old Melody is throwing a temper tantrum because her mother told her that she could not stay up late with her older sister to watch television. Melody's mother said, "I can see that you are angry, but your bedtime is 8:00." Compared to her peers, Melody is more likely to better at what when she does not get her way?

be better at self-soothing when she does not get her way

Germain has signed an advance directive. This means that..

his physician can disconnect him from life sustaining equipment

Gina is doing what she can to help her older aunt take care of herself and stay in her own home. Gina often takes meals to her aunt and helps her clean, go shopping, and make visits to the doctor. Gina is providing __ for her aunt.

eldercare

Gisella has just returned from the doctor and was told she has cloudy areas in the lenses of her eyes. Gisella has..

cataracts

Harrison has thought for a long time about his future plans. He considered going to a technical college, but he also considered the value of getting a liberal arts degree from a four year college. The decision caused Harrison a lot of anxiety. Finally, he decided to attend the technical college. He is still wondering if his choice was the correct one. According to James Marcia, Harrison is now in a state of..

identity moratorium

How do many African Americans cope with the challenges of growing older in a racist and ageist society?

they rely on family networks and often the church

Howard Gardner has developed __ types of intelligence.

8

Identify the correct three risk factors for becoming a regular smoker of cigarettes in adolescence.

having a friend who smokes, having weak academic orientation, experiencing low parental support

If you do not try to lose or gain weight, your body tends to maintain a fairly stable weight. What is that weight called?

set point weight

In 2003, the results of a longitudinal study of young adults in the United States documented that half of the sample were financially independent of their family of origin at age..

25

In a recent national survey in the United States, __ of adolescents reported that they had abused cough medications to intentionally get high.

9%

In a survey conducted by AARP, the primary reason middle aged and older men cited for wanting a divorce was..

no obvious problems; they just fell out of love

In a Tools of the Mind classroom, __ has a central role.

dramatic play

In an experiment, the researcher manipulates the __ variable and measures its effects on the __ variable.

independent; dependent

In explaining the ability to conserve, Rochel Gelman focuses on __, whereas Jean Piaget focused on __.

attention; centration

In middle age, the role of work __ in people's lives.

is very central

In most cultures, the rite of passage is designed to..

help adolescents make the transition from their immediate family into adulthood

In spite of modern criticism of the first theories of attachment and its significance in healthy development, there is ample evidence that security of attachment is important to development. Is this statement true or false?

true

In the "sticky mittens" research project, it was found that..

the infants in the mitten group developed grasping skills earlier

An ironic fact about health care given to elderly patients is that elderly patients..

take a relatively passive role in their own treatment

Is the following statement about gay and lesbian adolescents true or false: "For the majority of adolescents with same sex attraction, they find the opposite gender sexually repulsive."

false

Is the following statement true or false: "Females are more likely than males to have an X-linked disease because they have two X chromosomes."

false

Is the following statement true or false: "The fetal MRI is the first choice in screening for fetal abnormalities."

false

Is the following statements about children and cardiovascular disease is true or false: "High blood pressure goes undiagnosed in 75% of the children with the disease."

true

Is the following statements about IQ and intelligence true or false: "IQ scores have been slowly decreasing around the world."

false

Is the following statements about menopause true or false: "Virtually all women are postmenopausal by age 55."

false

Is the following statements about older adults and education true or false: "Today's older adults were more likely than their parents to have received a college education."

true

Is the following statements about working while in college true or false: "Jobs almost never contribute to a college education"?

false

Jacob is a third grader and has a disability that has caused him to be separated from his peers during the school day. Just recently Jacob has been moved to the regular third grade classroom. What is this change called?

inclusion

Jahsem is 3 months old. He is in which of Jean Piaget's substages of sensorimotor development?

first habits and primary circular reactions

James, an American, will most likely consider himself an adult when he __, whereas Nelson, an African, will most likely consider himself an adult when he __.

obtains financial independence; gets married

Jerome is going through puberty quite early. Research indicates that Jerome is likely to have what type of self image?

have a positive self image

Joshua spends all of his free time doing homework and studying so that he will get good grades and his parents will be proud of his achievements. Joshua is most likely in the period of development called __ childhood.

