Chapter 11

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systems development life cycle

the overall process for developing information systems from planning and analysis through implementation and maintenance

planning phase

involves establishing a high level plan of the intended project and determining project goals

analysis phase

involves analyzing end-user business requirements and refining project goals into defined functions and operations of the intended system

business requirement

detailed set of business requests that the system must meet in order to be successful

design phase

involves describing the desired features and operations of the system including screen layouts, business rules, process diagrams, pseudo code, and other documentation

development phase

involves taking all of the detailed design documents from the design phase and transforming them into the actual system

testing phase

involves bringing all the project pieces together into a special testing environment to test for errors, bugs, and interoperability and verify that the system meets all of the business requirements defined in the analysis phase

implementation phase

involves placing the system into production so users can begin to perform actual business operations with the system

maintenance phase

involves performing changes, corrections, additions, and upgrades to ensure the system continues to meet the business goals

waterfall methodology

a sequential, activity-based process in which each phase in the SDLC is performed sequentially from planning through implementation and maintenance

rapid application development methodology

emphasizes extensive user involvement in the rapid and evolutionary construction of working prototypes of a system to accelerate the systems development process

extreme programming methodology

breaks a project into tiny phases, and developers cannot continue on to the next phase until the first phase is complete

agile methodology

a form of XP, aims for customer satisfaction through early and continuous delivery of useful software components

iterative development

consists of a series of tiny projects

prototype

a smaller-scale representation or working model of the users' requirements or a proposed design for an information system

rational unified process methodology

provides a framework for breaking down the development of software into four gates

SCRUM methodology

uses small teams to produce small pieces of deliverable software using sprints, or 30-day intervals, to achieve an appointed goal

project

temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product, service, or result

project management

the application of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to project activities to meet project requirements

project deliverable

any measurable, tangible, verifiable outcome, result, or item that is produced to complete a project

project milestone

represents key dates when a certain group of activities must be performed

project manager

an individual who is an expert in project planning and management

project management office (PMO)

an internal department that oversees all organizational projects

project stakeholders

individuals and organizations actively involved in the project or whose interests might be affected as a result of project execution or project completion

executive sponsor

the person or group who provides the financial resources for the project

project charter

a document issued by the project initiator or sponsor that formally authorizes the existence of a project and provides the project manager with the authority to apply organizational resources to project activities

project scope

defines the work that must be completed to deliver a product with the specified features and functions

project objectives

quantifiable criteria that must be met for the project to be considered a success

project constraints

specific factors that can limit options

project assumptions

factors that are considered to be true, real, or certain without proof or demonstration

project plan

a formal, approved document that manages and controls project execution

PERT chart

a graphical network model that depicts a project's tasks and the relationships between those tasks

dependency

a logical relationship between the project tasks, or between a project task and a milestone

critical path

a path from the start to the finish that passes through all the tasks that are critical to completing the project in the shortest amount of time

Gantt chart

a simple bar chart that depicts project tasks against a calendar

project manager

an individual who is an expert in project planning and management, defines and develops the project plan, and tracks the plan to ensure the projects is completed on time and on budget

project milestones

represent key dates when a certain group of activities must be performed

change management

a set of techniques that aid in evolution, composition, and policy management of the design and implementation of a system

change management system

a collection of procedures to document a change request and define the steps necessary to consider the change based on the expected impact of the change

change control board (CCB)

responsible for approving or rejecting all change requests

insourcing

a common approach using the professional expertise within an organization to develop and maintain the organization's information technology systems

outsourcing

an arrangement by which one organization provides a service or services for another organization that chooses not to perform them in-house

onshore outsourcing

engaging another company within the same country for services

nearshore outsourcing

contracting an outsourcing arrangement with a company in a nearby country

offshore outsourcing

using organizations from developing countries to write code and develop systems

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