Respiratory System: Parts, Functions, Movements, and Breathing Control

31 terms by saddleup4Jesus

Create a new folder

Advertisement Upgrade to remove ads

nasal cavity

Contains nasal septum, turbinates, and cilia.

nasal septum

Divides nasal cavities into right and left sides.

turbinates

Bones that protrude into the nasal cavity- they increase surface area for filtering dust and dirt particles by the mucous membrane.

cilia

Nose hairs, trap larger dirt particles.

sinuses

Cavities in the skull, ducts connect them to the nasal cavity, lined with mucous membrane to warm and moisten the air. Give resonance to voice.

types of sinuses

Frontal, maxillary, ethmoid, and sphenoid.

pharynx

Throat. Common passageway for air and food. 5" long.

epiglottis

When food is swallowed, this closes over the opening to the larnyx, preventing food from entering the lungs.

larynx

Voice box. Triangular chamber below pharynx. "Adam's Apple".

glottis

Vocal cords within the larynx.

trachea

Windpipe. 4.5" long. Walls are alternate bands of membrane and c-shaped rings of hyaline cartilage to keep it open. Lined with ciliated mucous membrane. Coughing and expectoration gets rid of dust-laden mucous.

bronchi

Similar to trachea with ciliated mucous membrane and hyaline cartilage. Lower end of trachea divides into right and left this.

bronchial tubes

Cartilaginous plates (instead of c-shaped rings of trachea).

bronchioles

Thinner walls of smooth muscle, lined with ciliated epithelium. Subdivision of bronci. At the end, alveolar duct and cluster of alveoli.

alveoli

Composed of single layer of epithelial tissue. Inner surfaces covered with surfactant to keep from collapsing. Each surrounded by capillaries. Oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange takes place between these and capillaries.

lungs

Fill thoracic cavity. Tissue is porous and spongy- it floats.

apex

Upper part of lung.

base

Lower part of lung.

right lung

Larger and shorter (displaced by liver) and has three lobes.

left lung

Smaller (displaced by heart) and has two lobes.

pleura

Thin, moist, slippery membrane that covers lungs. Double-walled sac. Space is pleural cavity- filled with pleural fluid to prevent friciton.

functions of the respiratory system

Respiration (external, internal, and cellular). Production of sound (vocal cords). Pulmonary venilation. Inspiration (intercostal muscles lift ribs outward, sternum rises and the diaphragm contracts and moves downward- this increases the volume of the lungs and the air rushes in).

pulmonary venilation

Breathing.

respiratory movement

1 inspiration and 1 expiration= 1 respiration. Normal adult= 14-20 respirations per minute. Increases with exercise, body temperature, and certain diseases. Age (newborn= 40-60 per minute). Sleep= respirations go down. Emotion can bring respirations up or down.

coughing

Deep breath followed by forceful expulsion of air to clean lower respiratory tract.

hiccups

Spasm of diaphragm and spasmotic closure of the glottis- irritation to diaphragm or phrenic nerve.

sneezing

Air forced through nose to clear respiratory tract.

yawning

Deep prolonged breath that fills the lungs, increases oxygen within the blood.

neural factors of breathing control

Respiratory center located in medulla oblongata (in the brain). Increase in CO2 and decrease in O2 in the blood will trigger respiratory center.

phrenic nerve

Stimulates the diaphragm.

chemical factors of breathing control

Depends on the levels of CO2 in the blood. Chemoreceptors in aorta and carotid arteries sensitive to the amount of blood oxygen.

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording

Create Set