middle

Juvenile delinquency is negatively correlated with..

income

Kai is 2 years old and weighs 30 pounds. She is __ (regarding her weight) for her age.

within the normal range

Kate resides in a nursing home where she takes a class that teaches her how to say no when she doesn't want to participate in an activity if she does not want to do so. Based on research, we would expect that, after learning this skill, Kate would..

have a reduced level of the stress hormone cortisol

Kayleigh has gestational diabetes. Kayleigh faces the following risks in her pregnancy:

cesarean section, preterm birth, and having a baby who weighs 10 pounds or more

Kelly responds to her infant son's needs in a consistent and timely way. When he is tired, she puts him down for a nap and when he is hungry, she feeds him. Erikson would say that Kelly is helping her son to develop a sense of..

trust

Koko has decided to continue smoking while pregnant. She is placing her baby at risk for what conditions?

sudden infant syndrome, respiratory problems, and nicotine withdrawal symptoms

Laboratory observations can be less effective than naturalistic observations because laboratory observations require what type of environments?

require unnatural environments

Latrell is very intelligent but only of average physical attractiveness. The matching hypothesis states that he will choose a partner who..

is of average physical attraction and intelligence

Lettie is 30 years old and curious about how satisfied she will be with her life when she is elderly. The best predicator of this is her current..

physical health

The life support system for the embryo consists of the..

umbilical cord, placenta, and amnion

Lillian is 50 years old. Her doctor has noticed a sharp decrease in her estrogen levels, and Lillian is complaining about nausea and fatigue. What will her doctor probably tell her?

she is going through menopause

Longevity is positively correlated with..

ability to cope

The main class of female sex hormones is..

estrogens

Manuel has just reached middle age as defined by the text. This means he is at least __ years old.

40

Marta recently went to see her doctor and learned that her unborn child was not receiving enough oxygen or nutrients from her. She was informed that there was a problem with the..

umbilical cord

Martha's daughter has come to her for advice about what to do with her future. Her mother explains that any decisions made now are not permanent and that her daughter will continue to reevaluate her decisions for the rest of her life. Her daughter is relieved to hear that she does not need to decide "everything" now, but she is not comfortable knowing that these important decisions will continue to come up in the future. Martha is trying to help her daughter understand that true identity development occurs in a __ cycle..

MAMA

Mary often plays the game peek-a-boo with her baby. Initially, Mary covers her baby and then removes the cover, registering "surprise" at the baby's reappearance. After a time, her baby does the covering and uncovering. This is an example of..

scaffolding

Maturation is to __ as dynamic system is to __.

passive; active

Mavis, age 72, volunteers 4 hours each week in the hospital gift shop and reads a story to second-grade children for 45 minutes every Monday morning. Research shows that compared to her peers who do not engage in any volunteer work, Mavis is more likely to be..

more satisfied with her life

The metabolic syndrome is characterized by hypertension, obesity, and..

insulin resistance

Middle adulthood is referred to as the sandwich generation because..

middle aged adults may have to care for their own adolescent children as well as their elderly parents

A mother hands her baby a rattle, saying, "Here you are." She then gently takes the rattle away, smiling and saying, "Thank you." She does this repeatedly, letting the baby keep the rattle for several seconds each time and encouraging the baby to offer the rattle. Eventually, the baby takes the rattle, holds it for a few seconds, and then holds it out to her mother and smiles. This is an example of..

scaffolding

Mr. Widaman Gibbs is interviewed on his 100th birthday, and a reporter asks, "How do you want to be remembered?" Mr. Widaman-Gibbs reflects for a moment and responds, "I want to be remembered by the traditions I have left behind in my family; my legacy is not who I was but instead who my children and grandchildren are." Erik Erikson would classify this response as indicating Mr. Larson's sense of..

integrity

Mrs. Parker is the director of a preschool. Currently, the students play outside for about 1 hour a day. Which of the following changes should Mrs. Parker implement in order to give her students the best health?

increase the amount of time that children engage in vigorous play

Nellie bangs her head against the wall repeatedly throughout the day. B. F. Skinner would say that the BEST way to solve this problem is to..

