Biology 1151: Lecture Exam 4 - Chapter 28 ; Dr. Ludden; College of Dupage

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37 terms · Biology 1151; Dr. Ludden-College of Dupage; Chapter 28; Kim Kwas

Leeuwenhoek:

Last name of the Dutch microscopist who first discovered protists

Protists / unicellular:

____ are more structurally and funcionally diverse than any other group of eukaryotes; most are _____.

Nutritionally diverse:

Protists are ____ ____ , in that some are photoautotrophs, some are heterotrophs and others are mixotrophs.

Mixotrophs:

____ combine photosynthesis and heterotrophic nutrition.

Endosymbiosis:

_____ is the process in which certain unicellular organisms engulf other cells, which become endosymbionts and ultimately organelles in the host cell.

Excavata:

_____ is the protist super group that includes parasites such as Giardia.

Chromalveolata:

_____ is the protist super group that includes diatoms and brown algae (kelp forests).

Rhizaria:

____ is the protist super group that consists of species of amoebas.

Archaeplastida:

_____ is the protist super group that includes land plants, red & green algae, such as volvox.

Unikonta:

____ is the protist super group that includes animals and fungi.

Diplomonads:

____ are a sub-catagory of Excavata, that have two equal-sized nuclei and multiple flagella, such as Giardia.

Parabasalids:

____ are a sub-catagory of Excavata and includes the parabasalid Trichomonas Vaginalis, a sexually transmitted parasite that infects 5 million people each year.

Euglenozoans:

_____ are a sub-catagory of Excavata and their main morphological feature is the presence of a sprial or crystalline rod inside their flagella.

Kinetoplastids:

_____ are one of two sub-catagories of Euglenozoans (Excavata) that have a single, large mitochondrion containing an organized mass of DNA called a kinetoplast.

Euglenids:

____ are one of two sub-catagories of Euglenozoans (excavata) which have a pocket at one end from which one or two flagella emerge. Ex: Euglena

Euglena:

____ are mixotrophs.

Alveolates:

_____are one of two sub-catagories of Chromalveolates that have membrane-bounded sacs (alveoli) just under the plasma membrane.

Stramenopiles:

____ are one of two sub-catagories of Chromalveolates composed of marine algae and have a characteristic flagellum, with numerous fine, hairlike projections.

Dinoflagellates:

____ are one of three sub-catagories of Alveolates (Chromalveolates) and are characterized by cells that are reinforced by cellulose plates.

Red Tides:

Dinoflagellate blooms are episodes of explosive population growth that sometimes cause a phenomenon called ___ ____.

Ciliates:

_____ are one of three sub-catagories of Alveolates (Chromalveolates) that are named for thier use of cilia to move and feed; ex: paramecium

Diatoms:

____ are one of four sub-catagories of Stramenopiles (Chromalveolates) that are unicellular algae made of hydrated silica embedded in an organic matrix.

Asexually:

Most of the year, diatoms reproduce ______ by mitosis; each daughter cell receives half of the parental cell wall.

Brown Algae:

____ ____ is one of four sub-catagories of Stramenopiles (Chromalveolates) that are the largest and most complex algae, commonly called seaweeds.

Golden Algae:

____ ____ is one of four sub-catagories of Stramenopiles (Chromalveolates) whose color is derived by carotenoids.

Laminaria:

_____ is a type of brown algae.

Alternation of generations:

____ ___ ____ describes the life cycle of plants, fungi and protists. A multicellular diploid phase alternates with a multicellular haploid phase.

Archaeplastida:

______ is a monophyletic group that descended from ancient protist that engulfed a cyanobacterium.

Monophyletic:

pertaining to a grouping of species consisting of an ancestral species and all its descendants; a clade.

Land Plants:

Red and green algae are the closest relatives of ____ ____.

Chlorophytes and Charophytes:

____ and ____ are the two main groups of green algae.

Chlorophytes:

____ are unicellular organisms such as plankton.

Charophytes:

____ are the algae most closely related to land plants.

Amoebozoans:

____ are one of two major clades of Unikonts that include slime molds, gymnamoebas and entamoebas.

Entameobas:

____ are parasites; one species includes E. histolytica that causes amebic dysentery.

Opisthokonts:

____ are one of two major clades of Unikonts that includes animals, fungi and several groups of protists.

Producers:

_____ are organisms that use energy from light to convert carbon dioxide to organic compounds.

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