Biology 1151: Lecture Exam 4 - Chapter 27 Dr. Ludden, College of Dupage

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Biology 1151-college of dupage; Dr. J. Ludden; Lecture Exam 4-Chapter 27 Kim Kwas

Spherical, Rod, Sprial:

Three most common shapes of prokaryotes.

Gram-positive bacteria:

The cell walls of ____ _____ _____ traps the crystal violet in the cytoplasm, during gram staining.

Prokaryotic / walls:

A key feature of nearly all ____ cells is the cell ____, which maintains cell shape, provides physical protection and prevents cell from bursting in a hypotonic environment.

Peptidoglycan:

_____ is a network of linked sugar polymers found in the cell walls of most bacteria

Gram-positive:

____ ____ bacteria has a two layer, simpler cell wall, with large amounts of peptidoglycan.

Gram-negative:

____ ____ bacteria has a three layer, more complex cell wall, with a thinner middle layer of peptidoglycan.

Capsule:

The cell wall of many prokaryotes is covered by a ____ which is a sticky layer of polysaccharide or protein.

Fimbriae:

Some prokaryotes stick to their substrate or to one another by means of hair-like protein appendages called ______.

Flagellum:

The most common structures that enable prokaryotes to move is _____, which may be scattered over the entire suface of cell or concentrated at one or both ends.

Taxis:

Many prokaryotes exhibit ____, which is movement toward or away from stimuli. Ex: prokaryotes may exhibit chemotaxis, a change in movement in response to chemicals.

Nucleoid:

Prokaryotes lack a membrane-bounded nucleus and their chromosome is located in the ____.

Binary fission:

Prokaryotes reproduce by ____ ____.

Prokaryotes:

_____ are highly successful in part because of their potential to reproduce quickly in a favorable environment.

Endospores:

Certain bacteria develop resistant cells called _____ when an essential nutrient is lacking.

Rapid / Mutation / Recombination:

_____ reproduction, ______ and genetic ____ promote genetic diversity in prokaryotes.

Genetic recombination:

____ _____ is the combining of DNA from two sources.

Transformation, transduction and conjugation:

While eukaryotes combine DNA from meiosis and fertilization, prokaryotes use the processes of ____ , ____ and ____ as the means of combining DNA.

Transformation:

In _____, the genotype of prokaryotic cells are altered by the uptake of foreight DNA from its surroundings.

Transduction:

In _____, bacteriophages carry bacterial genes from one host cell to another. ex: a virus can't reproduce so it attaches to another bacterium and injects the piece of bacterial DNA int

Conjugation:

_____ is the process where genetic material is transferred between two bacterial cells (of same or different species) that are temporarily joined.

Photoautotrophs:

____ are photosynthetic organisms that capture light energy and use it to drive the synthesis of organic compounds from CO2 or other inorganic carbon compounds.

Chemoautotrophs:

_____ oxidize inorganic substances for energy

Photoheterotrophs:

____ harness energy from light, but must obtain carbon in organic form; this mode is unique to salt-loving prokaryotes.

Chemoheterotrophs:

____ must consume organic molecules to obtain both energy and carbon; Fungi, animals and most protists fall in this category.

Aerobes:

Obligate ____ use O2 for cellular respiration and can't grow without it.

Anaerobes / anaerobic:

Obligate ____ are poisoned by O2; some live by fermentation and others extract chemical energy by _____ respiration.

Facultative anaerobes:

____ ____ use O2 if present, but can also carry out anaerobic respiration or fermentation.

Nitrogen:

____ is essential for the production of amino acids and nucleic acids in all organisms.

Nirogen fixation:

Some cyanobacteria and methanogens convert atmospheric nitrogen to ammonia in a process called ____ ____.

Heterocytes:

Some prokaryotes need to cooperate w/each other to use environmental resources. ____ are specialized cells that only carry out nitrogen fixation and transfer it to other cells.

Biofilms:

Metabolic cooperation between different prokaryotic species often occurs in surface-coating colonies known as ____.

Carl Woese:

____ _____ is the person who concluded that many prokaryotes once classified as bacteria are actually more closely related to eukaryotes and belong in their own domain; Archaea.

Extremophiles:

____ live in environments so extreme that few other organisms can survive.

Halophiles:

Extreme _____ live in highly saline environments, such as the Great Salt Lake.

Thermophiles:

Extreme _____ thrive in very hot environments.

Methanogens:

____ are a group of archaea that use CO2 to oxidize H2, releasing methane as a waster product; this group are anaerobes, that are poisoned by O2.

Proteobacteria:

____ is a large clade of gram-negative bacteria that includes photoautotrophs, chemoautotrophs and heterotrophs.

Decomposers:

____ break down corpses, dead vegetation and waste products, unlocking supplies of carbon, nitrogen and other elements.

Symbiosis:

____ describes an ecological relationship in which two species live in close contact with one another.

Mutualism:

____ is an ecological interaction between two species in which both benefit.

Commensalism:

____ is an ecological relationship in which one species benefits while the other is neither helped or harmed in any significant way.

Parasitism:

____ is an ecological relationship in which a parasite eats the cell contents, tissues, or body fluids of its host.

Pathogens:

Parasites that cause disease are known as ____, many of which are prokaryotic.

Pathogenic prokaryotes:

All ____ ____ are bacteria, which usually cause illness by producing poisons, classified as exotoxins and endotoxins.

Exotoxins:

____ are proteins secreted by certain bacteria and other organisms.

Endotoxins:

____ are lipopolysaccharide components of the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria, and are released only when bacteria die and their cell walls break down.

Bioremediation:

____ is the use of organisms to remove pollutants from soil, air or water.

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