Chapter 11 Vocab

Created by BreannaEllis 

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Gene Expression

the activation of a gene that results in the formation and production of mRNA

Genome

the complete genetic material contained in an individual

Structural Gene

genes that code for polypeptides

Operator

a DNA segment that serves as a kind of "switch" by controlling the access of RNA polymerase to the promoter

Operon

a series of genes that code for specific products and the regulatory elements that control these genes

Lac Operon

a gene system whose operator gene and three structural genes control lactose metabolism in E. coli

Repressor Protein

a protein that inhibits genes from being expressed

Regulator Gene

a regulatory protein that binds to an operator an dblocks transcription of the gene of an operator

Inducer

a molecule that initiates gene expression

Euchromatin

the site of active transcription of DNA to RNA a region of DNA that is uncoiled and undergoing active transcription into RNA

Intron

a segment of a structural gene that is transcribed but not translated

Exon

sequence of nucleotides on a gene that gets transcribed and translated

Pre- mRNA

form of messenger RNA that contains both introns and extrons

Transcription Factor

regulatory proteins in eukaryotes that binds to DNA and stimulates the transcription of certian genes

Enhancer

a DNA sequence that recognizes certain transcription factors that can stimulate transcription of nearby genes

Cell Differentiation

the process by which a cell becomes specialized for a specific structure or function

Homeotic Gene

a gene that controls the development of a specific adult structure

Homeobox

a DNA sequence within a homeotic gene that regulates development in animals

Proto- Oncogene

A gene that regulates normal cell division but that can become a cancer causing oncogene as a result of mutation or recombination

Oncogene

a gene that induces cancer, or uncontrolled cell proliferation

Tumor

a growth that arises from normal tissue but that grows abnormally in rate and structure and lacks a function

Cancer

a tumor in which the cells begin dividing at an uncontrolled rate and become invasive

Tumor- Suppressor Gene

a gene that suppresses tumor formation but that, when mutated, causes a loss in cell function, which results in tumor formation

Metastasis

the spread of cancer cells beyond their original site of growth

Carcinogen

a cancer-causing substance

Carcinoma

a malignant tumor that grows in the skin or in the tissues that line organs

Sarcoma

a malignant tumor that grows in bone or muscle tissue

Lymphoma

a tumor in the lymphoid tissues

Leukemia

a progressive, malignant disease of the blood-forming organs

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