reward Nellie when she does not bang her head and punish the head-banging behavior

The neural pathways for walking develop at..

birth (possibly in the womb)

Now that Nastya is in late adulthood, the socioemotional selectivity theory predicts that she will..

spend most of her time with familiar friends

The number of Euro-American infants available for adoption in the United States has showed a substantial decrease in recent years. Reasons given for this include:

unmarried mothers are less likely to place their infants in adoptive homes, contraception has become readily available, and abortion has been legalized

The number of years that will probably be lived by the average person born in a particular year is the..

life expectancy

Older women are more likely to have __ but less likely to have __ than are older men.

visual problems; hearing problems

One in __ individuals who drink will become alcoholics.

nine

The onset of puberty and the onset of menopause are examples of what type of age?

biological

The peak of synaptic overproduction in the prefrontal cortex takes place at around __ of age.

1 year

A phenotype can consist of __ as well as __ characteristics.

physical; psychological

The process of cell division in which there is a resulting copy of the original cell is known as..

mitosis

Rachel has always enjoyed reading. Now that she is a parent, she provides her daughter with many books to read, hoping the child also will learn to enjoy reading. How do behavior geneticists refer to this type of interaction between heredity and environment?

passive genotype environment interaction

Recent research about hormones and behavior have found the relationship to be..

complex

Recent research suggests that __ is the most effective treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

a combination of medication and behavior management

Research on the ability of infants to recognize language sounds indicates that until the age of __ months infants can recognize sounds in all languages.

6 months

Research on the calming technique of swaddling has shown what?

an increasing number of pediatricians are recommending swaddling, swaddled infants arouse less than infants who are not swaddled, infants with brain injury who were swaddled cried less than infants who were massaged

Research suggests that mothers who drink small (under 150 milligrams) to moderate (around 300 milligrams) of caffeine a day increase their risk of..

having a spontaneous abortion

Researchers have had mothers put a dot of rouge on the noses of babies and place the babies in front of mirrors to see their reaction. These researchers are studying the concept of..

sense of self

Results from a recent study linking adults' current attachment styles have shown that an adult avoidant attachment romantic style tends to be associated with..

unwanted, but consensual sexual experiences for both men and women

Results from a recent study suggested that about __ percent of adolescents would be characterized as being in the "lowest fitness category."

35

Ron is a retired college professor. Ron's arthritis is getting worse, but he wants to remain active and use the skills he has developed. Which of the following would Ron do if his actions were consistent with the model of selective optimization with compensation?

focus on continuing one aspect of his former job, such as teaching, at a reduced rate and discontinue the rest

Ronnie is worried that he may be developing Alzheimer disease. The earliest detection method he can use to conclusively find out is..

functional magnetic resonance imaging

Sandra and Tom divorced after an 18 year marriage when Tom left Sandra for his colleague. Since the divorce 2 years ago, Sandra has been promoted in her job, has an active social life with her friends, and has taken up golf. When her friends suggest that she meet a man, however, Sandra tells them that she has no interest in men and that she is really quite content with her life. Sandra is a..

competent loner

Secure attachment to parents during childhood correlates with..

secure attachment to romantic partners in adulthood

The sensorimotor stage of development lasts from birth until about..

2 years old

The seventh stage of Erikson's life span theory is the characteristic of middle age. What name did Erikson give this stage?

generativity versus stagnation

Several functions, such as inhibition and planning, that are important for flexible, future-oriented behavior and may also be connected to theory of mind development are known as..

executive function

Shama, who is now 80 years old, will show a steady decline in what cognitive resources?

working memory and perceptual speed

Shiloh is in her first year of middle school. Research shows that she probably what relevant to satisfaction when compared to her elementary school experiences?

is less satisfied with middle school than with elementary school

Since the 1980s, the rate of divorce in the United States has..

gradually been decreasing

Social conventional reasoning is to __ as moral reasoning is to __.

arbitrary; obligatory

Some experts now use the terms __ instead of __ to describe cognitive aging patterns.

fluid mechanics and crystallized pragmatics; cognitive mechanics and cognitive pragmatics

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